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Leaf colour characteristics of 730 sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. (Convolvulaceae), plant introduction (PI) accessions from the USDA sweetpotato germplasm collection were evaluated during 2012–2014. Colorimetry data for the abaxial and adaxial leaf surfaces were recorded using a tristimulus colorimeter and the CIE 1976 L*a*b* and CIE L*C*h* colour spaces. Most accessions (725 of 730 PIs) had dark-to-medium green leaves, but two PIs had totally purple leaves, and three PIs had yellow or yellow-green (chartreuse) leaves. For mature, field-grown green leaves, values for the red-green coordinate (a*) averaged −12.4 for the adaxial and −10.4 for the abaxial leaf surface. Values for the blue-yellow coordinate (b*) averaged 17.2 for the adaxial and 17.3 for the abaxial leaf surface. Hue angle (h*) for green leaves averaged 120.9° for the adaxial and 126.2° for the abaxial leaf surface. Colour saturation (Chroma, C*) averaged 21.3 for the adaxial and 20.2 for the abaxial leaf surface. Lightness (L*) averaged 35.4 for the adaxial and 47.2 for the abaxial leaf surface of green leaves. Late in the season, over one-half (53.9%) of the 730 PIs showed some level of purple pigmentation in the leaf lamina. Late-season purple leaves were collected and colour coordinates were recorded for 118 PIs grown in the field. For purple leaves, values for a*, b*, C*, L* and h* averaged 2.3, 6.2, 7.9, 28.2 and 64.4° for the adaxial surface and −1.0, 12.7, 13.9, 43.1 and 87.0° for the abaxial leaf surface, respectively.
Measurements in the infrared wavelength domain allow direct assessment of the physical state and energy balance of cool matter in space, enabling the detailed study of the processes that govern the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems in galaxies over cosmic time. Previous infrared missions revealed a great deal about the obscured Universe, but were hampered by limited sensitivity.
SPICA takes the next step in infrared observational capability by combining a large 2.5-meter diameter telescope, cooled to below 8 K, with instruments employing ultra-sensitive detectors. A combination of passive cooling and mechanical coolers will be used to cool both the telescope and the instruments. With mechanical coolers the mission lifetime is not limited by the supply of cryogen. With the combination of low telescope background and instruments with state-of-the-art detectors SPICA provides a huge advance on the capabilities of previous missions.
SPICA instruments offer spectral resolving power ranging from R ~50 through 11 000 in the 17–230 μm domain and R ~28.000 spectroscopy between 12 and 18 μm. SPICA will provide efficient 30–37 μm broad band mapping, and small field spectroscopic and polarimetric imaging at 100, 200 and 350 μm. SPICA will provide infrared spectroscopy with an unprecedented sensitivity of ~5 × 10−20 W m−2 (5σ/1 h)—over two orders of magnitude improvement over what earlier missions. This exceptional performance leap, will open entirely new domains in infrared astronomy; galaxy evolution and metal production over cosmic time, dust formation and evolution from very early epochs onwards, the formation history of planetary systems.
Cholesteatoma is widely considered to be more aggressive in children than adults, yet few studies have directly compared the operative findings and surgical outcomes between these two groups. This study aimed to assess differences between childhood and adult cholesteatoma.
The operative caseload of a single consultant surgeon was reviewed between January 2006 and May 2017 using the online Common Otology Audit database. Extracted data were categorised according to patient age (children, aged below 16 years, and adults, aged 16 years or over) and compared.
This study included data from 71 operations on children and 281 operations on adults, performed for cholesteatoma. Childhood cholesteatoma demonstrated significantly more extension (into the sinus tympani, mastoid antrum and mastoid air cells) and ossicular erosion (of the malleus, incus and stapes superstructure) compared to adults. No significant differences were seen in revision rates, post-operative complications or hearing gain.
Childhood cholesteatoma was more extensive and destructive compared to adults, representing a more aggressive disease in this cohort.
Mental Health Systems and Policy: Introduction to Part III
Dennis P. Watson, Assistant Professor, Department of Health Policy and Management, Interim Director, Center for Health Policy,
Erin L. Adams, Doctoral Candidate, Department of Psychology, School of Science, Graduate Research Assistant, Center for Health Policy, School of Public Health, Indiana University - Purdue University Indianapolis,
Joanna R. Jackson, Graduate Research Assistant, Center for Health Policy, Department of Health Policy and Management, Indiana University Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public Health
This chapter provides an overview of the history of mental health policy in the United States divided into three periods: (1) the development and establishment of the state asylum as the primary mode of mental health treatment; (2) deinstitutionalization and the move to community-based care; and (3) recovery as the guiding vision of mental health care. Federal involvement is a relatively new development in mental health policy, a fact that has lead to significant fragmentation in the mental health care system. While a number of policies since the 1950s have sought to increase social inclusion and the ability for people with mental illness to control their own lives, lack of support for these policies has resulted in relatively slow actual change. However, recent national reforms have potential to make lasting and substantial change. Watson and colleagues describe these reforms and how they may lead to implementation of recovery-oriented principles by improving mental health care access and service quality. They close with a discussion of potential areas for sociological mental health research related to contemporary health policy. What are the gaps in current mental health policy? How can mental health policy promote recovery for people living with mental health problems?
Historically, there has been a lack of strong federal involvement in US mental health policy making. The result has been a highly fragmented mental health system with significant differences at the state and local levels of government. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the history of US mental health policy from the seventeenth century to the present, with a particular focus on polices affecting people living with serious and persistent mental illness (SPMI). We have divided the chapter into three broad periods of reform. The first period, the late 1700s through the 1940s, was a time marked by increasing social control over the lives of people with mental illness as states started to assume more responsibility for their care. This period culminated with the state psychiatric hospital (also known as the asylum) as the primary locus of mental health treatment. The 1950s–1980s was a time of advocacy leading to the movement of patients from state mental hospitals and into the community. This period was also marked by increased recognition of the rights of people living with mental illness, albeit with relatively few polices or resources to support them.