To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Changes in land-use and climate are threatening migratory animals worldwide. In birds, declines have been widely documented in long-distance migrants. However, reasons remain poorly understood due to a lack of basic information regarding migratory birds’ ecology in their non-breeding areas and the effects of current environmental pressures there. We studied bird densities, spatial and territorial behaviour and habitat preference in two different habitat types in northern Ghana, West Africa. We study three common Eurasian-African songbirds (Willow Warbler Phylloscopus trochilus, Melodious Warbler Hippolais polyglotta and Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca) in a forested site, heavily disturbed by agricultural activities, and a forest reserve with no agriculture. The three species differed in non-breeding spatial strategies, with Willow Warblers having larger home ranges and being non-territorial. Home ranges (kernel density) of the three species were on average 1.5–4 times larger in the disturbed site than in the undisturbed site. Much of the birds’ tree species selection was explained by their preference for tall trees, but all species favoured trees of the genus Acacia. The overall larger home ranges in the disturbed site were presumably caused by the lower density of tall trees. Density of Pied Flycatchers was 24% lower in disturbed habitat (not significantly different from undisturbed) but Willow Warbler density in the disturbed habitat was more than 2.5 times the density in undisturbed. This suggests that the disturbed habitat was less suitable for Pied Flycatcher but not for Willow Warbler. This difference is possibly related to differences in tree species preferences and suggests that at least for some species, presence of preferred tree species is more important than overall tree abundance. Such information is crucial for predicting consequences of habitat changes on larger scales and population levels, as well as for planning potentially migrant-friendly farming practices.
In many regions of the world, the cultivation of landraces is still common, in particular in centres of crop diversity. Significant effort has been put into ex situ conservation of landraces but limited data exist on the changes in genetic diversity that occur over time in farmers’ fields. We assessed temporal changes in barley landrace diversity in Jordan using seed samples collected in 1981 and 2012 from the same locations. We did not observe significant changes in the amount of genetic diversity, but samples collected in 2012 were more homogenous and less locally distinct. In two sites, we observed replacement of the old material. We observed a change in phenotype, and phenotypes were found to be more homogeneous among sites in 2012. Climate changed significantly over the study period, becoming hotter and dryer, but we did not identify any correlation between the changes in climate and genetic and phenotypic variations. While the amount of genetic diversity in terms of allelic richness and number of multi-locus genotypes has been maintained, local distinctiveness among landrace barley populations in Jordan was reduced.
Most of the atomic species originating in the solar atmosphere between the upper chromosphere and the corona have their strong characteristic wavelengths in the extreme ultraviolet region of the spectrum. A simple normal-incidence spectrometer system with solar blind detectors such as the Harvard instrument operating between approximately 250 Å and 1350 Å is ideally suited for observing in this most interesting range of the solar atmosphere where the temperature rises outward from 104 to 3 × 106 K. The temperature range represented by the various atomic and ionic species in the extreme ultraviolet is associated with many types of solar structure, prominences and filaments, the supergranulation cells and network, active regions and their associated loop structures and other features. Simultaneous observations in lines of different characteristic temperatures provide a three-dimensional probe of the solar atmosphere. In the instrument, the principal polychromatic position observes the Lyman continuum, Lα, C II, C III, O IV, O VI, and Mg x with seven detectors simultaneously from the same spatial image element, 5″ in size. Approximately 60 additional polychromatic positions are used routinely to carry out specific observing programs, for example, covering several lines of a given stage of ionization, observing lines or continuum from specific species of interest such as helium in prominences, comparing combinations of lines from a given ionic species such as O v where the relative intensities give a rather direct measurement of the density at a given temperature, or measuring differing positions in the Lyman continuum providing intensity measurements which can be interpreted in terms of the departure from ionization equilibrium.
The epidemiology of laboratory-confirmed respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in young children has not recently been described in England, and is an essential step in identifying optimal target groups for future licensed RSV vaccines. We used two laboratory surveillance systems to examine the total number and number of positive RSV tests in children aged <5 years in England from 2010 to 2014. We derived odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing children by birth month, using multivariable logistic regression models adjusted for age, season and sex. Forty-seven percent of RSV tests (29 851/63 827) and 57% (7405/13 034) of positive results in children aged <5 years were in infants aged <6 months. Moreover, 38% (4982/13 034) of positive results were in infants aged <3 months. Infants born in September, October and November had the highest odds of a positive RSV test during their first year of life compared to infants born in January (OR 2·1, 95% CI 1·7–2·7; OR 2·4, 95% CI 2·1–2·8; and OR 2·4, 95% CI 2·1–2·7, respectively). Our results highlight the importance of young age and birth month near the beginning of the RSV season to the risk of laboratory-confirmed RSV infection. Future control measures should consider protection for these groups.
In this paper we review some preliminary results from the Harvard College Observatory Extreme Ultraviolet Spectroheliometer on ATM that pertain to solar activity. The results reviewed here are described in more detail in other papers referred to in the text. In the following paragraphs we first describe the instrument and its capabilities, and then turn to results on active regions, sunspots, flares, EUV bright points, coronal holes, and prominences.
