To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The use of a field portable XRF analyzer incorporating a semiconductor, mercuric iodide, energy dispersive spectrometer is described with emphasis on the benefits of high resolution x-ray detection for rapid screening of hazardous metallic wastes. Results are presented of “in-situ” and “prepared sample” soil measurement for different sites to show the potential of Fundamental Parameter analysis to obtain acceptable quality data with minimum calibration effort, obviating the need for site-specific standards.
Breeding for resistance against nematodes has become the need of the hour due to emergence of anthelmintic resistant strains of major pathogenic nematodes of economic importance and rising demand for chemical residue free food by consumers. ICAR-Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute Avikanagar (Rajasthan) has developed Haemonchus contortus resistant lines of sheep in Avikalin and Malpura breeds by harvesting benefits of over-dispersion in fecal egg counts (FEC) through executing a breeding program since year 2004. Aim of the present study was to assess the genetic parameters for nematode resistance in these lines and also to develop suitable criteria for selection targeting resistance as well as growth improvement in these two lines. The data on 1240 Avikalin and 2172 Malpura sheep generated over 13 years (2004–16) for FEC along with deep pedigree and growth records for live weight at 6 (6WT) and 12 month were used for study. Data were analyzed using Average Information Restricted Maximum Likelihood (AIREML) approach. Results revealed moderate heritability (h2) for pre-drench log transformed fecal egg count (LFEC) in Avikalin (0.21±0.06) and Malpura (0.18±0.04) sheep. The post-drench h2 for LFEC was low in Avikalin (0.04±0.03) and Malpura (0.11±0.03) sheep. Effective selection program can be carried out for further improving the resistance against H. contortus in both the breeds using pre-drench LFEC estimates. The genetic correlation between the pre-drench LFEC and growth traits was not in the desired direction. Existence of substantial genotype × environment (G×E) interaction was seen in Malpura sheep, where major shift in ranks of sheep based on pre-drench LFEC as that of post-drench LFEC was observed owing to genetic correlation of 0.65±0.15. The G×E was absent in Avikalin sheep. Unreliable genetic correlation between growth and LFEC does not warrant a multi trait selection index development and its utilization in breeding program. The independent selection for LFEC followed by corrected 6WT can precisely help in achieving the goal of improving growth in nematode resistant sheep.
The role of vegetable and fruit intake in reducing falls risk in elderly populations is uncertain. This study examined the associations of vegetable and fruit intake with falls-related hospitalisations in a prospective cohort study of elderly women (n 1429, ≥70 years), including effects on muscular function, which represented a potential causal pathway. Muscular function, measured using grip strength and timed-up-and-go (TUG), and vegetable and fruit intake, quantified using a validated FFQ, were assessed at baseline (1998). Incident falls-related hospitalisation over 14·5-year follow-up was captured by the Hospital Morbidity Data Collection, linked via the Western Australian Data Linkage System. Falls-related hospitalisation occurred in 568 (39·7 %) of women. In multivariable-adjusted models, falls-related hospitalisations were lower in participants consuming more vegetables (hazard ratio (HR) per 75 g serve: 0·90 (95 % CI 0·82, 0·99)), but not fruit intake (per 150 g serve: 1·03 (95 % CI 0·93, 1·14)). Only total cruciferous vegetable intake was inversely associated with falls-related hospitalisation (HR: per 20 g serve: 0·90 (95 % CI 0·83, 0·97)). Higher total vegetable intake was associated with lower odds for poor grip strength (OR: 0·87 (95 % CI 0·77, 0·97)) and slow TUG (OR: 0·88 (95 % CI 0·78, 0·99)). Including grip strength and TUG in the multivariable-adjusted model attenuated the association between total vegetable intake and falls-related hospitalisations. In conclusion, elderly women with higher total and cruciferous vegetable intake had lower injurious falls risk, which may be explained in a large part by better physical function. Falls reduction may be considered an additional benefit of higher vegetable intake in older women.
