To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) are the most studied psychotherapies for treatment of depression, but they are rarely directly compared particularly over the longer term. This study compares the outcomes of patients treated with CBT and IPT over 10 months and tests whether there are differential or general predictors of outcome.
A single centre randomised controlled trial (RCT) of depressed outpatients treated with weekly CBT or IPT sessions for 16 weeks and then 24 weeks of maintenance CBT or IPT. The principle outcome was depression severity measured using the MADRS. Pre-specified predictors of response were in four domains: demographic depression, characteristics, comorbidity and personality. Data were analysed over 16 weeks and 40 weeks using general linear mixed effects regression models.
CBT was significantly more effective than IPT in reducing depressive symptoms over the 10 month study largely because it appeared to work more quickly. There were no differential predictors of response to CBT v. IPT at 16 weeks or 40 weeks. Personality variables were most strongly associated with overall outcome at both 16 weeks and 40 weeks. The number of personality disorder symptoms and lower self-directness and reward dependence scores were associated with poorer outcome for both CBT and IPT at 40 weeks.
CBT and IPT are effective treatments for major depression over the longer term. CBT may work more quickly. Personality variables are the most relevant predictors of outcome.
White dwarfs are becoming useful tools for many areas of astronomy. They can be used as accurate chronometers over Gyr timescales. They are also clues to the history of star formation in our galaxy. Many of these studies require accurate estimates of the mass of the white dwarf. The theoretical mass-radius relation is often invoked to provide these mass estimates. While the theoretical mass-radius relation is well developed, observational tests of this relation show a much larger scatter in the results than expected. High precision observational tests to confirm this relation are required. Gaia is providing distance measurements which will remove one of the main source of uncertainty affecting most previous observations. We combine Gaia distances with spectra from the Hubble and FUSE satelites to make precise tests of the white dwarf mass-radius relation.
With a large number of newly detected red variables in globular clusters we construct a log P – K diagram of these stars and compare it with findings from the LMC. We show the existence of a relation between the location in log P – K diagram and the velocity amplitude in the near infrared.
Depression and anxiety disorders are the leading cause of sickness absence and long-term work incapacity in most developed countries. The present study aimed to carry out a systematic meta-review examining the effectiveness of workplace mental health interventions, defined as any intervention that a workplace may either initiate or facilitate that aims to prevent, treat or rehabilitate a worker with a diagnosis of depression, anxiety or both. Relevant reviews were identified via a detailed systematic search of academic and grey literature databases. All articles were subjected to a rigorous quality appraisal using the AMSTAR assessment. Of the 5179 articles identified, 140 studies met the inclusion criteria, of which 20 were deemed to be of moderate or high quality. Together, these reviews analysed 481 primary research studies. Moderate evidence was identified for two primary prevention interventions; enhancing employee control and promoting physical activity. Stronger evidence was found for CBT-based stress management although less evidence was found for other secondary prevention interventions, such as counselling. Strong evidence was also found against the routine use of debriefing following trauma. Tertiary interventions with a specific focus on work, such as exposure therapy and CBT-based and problem-focused return-to-work programmes, had a strong evidence base for improving symptomology and a moderate evidence base for improving occupational outcomes. Overall, these findings demonstrate there are empirically supported interventions that workplaces can utilize to aid in the prevention of common mental illness as well as facilitating the recovery of employees diagnosed with depression and/or anxiety.
Impaired neuropsychological functioning is a feature of major depression. Previous studies have suggested that at least some aspects of neuropsychological functioning improve with successful treatment of major depression. The extent to which medications may affect the degree of normalization of these functions is unclear. The aim of the current study was to examine the course of neuropsychological functioning during treatment of major depression with cognitive–behaviour therapy (CBT) or schema therapy (ST).
A total of 69 out-patients with a primary diagnosis of major depression and 58 healthy controls completed mood ratings, neuropsychological measures, and measures of emotional processing at baseline and after 16 weeks. Participants were randomized after baseline assessment to a year-long course of CBT or ST. Patients reassessed at 16 weeks were medication-free throughout the study.
Significant neuropsychological impairment was evident at baseline in depressed participants compared with healthy controls. After 16 weeks of psychotherapy, mean depression rating scores fell more than 50%. However, no neuropsychological measures showed convincing evidence of significant improvement and emotional processing did not change.
Persisting impairment in neuropsychological functioning after the first 16 weeks of CBT or ST suggests a need to modify psychological treatments to include components targeting cognitive functioning.
