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A large radio continuum loop of diameter was discovered at G16.5+0.7 on the Bonn 2.7 GHz and NRO 10 GHz galactic plane surveys. The loop is associated with the H II region M16, and the diameter is 60 pc at a distance of 2.8 kpc. Figure 1 shows the loop at 2.7 GHz in gray scale. The spectrum is thermal and the total H II mass is estimated at 3×103 M⊙. If the loop is due to a shell of the same diameter, the mean electron density on the shell is about 4 cm−3. The total thermal energy is about 6×1048ergs. The characteristics are summarized in Table 1.
We report the detection of a 4-kpc long, highly collimated radio feature emanating from the galactic center. This feature, which may be cylindrical in shape, is some 200 pc in diameter and extends almost perpendicular to the galactic plane. The structure may possibly be the remnant of a one-sided or highly asymmetric jet from the nucleus, or it might be a magnetic tornado produced by a twisted poloidal magnetic field between the disk and halo.
The observation of an area of 120° × 56° centered on RA=8h DEC=20° at 408 MHz was the first astronomical use of the MPIfR 100-m telescope (1970) and was designed to compile a complete sky survey using also data from Jodrell Bank and Parkes (Haslam et al., 1982). The observation of the northern sky at 1420 MHz started in 1972 using the Stockert 25-m telescope and was finished in 1976 (Reich and Reich 1986). This survey has been completed to an all sky survey using data from Villa Elisa (Argentina). The two surveys are absolutely calibrated. The angular resolutions are 0.8° and 0.59°, respectively. A number of surveys of the Galactic plane have been made with the 100-m telescope at arc minute angular resolution. Surveys at 2695 MHz (|b| ≤ 5°) (Reich et al. 1990, Fürst et al. 1990) and at 1410 MHz (|b| < 4°) (Reich et al. 1990) are public.
At medium Galactic latitudes (up to |b| = 20°) the emission consists mainly of faint extended ridges or arcs superimposed on the still dominating, about 10 times stronger, diffuse Galactic emission. They have never been investigated in a systematic way although they provide important clues for the understanding of the “disk-halo connection”. This region is covered by new observations at 1400 MHz with the 100-m telescope.
We report multifrequency observations of the γ-ray blazar 0528+134 with the Effelsberg 100-m telescope, the IRAM 30-m telescope at Pico Veleta and the NRL Green Bank Interferometer. The observing methods are described elsewhere (Reich et al., 1993; Pohl et al., 1995). The radio lightcurves are given in Fig.1 in comparison to the status of 0528+134 in the EGRET energy range. The uncertainties in the flux densities quoted there are less than 5% at 10.55 GHz and lower frequencies, while slightly exceeding this value at 32 GHz and 86 GHz.
In this paper we present first results of a statistical analysis of correlated variability behaviour of flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQ) on the basis of EGRET data and cm-wavelength monitoring data. We use EGRET observations obtained between April 1991 to September 1993 and multifrequency radio observations at 2.8cm, 6cm and 11cm taken with the 100-m-Effelsberg Telescope parallel to the CGRO observations. In the following discussion the observed FSRQ which have not been detected by EGRET yet, are referred to as ‘candidates’ in contrast to the detected ones, called ‘EGRET-sources’. The methods used in this paper are described in more detail in Mücke et al. (1996).
Based on radio continuum surveys of the Galactic plane at wavelengths of 21 cm and 11 cm we have so far identified about 32 new supernova remnants in the area 357°.4 ≤ℓ≤ 76°. |b| ≤ 5°. This increases the number of known objects in this field by about 68%. Most of them are in the Galactic latitude range |b| 〉 0°.5. Some implications are discussed.
A radio continuum survey at medium Galactic latitudes with the 100−m telescope of the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie is being carried out at a center frequency of 1.4 GHz in total power and linear polarization. We present polarization and depolarization structures detected at medium latititudes with no corresponding observable structure in total power emission. Existence of such kind of polarization structures imply that the emission, due to the Faraday modulation of the Galactic synchrotron foreground, occurs in thin sheetlike regions. This phenomenon is a sign for fluctuating local magnetic field.