Many cases of giardiasis in the UK are undiagnosed and among other things, diagnosis is dependent upon the readiness of GPs to request a specimen. The aim of this study is to assess the rate of specimens requested per GP practice in Central Lancashire, to examine the differences between GP practices and to estimate the pattern of unexplained spatial variation in the practice rate of specimens after adjustment for deprivation. To achieve this, we fitted a set of binomial and Poisson regression models, with random effects for GP practice. Our analysis suggests that there were differences in the rate of specimens by GP practices (P < 0·001) for a single year, but no difference in the proportion of positive tests per specimen submitted or in the rate of positive specimens per practice population. There was a difference in the cumulative rate of positive specimens per practice population over a 9-year period (P < 0·001). Neither the specimen rate per practice for a single year nor the cumulative rate of positive specimens over multiple years demonstrated significant spatial correlation. Hence, spatial variation in the incidence of giardiasis is unlikely to be confounded by variation in GP rate of specimens.
Evidence suggests that there is a greater prevalence of pain, particularly chronic pain, in the older than in the younger population. This review looks at how dementia affects older people's ability to report pain, and indicates that pain is poorly assessed and managed in people living with dementia, in particular in care and acute settings. The review also reports findings from two recent studies looking at ways of improving the assessment and management of pain in acute settings. Multi-dimensional, patient-centred approaches to assessing and managing pain in those living with dementia are required, and future research should focus on innovative and practical approaches that can be applied in care home and acute settings.
The present multi-centre randomised weight-loss trial evaluated the efficacy of a low-intensity 12-week online behavioural modification programme, with or without a fortified diet beverage using a 2 × 2 factorial design. A total of 572 participants were randomised to: (1) an online basic lifestyle information (OBLI) intervention, consisting of one online informational class about tips for weight management; (2) an online behavioural weight management (OBWM) intervention, entailing 12 weekly online classes focused on weight-loss behaviour modification; (3) an OBLI intervention plus a fortified diet cola beverage (BEV) containing green tea extract (total catechin 167 mg), soluble fibre dextrin (10 g) and caffeine (100 mg) (OBLI+BEV); (4) OBWM+BEV. Assessments included height, weight, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-derived body composition, and waist circumference (WC). Attrition was 15·7 %. Intention-to-treat (ITT) models demonstrated a main effect for type of Internet programme, with those assigned to the OBWM condition losing significantly more weight (F= 7·174; P= 0·008) and fat mass (F= 4·491; P= 0·035) than those assigned to the OBLI condition. However, there was no significant main effect for the OBWM condition on body fat percentage (F= 2·906; P= 0·089) or WC (F= 3·351; P= 0·068), and no significant main effect for beverage use or significant interactions between factors in ITT models. A 12-week, low-intensity behaviourally based online programme produced a greater weight loss than a basic information website. The addition of a fortified diet beverage had no additional impact.
As ohmic contacts decrease in size and approach nanoscale dimensions, accurate electrical characterization is essential, requiring the development of suitable test structures for this task. We present here a new test structure derived from the standard three-contact circular transmission line model (CTLM) , for determining the specific contact resistivity of ohmic contacts. This test structure minimizes sources of error which arise from the CTLM by – (i) reducing the number of contacts within one test pattern from three to two, (ii) ensuring the assumption of equipotential metal contacts used in modelling is more easily attained experimentally, and (iii) allowing the fabrication of reduced geometrical dimensions essential for determining low specific contact resistivity values. The analytical expressions are presented and experiment results are undertaken to demonstrate the accuracy of the technique. There are no error corrections required for determining contact parameters using the presented test structure.
Membranes with dimensions up to 10 mm x 15 mm have been fabricated in epitaxial 3C-SiC/Si wafers. An array of CTLM metal contacts was deposited onto the upper surface of the n-SiC membrane. Both Al/n-SiC and Pd/n-SiC contacts which were formed on the membrane and on the adjacent substrate have shown an ohmic current/ voltage response. Values of specific contact resistance, ρc, were measured directly on the membranes. These results have shown no consistent difference in ρc of the contacts located either on the membrane or off the membrane. The exposure of SiC surfaces to reactive ion etching in CF4 plasma during the fabrication of a membrane has resulted in ρc which was higher by a factor of 103 than with as-grown and KOH etched silicon surfaces.
The effects of surrounding gaseous environment on the reaction behaviors and product formation for sputter-deposited Ti/2B reactive multilayers are reported. With the surrounding environment set to different air pressures, from atmospheric conditions to 10-4 Torr, Ti/2B samples were reacted in a self-propagating mode, and the average reaction wave velocities were determined through high-speed imaging. Propagation speeds for 3.0 μm-thick multilayers were in the range of 10.89 to 0.05 m/s depending on bilayer thickness (i.e., reactant layer periodicity) and ambient pressure. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that single-phase TiB2 forms within multilayers that have small bilayer thickness. Multilayers that have a large bilayer thickness developed a mixture of TiB2, TiB and TiO2.
