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To evaluate the association between novel pre- and post-operative biomarker levels and 30-day unplanned readmission or mortality after paediatric congenital heart surgery.
Children aged 18 years or younger undergoing congenital heart surgery (n = 162) at Johns Hopkins Hospital from 2010 to 2014 were enrolled in the prospective cohort. Collected novel pre- and post-operative biomarkers include soluble suppression of tumorgenicity 2, galectin-3, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide, and glial fibrillary acidic protein. A model based on clinical variables from the Society of Thoracic Surgery database was developed and evaluated against two augmented models.
Unplanned readmission or mortality within 30 days of cardiac surgery occurred among 21 (13%) children. The clinical model augmented with pre-operative biomarkers demonstrated a statistically significant improvement over the clinical model alone with a receiver-operating characteristics curve of 0.754 (95% confidence interval: 0.65–0.86) compared to 0.617 (95% confidence interval: 0.47–0.76; p-value: 0.012). The clinical model augmented with pre- and post-operative biomarkers demonstrated a significant improvement over the clinical model alone, with a receiver-operating characteristics curve of 0.802 (95% confidence interval: 0.72–0.89; p-value: 0.003).
Novel biomarkers add significant predictive value when assessing the likelihood of unplanned readmission or mortality after paediatric congenital heart surgery. Further exploration of the utility of these novel biomarkers during the pre- or post-operative period to identify early risk of mortality or readmission will aid in determining the clinical utility and application of these biomarkers into routine risk assessment.
The World Health Organization recently reported that maternal mental health is a major public health concern. As many as one in four women suffer from psychiatric disorders at some point during pregnancy or the first postpartum year. Furthermore, self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITBs) represent one of the leading causes of death among women during this time. Thus, efforts to identify women at risk for serious forms of psychopathology and especially for SITBs are of utmost importance. Despite this urgency, current single-diagnostic approaches fail to recognize a significant subset of women who are vulnerable to perinatal stress and distress. The current study was among the first to investigate emotion dysregulation—a multilevel, transdiagnostic risk factor for psychopathology—and its associations with stress, distress, and SITBs in a sample of pregnant women (26–40 weeks gestation) recruited to reflect a range of emotion dysregulation. Both self-reported emotion dysregulation and respiratory sinus arrhythmia, a biomarker of emotion dysregulation, demonstrated expected associations with measures of mental health, including depression, anxiety, borderline personality pathology, and SITBs. In addition, self-reported emotion dysregulation was associated with blunted respiratory sinus arrhythmia responsivity to an ecologically valid infant cry task. Findings add to the literature considering transdiagnostic risk during pregnancy using a multiple-levels-of-analysis approach.
The development of laser wakefield accelerators (LWFA) over the past several years has led to an interest in very compact sources of X-ray radiation – such as “table-top” free electron lasers. However, the use of conventional undulators using permanent magnets also implies system sizes which are large. In this work, we assess the possibilities for the use of novel mini-undulators in conjunction with a LWFA so that the dimensions of the undulator become comparable with the acceleration distances for LWFA experiments (i.e., centimeters). The use of a prototype undulator using laser machining of permanent magnets for this application is described and the emission characteristics and limitations of such a system are determined. Preliminary electron propagation and X-ray emission measurements are taken with a LWFA electron beam at the University of Michigan.
Background: Most people with common mental health problems do not seek evidence-based psychological interventions. Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate whether monitoring symptoms of depression and anxiety using an app increased treatment-seeking. Method: Three hundred and six people with significant levels of anxiety and depression, none of whom were currently receiving treatment, were randomly allocated to receive either (a) information about local psychological services only, (b) information plus regular symptom monitoring (every 6 days), or (c) information plus open symptom monitoring (monitoring when they felt like it). An app was used to provide information and monitor mood. Results: The proportion of participants who reported receiving treatment after starting the study was 7.2% (10/138) in the information only group, 8.1% (9/111) in the information plus regular monitoring group and 15.8% (9/57) in the information plus open monitoring group. There was a trend for participants who were able to monitor whenever they wished to be more likely to report receiving treatment than people who were only given information about their local treatment services. The impact of the intervention was greatest among participants who intended to seek treatment before taking part. Limitations were that only a small minority of those who downloaded the app completed the study and that the study relied on self-reported measures of treatment-seeking. Conclusions: Symptom monitoring can increase actual treatment-seeking in those with an intention to seek treatment.