Los Alamos National Laboratory has calculated a new generation of radiative opacities (OPLIB data using the ATOMIC code) for elements with atomic number Z = 1-30 with improved physics input, updated atomic data, and finer temperature grid to replace the Los Alamos LEDCOP opacities released in the year 2000. We calculate the evolution of standard solar models including these new opacities, and compare with models evolved using the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory OPAL opacities (Iglesias & Rogers 1996). We use the solar abundance mixture of Asplund et al. 2009. The Los Alamos ATOMIC opacities (Colgan et al. 2013a, 2013b, 2015) have steeper opacity derivatives than those of OPAL for temperatures and densities of the solar interior radiative zone. We compare the calculated nonadiabatic solar oscillation frequencies and solar interior sound speed to observed frequencies and helioseismic inferences. The calculated sound-speed profiles are similar for models evolved using either the updated Iben evolution code (see Guzik & Mussack 2010), or the MESA evolution code (Paxton et al. 2015). The LANL ATOMIC opacities partially mitigate the ‘solar abundance problem’.
The potential of bio-dielectrics for thin film transistor applications was explored via the incorporation of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles, rutile form, a high dielectric constant (ε) ceramic, in the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) bio-polymer. The DNA-ceramic hybrid films were fabricated from stable suspensions of the TiO2 nanoparticles in viscous, aqueous DNA solutions. Dielectric characterization revealed that the incorporation of TiO2 in DNA resulted in enhanced dielectric constant (14.3 at 1 kHz for 40 wt % TiO2) relative to that of DNA in the entire frequency range of 1 kHz-1 MHz. Variable temperature dielectric measurements, in the 20-80°C range, of the DNA-TiO2 films revealed that the ceramic additive stabilizes DNA against large temperature dependent variations in both ε and the dielectric loss factor tan δ. The bulk resistivity of the DNA-TiO2 hybrid films was measured to be two to three orders of magnitude higher than that of the control DNA films, indicating their potential for utilization as insulating dielectrics in transistor and capacitor applications.
The electronic structure of the Pu-based superconductor PuCoGa5 and the Pauli paramagnet UCoGa5 is investigated using photoemission spectroscopy. The photoemission data of PuCoGa5 reveal features at the Fermi energy EF and about 1-1.5 eV below EF indicative of itinerant and localized f-electrons, respectively. Angle-resolved spectra of UCoGa5 show two peaks at similar energies that are highly dispersive, providing evidence for itinerant character of the f-electrons in this material. A comparison of the PuCoGa5 and UCoGa5 data to the spectra of α-Pu and δ-Pu serves to place PuCoGa5 within the context of the more general electronic structure problem in elemental Pu.
The electronic structure of Pu materials is examined using photoelectron spectroscopy. For delta-phase Pu metal as well as PuCoGa5 and PuIn3, the 5f electrons appear to be at the threshold between localized and itinerant character. A mixed level model computational scheme is used which results in non-magnetic solutions for the electronic structure and agrees well with the photoemission measurements. Several other computational schemes are assessed against photoemission results for delta Pu. Additional insight is provided by O2 and H2 dosing of the delta Pu samples and consideration of surface effects. The experimental and computational results are consistent with the 5f electrons in Pu materials exhibiting a dual nature with some fraction of the 5f levels localized and not participating in the bonding while the other fraction of 5f character is involved in bonding and hybridization with the conduction electrons.
The 5f electronic states in elemental Pu and Pu compounds exhibit elements of both itinerant and localized behavior. Several first-principles calculations have been presented to describe this balance, differing in the manner in which electron correlation is included in the calculation. This paper describes a calculations performed with the Mixed Level Model (MLM), presenting calculated results for the two Pu compounds, PuRhGa5 and PuCoGa5. The MLM results are compared with other calculations and the differences discussed.
0.15µm epilayers of InxGa1−xAs grown on GaAs (001) by MBE, having In concentrations in the range x = 0.05 - 0.30, have been investigated using RHEED and TEM. RHEED patterns indicate a 2-D growth mode for low In concentrations changing to Stranski-Krastanov growth for x > 0.30. TEM showed misfit dislocations for x > 0.05 only, which were found to relieve only a small part of the misfit strain. Although threading dislocations were rarely found in the epilayers, dislocations originating at the interface and penetrating the buffer layer were observed for 0.1 < x < 0.25.
The performance of an entirely microcrystalline p-i-n solar cell was monitored during a long-term outdoor test in Lisbon starting in September 1998. A small decrease of the short circuit current was observed after 5 months of operation. The open-circuit voltage remained stable around 400 mV. From the analysis of the I-V characteristic in dark and under illumination we could identify the weak points of the test structure, like large series resistance, high recombination rate, and intensity-dependent collection efficiency.
InAs/GaAs superlattices with thin (0.5–1 monolayer) δ-InAs insertions were grown by molecular beam epitaxy at low (150–200°C) temperature. The as-grown samples contained up to 1020 cm−3 arsenic antisite defects. Transmission electron microscopic study revealed no extended defect and showed that the real thickness of δ-InAs insertions is 3–4 monolayers. This thickness seems to be due to short-range roughness of the growth surface. Low diffuse scattering and extended interference picture were observed for such superlattices by x-ray diffraction study. Superlattices of two-dimensional cluster sheets were produced by annealing of the δ-InAs/GaAs superlattices at 500–600°C. Precipitation of excess arsenic at InAs δ-layers was found to be accompanied by enhanced In-Ga intermixing, roughening the InAs δ-layers, and smoothing the x-ray interference picture. No evidence for any self-ordering in the system of nanoscale As clusters was revealed using x-ray mapping in reciprocal space.