Agitation is common across neuropsychiatric disorders and contributes to disability, institutionalization, and diminished quality of life for patients and their caregivers. There is no consensus definition of agitation and no widespread agreement on what elements should be included in the syndrome. The International Psychogeriatric Association formed an Agitation Definition Work Group (ADWG) to develop a provisional consensus definition of agitation in patients with cognitive disorders that can be applied in epidemiologic, non-interventional clinical, pharmacologic, non-pharmacologic interventional, and neurobiological studies. A consensus definition will facilitate communication and cross-study comparison and may have regulatory applications in drug development programs.
The ADWG developed a transparent process using a combination of electronic, face-to-face, and survey-based strategies to develop a consensus based on agreement of a majority of participants. Nine-hundred twenty-eight respondents participated in the different phases of the process.
Agitation was defined broadly as: (1) occurring in patients with a cognitive impairment or dementia syndrome; (2) exhibiting behavior consistent with emotional distress; (3) manifesting excessive motor activity, verbal aggression, or physical aggression; and (4) evidencing behaviors that cause excess disability and are not solely attributable to another disorder (psychiatric, medical, or substance-related). A majority of the respondents rated all surveyed elements of the definition as “strongly agree” or “somewhat agree” (68–88% across elements). A majority of the respondents agreed that the definition is appropriate for clinical and research applications.
A provisional consensus definition of agitation has been developed. This definition can be used to advance interventional and non-interventional research of agitation in patients with cognitive impairment.
We have observed 79 supernova remnants (SNRs) with the Urumqi 25 m telescope at λ6 cm during the Sino-German λ6 cm polarization survey of the Galactic plane. We measured flux densities of SNRs at λ6 cm, some of which are the first ever measured or the measurements at the highest frequency, so that we can determine or improve spectra of SNRs. Our observations have ruled out spectral breaks or spectral flattening that were suggested for a few SNRs, and confirmed the spectral break of S147. By combining our λ6 cm maps with λ11 cm and λ21 cm maps from the Effelsberg 100 m telescope, we calculated the spectral index maps of several large SNRs. For many remnants we obtained for the first time polarization images, which show the intrinsic magnetic field structures at λ6 cm. We disapproved three objects as being SNRs, OA184, G192.8−1.1 and G16.8−1.1, which show a thermal spectrum and no polarization. We have discovered two large supernova remnants, G178.2−4.2 and G25.1−2.3., in the survey maps.
The Sino-German λ6 cm polarization survey has mapped in total intensity and polarization intensity over an area of approximately 2200 square degrees in the Galactic disk. This survey provides an opportunity to search for Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) that were previously unknown. We discovered the new SNRs G178.2−4.2 and G25.1−2.3 which have non-thermal spectra, using the λ6 cm data together with the observations with the Effelsberg telescope at λ11 cm and λ21 cm. Both G178.2−4.2 and G25.1−2.3 are faint and have an apparent diameter greater than 1°. G178.2−4.2 shows a polarized shell. HI data suggest that G25.1−2.3 might have a distance of about 3 kpc. The λ6 cm survey data were also very important to identify two other new SNRs, G152.4−2.1 and G190.9−2.2.
After Prof. R. Wielebinski visited China in 1999, we started to plan the Sino-German λ6 cm polarization survey of the Galactic plane, using the Urumqi 25-m radio telescope of Xinjiang (formerly Urumqi) Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences. It is a high-frequency complement of previous Effelsberg 21-cm and 11-cm surveys, using the same observing and processing methods. The telescope is located at an altitude of 2029 m above sea level at geographic longitude of 87°E and latitude 43°N. The dual-channel λ6 cm receiver with a polarimeter and a bandwidth of 600 MHz was designed by O. Lochner and constructed at the MPIfR in Germany with involvements by the Urumqi engineers M.Z. Chen and J. Ma. In August 2004, the receiver was installed at the secondary focus of the Urumqi 25-m telescope.