The Meat Standards Australia (MSA) grading scheme has the ability to predict beef eating quality for each ‘cut×cooking method combination’ from animal and carcass traits such as sex, age, breed, marbling, hot carcass weight and fatness, ageing time, etc. Following MSA testing protocols, a total of 22 different muscles, cooked by four different cooking methods and to three different degrees of doneness, were tasted by over 19 000 consumers from Northern Ireland, Poland, Ireland, France and Australia. Consumers scored the sensory characteristics (tenderness, flavor liking, juiciness and overall liking) and then allocated samples to one of four quality grades: unsatisfactory, good-every-day, better-than-every-day and premium. We observed that 26% of the beef was unsatisfactory. As previously reported, 68% of samples were allocated to the correct quality grades using the MSA grading scheme. Furthermore, only 7% of the beef unsatisfactory to consumers was misclassified as acceptable. Overall, we concluded that an MSA-like grading scheme could be used to predict beef eating quality and hence underpin commercial brands or labels in a number of European countries, and possibly the whole of Europe. In addition, such an eating quality guarantee system may allow the implementation of an MSA genetic index to improve eating quality through genetics as well as through management. Finally, such an eating quality guarantee system is likely to generate economic benefits to be shared along the beef supply chain from farmers to retailors, as consumers are willing to pay more for a better quality product.
Dietary manipulations or other oral treatments are, in many cases, the most efficient solution to the problem of trace element deficiency diseases in farm animals. Such approaches are particularly effective against chronic primary deficiencies where there is simply not enough of the required element in the diet to satisfy the animal's needs.
In some situations, however, notably severe and acute deficiencies, parenteral injections of a supplement provide the best methods of restoring normal mineral concentrations in the deficient animal's tissues. Parenteral supplements are also particularly effective against many secondary deficiences in which factors in the diet convert apparently adequate dietary concentrations of the required element into an unavailable form: their effectiveness arises because absorption from the alimentary canal is bypassed. Injectable trace element supplements have also proved particularly useful for short term supplementation during periods when there is a great demand for the element, for instance during pregnancy. One further advantage of the parenteral route of supplementation is that a known amount of the element is introduced into the animal's system.
Paediatric hospital-associated venous thromboembolism is a leading quality and safety concern at children’s hospitals.
The aim of this study was to determine risk factors for hospital-associated venous thromboembolism in critically ill children following cardiothoracic surgery or therapeutic cardiac catheterisation.
We conducted a retrospective, case–control study of children admitted to the cardiovascular intensive care unit at Johns Hopkins All Children’s Hospital (St. Petersburg, Florida, United States of America) from 2006 to 2013. Hospital-associated venous thromboembolism cases were identified based on ICD-9 discharge codes and validated using radiological record review. We randomly selected two contemporaneous cardiovascular intensive care unit controls without hospital-associated venous thromboembolism for each hospital-associated venous thromboembolism case, and limited the study population to patients who had undergone cardiothoracic surgery or therapeutic cardiac catheterisation. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for associations between putative risk factors and hospital-associated venous thromboembolism were determined using univariate and multivariate logistic regression.
Among 2718 admissions to the cardiovascular intensive care unit during the study period, 65 met the criteria for hospital-associated venous thromboembolism (occurrence rate, 2%). Restriction to cases and controls having undergone the procedures of interest yielded a final study population of 57 hospital-associated venous thromboembolism cases and 76 controls. In a multiple logistic regression model, major infection (odds ratio=5.77, 95% confidence interval=1.06–31.4), age ⩽1 year (odds ratio=6.75, 95% confidence interval=1.13–160), and central venous catheterisation (odds ratio=7.36, 95% confidence interval=1.13–47.8) were found to be statistically significant independent risk factors for hospital-associated venous thromboembolism in these children. Patients with all three factors had a markedly increased post-test probability of having hospital-associated venous thromboembolism.
Major infection, infancy, and central venous catheterisation are independent risk factors for hospital-associated venous thromboembolism in critically ill children following cardiothoracic surgery or cardiac catheter-based intervention, which, in combination, define a high-risk group for hospital-associated venous thromboembolism.