The nature and origin of lateral composition modulations in (AlAs)m(InAs)n short-period strained-layer superlattices grown by molecular beam epitaxy on InP substrates have been investigated by x-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Strong modulations were observed for growth temperatures between ≈ 540 and 560° C. The maximum strength of modulations was found for SPS samples with InAs mole fraction x (= n/(n+m)) close to ≈ 0.50 and when n ≈ m ≈ 2. The modulations were suppressed at both high and low values of x. For x > 0.52 (global compression), the modulations were along the <100> directions in the (001) growth plane. For x < 0.52 (global tension), the modulations were along the two <310> directions rotated ≈ ±27° from  in the growth plane. The remarkably constant wavelength of the modulations, between ≈ 20–30 nm, and the different modulation directions observed, suggest that the origin of the modulations is due to surface roughening associated with the high misfit between the individual SPS layers and the InP substrate. Highly uniform unidirectional modulations have been grown by control of the InAs mole fraction and growth on suitably offcut substrates, which show great promise for application in device structures.
We report the first observation of atomic long range ordering in the metal-oxide based wide bandgap (3.68 eV) ZnMgO alloy semiconductor thin films grown on sapphire (0001) by pulsed laser deposition. The ZnMgO system has the hexagonal wurtzite structure. The atomic ordering was deduced from the observations of forbidden x-ray diffraction peaks in the wurtzite structure. We show that under optimum thin film growth conditions, Zn and Mg preferentially occupy hcp sublattice. The relative intensity of the superlattice peak was largest for the Mg content in the range of 10%, which is about 50% of the solubility of Mg in ZnO. The observation of long range order in ZnMgO alloy semiconductor is quite important in the context of understanding issues related to the growth kinetics, surface reconstruction, and phase stability of metal-oxide based heterostructures and devices.
The microstructure of lateral composition modulation in InAs/AlAs superlattices grown by MBE on InP is examined. The use of x-ray diffraction, TEM, AFM, and STEM to characterize the modulations is discussed. Combining the information from these techniques gives increased insight into the phenomenon and how to manipulate it. Diffraction measures the intensity of modulation and its wavelength, and is used to identify growth conditions giving strong modulation. The TEM and STEM analyses indicate that local compositions are modulated by as much as 0.38 InAs mole fraction. Plan-view images show that modulated structures consists of short (≳0.2 μm) In-rich wires with a 2D organization in a (001) growth plane. However, growth on miscut substrates can produce a single modulation along the miscut direction with much longer wires (≲0.4 μm), as desired for potential applications. Photoluminescence studies demonstrate that the modulation has large effects on the bandgap energy of the superlattice.
A kinetic theory of the instability of homogeneous alloy growth with respect to fluctuations of alloy composition is developed. The growth mechanism studied is the step-flow growth of an alloy from the vapor on a surface vicinal to the (001) surface of a cubic substrate. The epitaxial growth implies that the adsorbed atoms migrate on the surface during growth of each monolayer, and that their motion is “frozen” after the completion of the monolayer. Frozen fluctuations in all completed monolayers create, via the composition-dependent lattice parameter, an effective potential which influences the surface migration of adatoms. The migration consists of diffusion and strain-induced drift in the effective potential. For temperatures lower than a certain critical temperature Tc, strain-induced drift dominates diffusion and results in the kinetic instability of the homogeneous alloy growth. In the linear approximation in the fluctuation amplitude, the instability means the exponential increase of the fluctuation amplitude with the thickness of the epitaxial film. It is shown that the critical temperature of kinetic instability Tc, increases with the increase of elastic effects. The wave vector kc of the most unstable mode of composition fluctuations is determined by the interplay of anisotropic elastic interaction and anisotropic diffusion on a stepped vicinal surface. The direction of the wave vector kc differs from the lowest-stiffness direction of the crystal, and any direction of kc is possible.
Photoreflectance measurements have been performed in the 0.8–1.5 eV photon energy range and at temperatures from 80 to 300 K on stacked layers of InAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) grown by Atomic-Layer Molecular Beam Epitaxy. The spectral features due to the QD optical response were analyzed by using lineshape models characteristic of modulation spectroscopy of confined systems. The dependence of the ground state transition energy on the number of stacked QD layers is investigated and it is shown that Coulomb interaction can account for the observed different behavior of the ensemble optical response of QD families characterized by different morphologies and coexisting in the same sample.