The compatibility of both bulk and porous silicon at the subcutaneous site has been assessed for the first time, following ISO standard procedures. The in-vivo responses to implantation were monitored in the guinea pig and histopathological reactions evaluated at 1, 4, 12 and 26 weeks. Attention is focused here on the histological assessment protocols used, and the results demonstrating in-vivo evidence for good tissue compatibility, and porous Si bioactivity with regards calcification.
Membranes of epitaxial SiC have been used as a means of eliminating the leakage current into the Si substrate during circular transmission line model (CTLM) measurements. In the n+-3C-SiC/Si wafers, the Si substrate was etched in a patterned window with dimensions up to 10 mm × 15 mm2. An array of CTLM metal contacts was then deposited onto the upper surface of the n+-SiC membrane. The CTLM contacts on the membrane have shown an ohmic current/voltage response while electrodes located on the adjacent substrate were non-ohmic. Values of ρc were measured directly on the membranes. These results have shown a significant increase in the current flow below the metal contacts due to the presence of the Si substrate.
While it is clear that self-reported racial/ethnic discrimination is related to illness, there are challenges in measuring self-reported discrimination or unfair treatment. In the present study, we evaluate the psychometric properties of a self-reported instrument across racial/ethnic groups in a population-based sample, and we test and interpret findings from applying two different widely-used approaches to asking about discrimination and unfair treatment. Even though we found that the subset of items we tested tap into a single underlying concept, we also found that different groups are more likely to report on different aspects of discrimination. Whether race is mentioned in the survey question affects both frequency and mean scores of reports of racial/ethnic discrimination. Our findings suggest caution to researchers when comparing studies that have used different approaches to measure racial/ethnic discrimination and allow us to suggest practical empirical guidelines for measuring and analyzing racial/ethnic discrimination. No less important, we have developed a self-reported measure of recent racial/ethnic discrimination that functions well in a range of different racial/ethnic groups and makes it possible to compare how racial/ethnic discrimination is associated with health disparities among multiple racial/ethnic groups.
We present a new reel-to-reel method for growth of high temperature super-conducting (HTS) films by reactive co-evaporation on flexible metal tapes. We have demonstrated proof of principle for this method with a small laboratory-scale setup using 8 cm long tape pieces. YBa2Cu3O7-δ is deposited on ion-beam assisted deposition textured MgO layers on top of flexible polycrystalline metal tapes. Critical current densities at 75.5 K of over 2 MA/cm2 have been achieved in HTS films with over 2 μm in thickness, yielding a self field critical current of 450 A/cm-width. A 4.5 μm thick film had a self field critical current of 590 A/cm. We discuss some practical possibilities for manufacturing of superconducting wire using this process and present new areas of research that are still needed.
Certain practical applications of YBCO coated conductors (CC) involve superconducting tapes wound in coils. In such a configuration the superconducting tape is arranged as closely packed turns, leading to an increase of the magnetic field generated by the current in the tapes and, consequently, a significant increase in the AC losses, with respect to an ‘isolated’ tape. In order to predict and reduce the refrigeration requirements of applications, it is therefore very important to be able to quantify the magnitude of such AC losses, both experimentally and by means of numerical calculations.
We examine the influence of various substrate preparation procedures for ion-beam assist deposition (IBAD) texturing of MgO. IBAD-MgO nano-texturing is very sensitive to the nucleation surface, and surface roughness has an important influence on the texture of the MgO layer. We studied Hastelloy C-276 metal alloy as the substrate. The untreated substrate is leveled by either electropolishing, mechanical polishing or solution deposition. All three methods are applied to continuously moving tapes in long lengths. The RMS surface roughness decreases from 20-50 nm for the untreated substrate to 0.5 nm, 0.3 nm and 1 nm respectively. The in-plane and out-of plane crystalline alignment of the MgO layer improves as the roughness is decreased below 2 nm.
We have studied the sintering parameters of YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) coatings produced by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) on Ag and Ni substrates. The maximal sintering temperature is ∼ 930°C due to partial melting and chemical contamination for Ag and Ni substrates respectively. Increasing the sintering duration does not improve significantly the densification. When Ar sintering atmosphere is used, the coating density is strongly increased on Ag substrates while adhesion is poor on Ni substrates. The Ar-sintered YBCO coating deposited on planar Ag substrate displays a significant magnetic shielding effect for low frequency applied magnetic induction.
Coated conductor samples, prepared by reactive co-evaporation, are investigated with respect to the hole-doping dependence of the critical current density. The samples are annealed in an atmosphere of variable oxygen content after which critical currents, critical temperature and the c-axis lattice spacing are measured. The lattice spacing increases with decreasing oxygen content, consistent with literature data. These co-evaporated samples show hole overdoped behavior with respect to the maximum Tc. The achievable range of hole doping in these samples seems to depend on surface coverage. Both self-field and in-field Jc at 75.5 K have a maximum in the overdoped region but at less than maximum oxygen content. The reason for the overdoping of these samples is discussed briefly in terms of Y-Ba disorder.