Solar wind kinetic energy gets transferred into the Earth’s magnetosphere as a result of dynamo action between magnetosphere and solar wind. Energy is then dissipated among various dissipation channels in the MI system. In the present study, energetics of 59 intense geomagnetic storms are analyzed for the period between 1986 and 2015, which covers the three consecutive solar cycles SC 22, 23 and 24. The average solar wind energy impinging the MI system is estimated using Epsilon parameter, the coupling function. Moreover, the relative importance of different energy sinks in the MI system are quantified and is found that more than 60% of solar wind energy is dissipated in the form of ionospheric Joule heating.
A number of complex systems arising in diverse disciplines may have certain quantitative features that are surprisingly similar which are classified under the paradigm of “universality”. The non-extensive Tsallis stastical mechanics and Lévy flight patterns provide a novel basis for analyzing non-equilibrium complex systems that may exhibit long-range correlations. The present work studies the scope of employing non-extensive Gutenberg-Richter (G-R) type law for the magnitude distribution of energy of solar wind, in order to investigate the existence of a universal behavior as well as to compute the relations of degree of non-extensivity and Lévy statistics in solar wind turbulence with heliographic distance during different solar cycles.
A precise knowledge of solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance is of great importance for better understanding of Earth′s ionosphere and thermosphere. The search for an ideal solar EUV proxy is vital since the ionospheric and thermospheric models are based on the solar proxies of EUV radiation. In this study, the phase asynchrony analysis of solar EUV data with other solar activity indices during solar cycle 23 is done. The cross-wavelet transform (XWT) technique is used to reveal the phase difference between the two time series of solar indices. Analysis reveals that the phase relationship between the indices is both time and frequency dependent. The solar indices F10.7 and Mg II core-to-wing index are found to be more synchronous with solar EUV data for low frequency components.
Hemispheric asymmetry is one of the significant parameters related to the action of solar dynamo. Comparison of hemispheric activities during various phases are found out for solar cycles 12 to 23. Asymmetry of solar activity shows extremum values during the cycles 14 and 19. Lowest and highest levels of north-south asymmetry are mainly observed during minimum and maximum phases respectively of solar cycles. A change of phase is found to be existing between the asymmetries at solar maxima and the whole cycle, after solar cycle 15 and 18. Also, for cycles 17-19, the behaviour of the asymmetry is observed to be peculiar and different from that of the other cycles. Periodic behaviour of north-south asymmetry mainly occurs in 8.8 years and noticed very high during the cycles 18-22.
Temporal oscillations of F2 layer critical frequency are direct outcome of solar EUV variability. The hourly data of F2 layer critical frequency (foF2) during solar cycle 23 over eight ionosonde stations which falls within same longitudinal span are evaluated using Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) to estimate the ionospheric variations. The quasi triennial, annual, semiannual, 27 day and diurnal variations of foF2 are clearly evident in the wavelet power spectra of all the stations. Quasi triennial oscillations which show a clear latitudinal dependence is more evident in southern stations. A strong quasi biennial oscillation (QBO) is also noticed in higher latitudes which was not observable in equatorial latitude. The present study reveals that the semiannual variations are more obvious over the annual variation in the equatorial and low latitude stations while the annual variations are prominent in higher latitudes.
Forecasting the solar activity is of great importance not only for its effect on the climate of the Earth but also on the telecommunications, power lines, space missions and satellite safety. In the present work, machine learning using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) called Nonlinear Autoregressive Network (NAR) with Exogenous Inputs (NARX) have been applied for the prediction of future evolution of the present sunspot cycle. NARX network is able to combine the performance of ANN algorithm with nonlinear autoregressive method to handle problems such as finding dependencies among solar indices and prediction of solar cycle evolution.
Sunspots are active regions on the surface of the Sun having strong magnetic fields. Activity level of the Sun shows long-time scale phenomena known as grand episodes-Grand maxima and Grand minima. Present study examines grand episodes shown by sunspot numbers (1090-2017), using methods of wavelet transform and sinusoidal regression. Time interval analysed includes two grand maxima and four grand minima. Interval in between grand episodes are regular oscillations. Phase changes found from periodicity analysis clearly show the presence of upcoming grand episodes. The forthcoming grand episodes are suggested to be two grand minima which are likely to occur between the years 2100-2160 and 2220-2300.