Prior research has typically found a negative relationship between chronic pain and memory, and we examined whether cognitive control processes (e.g. reflection and rumination) moderated this relationship in individuals with Chiari malformation Type I (CM). CM is a neurological condition in which the cerebellar tonsils descend into the medullary and upper cervical spine regions potentially resulting in severe headaches and neck pain.
CM patients who had (n = 341) and had not (n = 297) undergone decompression surgery completed the McGill Pain Questionnaire-Short Form-Revised (SF-MPQ-2), the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), and the Rumination-Reflection Questionnaire (RRQ). Immediate recall scores were compared to those of 102 healthy controls, and delayed recall performance was compared across other variables within the CM group.
CM patients performed more poorly on immediate recall than did controls. Within CM patients, we observed main effects for reflection and age, and a pain x reflection x surgical status (surgery v. no surgery) interaction in which non-decompressed individuals with low levels of pain and high levels of reflection showed superior delayed recall relative to non-decompressed individuals with higher pain and all decompressed individuals.
CM patients show an immediate recall deficit relative to controls, regardless of surgical status. High levels of reflection were associated with better delayed recall performance in non-decompressed CM patients with lower pain levels. High levels of chronic pain may overwhelm increased focused attention abilities, but higher levels of reflection partially overcome the distracting effects of pain and this may represent a type of resilience.
Accurately quantifying a consumer’s willingness to pay (WTP) for beef of different eating qualities is intrinsically linked to the development of eating-quality-based meat grading systems, and therefore the delivery of consistent, quality beef to the consumer. Following Australian MSA (Meat Standards Australia) testing protocols, over 19 000 consumers from Northern Ireland, Poland, Ireland, France and Australia were asked to detail their willingness to pay for beef from one of four categories that best described the sample; unsatisfactory, good-every-day, better-than-every-day or premium quality. These figures were subsequently converted to a proportion relative to the good-every-day category (P-WTP) to allow comparison between different currencies and time periods. Consumers also answered a short demographic questionnaire. Consumer P-WTP was found to be remarkably consistent between different demographic groups. After quality grade, by far the greatest influence on P-WTP was country of origin. This difference was unable to be explained by the other demographic factors examined in this study, such as occupation, gender, frequency of consumption and the importance of beef in the diet. Therefore, we can conclude that the P-WTP for beef is highly transferrable between different consumer groups, but not countries.
We report the discovery in the Greenland ice sheet of a discrete layer of free nanodiamonds (NDs) in very high abundances, implying most likely either an unprecedented influx of extraterrestrial (ET) material or a cosmic impact event that occurred after the last glacial episode. From that layer, we extracted n-diamonds and hexagonal diamonds (lonsdaleite), an accepted ET impact indicator, at abundances of up to about 5×106 times background levels in adjacent younger and older ice. The NDs in the concentrated layer are rounded, suggesting they most likely formed during a cosmic impact through some process similar to carbon-vapor deposition or high-explosive detonation. This morphology has not been reported previously in cosmic material, but has been observed in terrestrial impact material. This is the first highly enriched, discrete layer of NDs observed in glacial ice anywhere, and its presence indicates that ice caps are important archives of ET events of varying magnitudes. Using a preliminary ice chronology based on oxygen isotopes and dust stratigraphy, the ND-rich layer appears to be coeval with ND abundance peaks reported at numerous North American sites in a sedimentary layer, the Younger Dryas boundary layer (YDB), dating to 12.9 ± 0.1 ka. However, more investigation is needed to confirm this association.
Preliminary Hα observations with the TAURUS imaging spectrometer confirm a pattern of systematic radial motions in a section of spiral arm in M83. The velocity gradients are not consistent with those predicted for the neutral gas.
Non-circular motions have also been discovered in the central regions of the galaxy.
Observations of the distribution of the CO-molecule in several prominent late-type galaxies indicate that the central HI depressions may very well be filled in with molecular gas. One such galaxy is M83 (NGC 5236) and, although the angular resolution of the CO-observations is insufficient to discern details on the scale of a spiral arm, it is known that CO is concentrated in the central regions within a radius of 1′. Furthermore, at a resolution of 50″, the CO profile at the position of the nucleus is as bright in M83 as it is for example in NGC 6946, IC 346 and M51.