SrBi2Ta2O9 (SBT) epitaxial thin films having a mix of (100) and (116) orientations have been grown on SrLaGaO4(110) by pulsed laser deposition. X-ray diffraction θ2 θ and pole figure scans, and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses revealed the presence of two epitaxial orientations, SBT(100) ∥ SLG(110); SBT ∥ SLG and SBT(116) ∥ SLG(110); SBT  ∥ SLG. By calculating the integrated intensity of certain x-ray diffraction peaks, it was established that the crystallinity and the in-plane orientation of the (100) and (116) orientation are best at a substrate temperature of 775 °C and 788 °C, respectively, and that the volume fraction of the (100) orientation at about 770 °C reached about 60%. By scanning force microscopy and cross-sectional TEM investigations we found that the a-axisoriented grains are rounded and protrude out due to the rapid growth along the  direction, leading to a distinct difference of the surface morphology between (100)- and (116)-oriented grains.
The anisotropie oxide superconductors YBa2Cu3O7-Dgr; and Sr2RuO4 have been epitaxially combined in various ways (c-axis on c-axis, c-axis on a-axis, and a-axis on a-axis) though the use of appropriate substrates. Phase-pure a-axis oriented or c-axis oriented epitaxial Sr2RuO4 films were grown by pulsed laser deposition. YBa2Cu3O7-δ films were then grown on both orientations of Sr2RuO4 films and the resulting epitaxy was characterized.
The selective interaction of metal clusters with various polymers constitutes the basis for the self-assembly approach to the synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid materials, that leads to the control of particle size, geometry and dispersion gradient. Metal particles were synthesized by the thermal decomposition of an organometallic precursor, in this case, iron pentacarbonyl, in the presence of a polymer matrix. Under the conditions utilized for these reactions, the aggregation of the metallic clusters competed with the interactions between the growing metal fragments and the polymer matrix. The dominance of one reaction route as compared to the other, ultimately determined the equilibrium particle shape, size and distribution for each metal-polymer system. In this work, we attempted to analyze the formation of iron oxide nanoclusters in several structurally-distinct polymers, and developed a general mechanistic view to explain the characteristics of the polymer-metal oxide hybrid materials that were obtained.
The dodecagonal (dd) quasicrystalline tantalum telluride dd Ta1.6Te and the crystalline approximant Ta97Te60 have been modified by partly replacing tantalum by vanadium. The impact of the substitution on the structures has been studied by X-ray and electron diffraction and by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The layered-type approximant structure of Ta83V14Te60 was determined by single crystal X-ray means. The partitioning of vanadium on 21 out of 29 crystallographically inequivalent metal sites is referred to, but not controlled by the Dirichlet domain volume available at the sites. A HRTEM projection of dd (Ta, V)1.6Te onto the dodecagonal plane is analysed with respect to the arrangement of (Ta, V)151Te74 clusters on the vertices of an irregular aperiodic square-triangle tiling, the edge length of which corresponds to the distance between the centres of two such clusters. The clusters comprise about 1 nm thick corrugated lamellae which are periodically stacked by weak Te-Te interactions.
The large surface to volume ratio in nanometer sized wire structures cause a strong dependence of the optical Raman mode on the thermal conductivity of a surrounding medium. On the basis of optical measurements on silicon nanowires as a function of excitation laser power we explain the very large red-shifted Raman spectra observed already for moderate laser powers. This thermal effect is enhanced by a silicon oxide sheath, rendering a reduced thermal contact of the wires to the substrate. The intrinsic redshift due to spatial confinement in silicon nanowires is found to be smaller than 2 cm−1.
Methods for the analysis of the joint transmission of two phenotypes are described and used to determine the extent to which lipoprotein concentrations share a common genetic and/or environmental background. Analysis of data on 160 Caucasian nuclear families revealed that the observed phenotypic association between high-density cholesterol (HDL) and low-density cholesterol (LDL) could be accounted for in terms of common family environmental effects alone (estimated genetic correlation, ρG = −0·132±0·136; estimated residual environmental correlation, ρR = 0·065±0·230). The association between HDL and very-low-density cholesterol (VLDL) could not be accounted for in terms of family environmental effects alone. For HDL and VLDL the residual environmental correlation was significant while the genetic correlation was not (ρG = −0·111±0·214, ρR = −0·421±0·172). The correlation between LDL and VLDL also could not be accounted for in terms of common family environmental effects alone, although here a genetic relationship appears to be the important factor (ρG = 0·330±0·192, ρR = 0·010±0·217).