Superposed epoch analysis (SPEA) is commonly used to determine some basic structure in a collection of geophysical time series. The present study tries to analyze ionospheric Joule heating response at high latitudes, to the prevailing solar wind and IMF conditions on the basis of SPEA. Major geomagnetic storms (CME driven) over three consecutive solar cycles (SC 22, 23 and 24) have been selected. Ascending phase, solar maximum, and declining phase are investigated separately, for each solar cycle, to find out crucial controlling parameters for the generation of high-latitude ionospheric Joule heating. SPEA results show that, IMF parameters such as IMF By, IMF Bz, IMF clock angle and solar wind parameters such as dynamic pressure and proton density influence Joule heating production rate significantly. Meanwhile, the relentlessness of the other parameters such as IMFBt and solar wind bulk speed show that they have poor impact on Joule heating.
The final rule for the protection of human subjects requires that informed consent be “in language understandable to the subject” and mandates that “the informed consent must be organized in such a way that facilitates comprehension.” This study assessed the readability of Institutional Review Board-approved informed consent forms at our institution, implemented an intervention to improve the readability of consent forms, and measured the first year impact of the intervention.
Readability assessment was conducted on a sample of 217 Institutional Review Board-approved informed consents from 2013 to 2015. A plain language informed consent template was developed and implemented and readability was assessed again after 1 year.
The mean readability of the baseline sample was 10th grade. The mean readability of the post-intervention sample (n=82) was seventh grade.
Providing investigators with a plain language informed consent template and training can promote improved readability of informed consents for research.
Arterial wall thickening, stimulated by low-grade systemic inflammation, underlies many cardiovascular events. As diet is a significant moderator of systemic inflammation, the dietary inflammatory index (DIITM) has recently been devised to assess the overall inflammatory potential of an individual’s diet. The primary objective of this study was to assess the association of the DII with common carotid artery–intima-media thickness (CCA–IMT) and carotid plaques. To substantiate the clinical importance of these findings we assessed the relationship of DII score with atherosclerotic vascular disease (ASVD)-related mortality, ischaemic cerebrovascular disease (CVA)-related mortality and ischaemic heart disease (IHD)-related mortality more. The study was conducted in Western Australian women aged over 70 years (n 1304). Dietary data derived from a validated FFQ (completed at baseline) were used to calculate a DII score for each individual. In multivariable-adjusted models, DII scores were associated with sub-clinical atherosclerosis: a 1 sd (2·13 units) higher DII score was associated with a 0·013-mm higher mean CCA–IMT (P=0·016) and a 0·016-mm higher maximum CCA–IMT (P=0·008), measured at 36 months. No relationship was seen between DII score and carotid plaque severity. There were 269 deaths during follow-up. High DII scores were positively associated with ASVD-related death (per sd, hazard ratio (HR): 1·36; 95 % CI 1·15, 1·60), CVA-related death (per sd, HR: 1·30; 95 % CI 1·00, 1·69) and IHD-related death (per sd, HR: 1·40; 95 % CI 1·13, 1·75). These results support the hypothesis that a pro-inflammatory diet increases systemic inflammation leading to development and progression of atherosclerosis and eventual ASVD-related death.
For most producers, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are a novelty that has been little employed in their agricultural operations. An UAV will not fix every problem on the farm, but there are some practical applications for which UAVs have demonstrated value. Three examples of how UAVs have been used in weed science applications are presented here; the methods are transferable to other agricultural commodities with similar characteristics. The first of these is quantification of the extent and severity of non-target herbicide injury. The second application is calculation of spray thresholds based on weed populations. The third application is development of site-specific herbicide treatment.