Compression of the interstellar gas by a passing density-wave is thought to be responsible for triggering the presently observable star formation processes in the arms of spiral galaxies. We present new observations of the distribution and kinematics of the Hβ emission in the spiral arms of M83, obtained with the TAURUS imaging Fabry-Pérot system. These results, when combined with observations of the neutral and molecular components with sufficiently high resolution, should contribute to our understanding of the time sequence by which stars form out of the interstellar gas.
Estuaries were important sites of deposition throughout most of the Pennsylvanian in the Midcontinent. Modern estuaries typically occur within flooded river valleys where marine and fresh waters mix. Characteristic estuarine circulation results in locally high rates of deposition of muddy sediment that can lead to good preservation of fossils. Several Pennsylvanian conservat-Lagerstätten are best interpreted as having formed within ancient estuaries. Three types of estuarine deposits have been identified. Type 1 estuarine systems are large-scale transgressive systems that start with fluvial sands overlying an erosional surface. This is overlain successively by middle-estuarine laminated mudstone, and finally marine mudstone and shale. Well-preserved fossils occur in laminated mudstones and siltstones. This sequence may include within in it type 3 estuarine Lagerstätten. An example is the Douglas Group (Missourian, Kansas).
Type 2 estuarine Lagerstätten consist of thin estuarine deposits confined to narrow paleochannels. This includes the Garnett (Missourian, Kansas) and Hamilton (Virgilian, Kansas) deposits, both of which contain articulated vertebrates and well-preserved plants. Both channels are filled with mixed siliciclastic and carbonate sediments. Fine grained facies from which the best fossils are recovered in both contain evidence of tidal deposition, although tidal rhythmicity is best developed in the Hamilton channel. Plant assemblages in both are dominated by the conifer Walchia, probably indicating a relatively dry climate.
Type 3 estuarine Lagerstätten consist of thick gray-shale wedges that overlie coals. The best-known example is the Francis Creek Shale (Desmoinesian, Illinois). A relatively wet climate is indicated by abundant fern and seed-fern foliage. Laminations in shale facies commonly show well-developed tidal rhythmicity. A typical stratigraphic succession starts with laminated shale overlying coal. This grades upwards into flaser and lenticular bedding to ripple and then large-scale cross-bedded sandstone. Upright trees rooted in the coal indicate rapid burial. Well-preserved fossils are recovered from early-diagenetic siderite concretions from the laminated shale.
Preservation of fossils is best in laminated mudstones deposited in middle-estuarine environments where conditions are ideal for good preservation. In all cases so far studied the zones of best preservation are well laminated and have sparse (if any) burrows and sessile benthic fossils. Most of the well-preserved organisms are terrestrial, nektonic, or at least mobile. Brackish and fluctuating salinities restricted scavenging and burrowing organisms that may scatter skeletons. High turbidity and deposition rate may have further discouraged many organisms. Matching bedding rhythmicity with tidal cycles allows calculation of depositional rates of 1 cm or more of compacted sediment per 2-week neap-spring tidal cycle. This is consistent with the high rates of deposition known from modern tidal environments. High depositional rates assured that any organism that fell to the sea floor was buried in a few hours to a few days. Once buried anoxic conditions established around decaying carcasses may have led to early mineralization.
A legionellosis outbreak at an industrial site was investigated to identify and control the source. Cases were identified from disease notifications, workplace illness records, and from clinicians. Cases were interviewed for symptoms and risk factors and tested for legionellosis. Implicated environmental sources were sampled and tested for legionella. We identified six cases with Legionnaires’ disease and seven with Pontiac fever; all had been exposed to aerosols from the cooling towers on the site. Nine cases had evidence of infection with either Legionella pneumophila serogroup (sg) 1 or Legionella longbeachae sg1; these organisms were also isolated from the cooling towers. There was 100% DNA sequence homology between cooling tower and clinical isolates of L. pneumophila sg1 using sequence-based typing analysis; no clinical L. longbeachae isolates were available to compare with environmental isolates. Routine monitoring of the towers prior to the outbreak failed to detect any legionella. Data from this outbreak indicate that L. pneumophila sg1 transmission occurred from the cooling towers; in addition, L. longbeachae transmission was suggested but remains unproven. L. longbeachae detection in cooling towers has not been previously reported in association with legionellosis outbreaks. Waterborne transmission should not be discounted in investigations for the source of L. longbeachae infection.