Higher fruit intake is associated with lower risk of all-cause and disease-specific mortality. However, data on individual fruits are limited, and the generalisability of these findings to the elderly remains uncertain. The objective of this study was to examine the association of apple intake with all-cause and disease-specific mortality over 15 years in a cohort of women aged over 70 years. Secondary analyses explored relationships of other fruits with mortality outcomes. Usual fruit intake was assessed in 1456 women using a FFQ. Incidence of all-cause and disease-specific mortality over 15 years was determined through the Western Australian Hospital Morbidity Data system. Cox regression was used to determine the hazard ratios (HR) for mortality. During 15 years of follow-up, 607 (41·7 %) women died from any cause. In the multivariable-adjusted analysis, the HR for all-cause mortality was 0·89 (95 % CI 0·81, 0·97) per sd (53 g/d) increase in apple intake, HR 0·80 (95 % CI 0·65, 0·98) for consumption of 5–100 g/d and HR 0·65 (95 % CI 0·48, 0·89) for consumption of >100 g/d (an apple a day), compared with apple intake of <5 g/d (Pfor trend=0·03). Our analysis also found that higher apple intake was associated with lower risk for cancer mortality, and that higher total fruit and banana intakes were associated lower risk of CVD mortality (P<0·05). Our results support the view that regular apple consumption may contribute to lower risk of mortality.
Synroc containing 20 wt% simulated high level waste (HLW) was subjected to
two sets of leach tests at 150°C where the leachant was and was not replaced
during the test (replacement and non-replacement testing). The leachant was
a KH-phthalate buffered solution (pH 4.2). Samples were characterised before
and after leach testing using SEM, AEM and SIMS. Elemental concentrations in
leachates were measured using ICP-MS. In concert with the findings of i) a
dissolution study of perovskite in a flowing leachant and ii) a previous
Synroc dissolution study (wherein Synroc containing 10 wt% simulated HLW was
subjected to periodic replacement, leach testing in deionised water at
150°C), the results of this study show that when the leachant replacement
frequency is varied from 7 d to the duration of the test, there is no effect
on leach rate or leaching mechanisms.
From elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) of 2 MeV He ions and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS), exposure of Synroc-C to D2O at 150°C for ∼ 30 days produced surface deuteration products of a few nm in thickness, with surface roughness after polishing down to 0.25 µm diamond finish not being of critical importance in the thickness determination. Reaction at 250°C produced more extensive deuteration and general surface alteration, over depths of about a micron. SIMS did not show any surface enhancement of rare earths or Zr on Synroc-C surfaces reacted at 90°C for up to 336 days. Pu-doped SynrocC exposed to deionised water at 70°C showed surface depletion of Pu by alpha-spectroscopy. Zirconolite-rich Synroc showed less surface deuteration than Synroc-C after reaction for 3 weeks at 150°C in D2O. Admixtures of 0.001 M of fluoride ions to dilute HCI (pH = 2) produced deposits of anatase, ∼ 20 µm thick, on perovskite after a few weeks at 90°C; these deposits were much thicker than those produced by the dilute HCI without the fluoride ions being present.
A pilot trial in Sri Lanka among patients with medically unexplained symptoms revealed that cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) administered by a psychiatrist was efficacious
To evaluate CBT provided by primary care physicians in a comparison with structured care
A randomised control trial (n=75 in each arm) offered six 30 min sessions of structured care or therapy. The outcomes of the two interventions were compared at 3 months, 6 months, 9 months and 12 months
In each arm, 64 patients (85%) completed the three mandatory sessions. No difference was observed between groups in mean scores on the General Health Questionnaire or the Bradford Somatic Inventory, or in number of complaints or patient-initiated consultations at 3 months. For both groups, all outcome measures improved at 3 months, and remained constant in the follow-up assessments
Cognitive–behavioural therapy given by primary care physicians after a short course of training is no more efficacious than structured care. Natural remission is an unlikely explanation for improvements in people with chronic medically unexplained symptoms, but lack of a ‘treatment as usual’ arm limits further conclusions. Further research on enhanced structured care, medical assessment and structured care incorporating simple elements of CBT principles is worthy of consideration
To present a previously unreported cause of frontal mucocele.
A patient presented with a frontal mucocele and maxillary sinusitis. Computed tomography revealed an ectopic maxillary tooth as the cause of her signs and symptoms. Removal of the tooth by a Caldwell–Luc procedure facilitated resolution of the mucocele. Conventional treatment of mucoceles by endoscopic sinus surgery, and other rhinological sequelae of ectopic teeth, are considered.
This is the first documented case of an ectopic tooth causing a frontal mucocele, and demonstrates how effectively the patient's symptoms resolved on removal of the tooth.