There is a lack of evidence pointing to the efficacy of any specific psychotherapy for adults with anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of this study was to compare three psychological treatments for AN: Specialist Supportive Clinical Management, Maudsley Model Anorexia Nervosa Treatment for Adults and Enhanced Cognitive Behavioural Therapy.
A multi-centre randomised controlled trial was conducted with outcomes assessed at pre-, mid- and post-treatment, and 6- and 12-month follow-up by researchers blind to treatment allocation. All analyses were intention-to-treat. One hundred and twenty individuals meeting diagnostic criteria for AN were recruited from outpatient treatment settings in three Australian cities and offered 25–40 sessions over a 10-month period. Primary outcomes were body mass index (BMI) and eating disorder psychopathology. Secondary outcomes included depression, anxiety, stress and psychosocial impairment.
Treatment was completed by 60% of participants and 52.5% of the total sample completed 12-month follow-up. Completion rates did not differ between treatments. There were no significant differences between treatments on continuous outcomes; all resulted in clinically significant improvements in BMI, eating disorder psychopathology, general psychopathology and psychosocial impairment that were maintained over follow-up. There were no significant differences between treatments with regard to the achievement of a healthy weight (mean = 50%) or remission (mean = 28.3%) at 12-month follow-up.
The findings add to the evidence base for these three psychological treatments for adults with AN, but the results underscore the need for continued efforts to improve outpatient treatments for this disorder.
The beef industry must become more responsive to the changing market place and consumer demands. An essential part of this is quantifying a consumer’s perception of the eating quality of beef and their willingness to pay for that quality, across a broad range of demographics. Over 19 000 consumers from Northern Ireland, Poland, Ireland and France each tasted seven beef samples and scored them for tenderness, juiciness, flavour liking and overall liking. These scores were weighted and combined to create a fifth score, termed the Meat Quality 4 score (MQ4) (0.3×tenderness, 0.1×juiciness, 0.3×flavour liking and 0.3×overall liking). They also allocated the beef samples into one of four quality grades that best described the sample; unsatisfactory, good-every-day, better-than-every-day or premium. After the completion of the tasting panel, consumers were then asked to detail, in their own currency, their willingness to pay for these four categories which was subsequently converted to a proportion relative to the good-every-day category (P-WTP). Consumers also answered a short demographic questionnaire. The four sensory scores, the MQ4 score and the P-WTP were analysed separately, as dependant variables in linear mixed effects models. The answers from the demographic questionnaire were included in the model as fixed effects. Overall, there were only small differences in consumer scores and P-WTP between demographic groups. Consumers who preferred their beef cooked medium or well-done scored beef higher, except in Poland, where the opposite trend was found. This may be because Polish consumers were more likely to prefer their beef cooked well-done, but samples were cooked medium for this group. There was a small positive relationship with the importance of beef in the diet, increasing sensory scores by about 4% in Poland and Northern Ireland. Men also scored beef about 2% higher than women for most sensory scores in most countries. In most countries, consumers were willing to pay between 150 and 200% more for premium beef, and there was a 50% penalty in value for unsatisfactory beef. After quality grade, by far the greatest influence on P-WTP was country of origin. Consumer age also had a small negative relationship with P-WTP. The results indicate that a single quality score could reliably describe the eating quality experienced by all consumers. In addition, if reliable quality information is delivered to consumers they will pay more for better quality beef, which would add value to the beef industry and encourage improvements in quality.
Velocity and strain-rate patterns in a small temperate valley glacier display flow effects of channel geometry, ice thickness, surface slope, and ablation. Surface velocities of 20–55 m/year show year-to-year fluctuations of 1.5–3 m/year. Transverse profiles of velocity have the form of a higher-order parabola modified by the effects of flow around a broad bend in the channel, which makes the velocity profile asymmetric, with maximum velocity displaced toward the outside of the bend. Marginal sliding rates are 5–22 m/year against bedrock and nil against debris. Velocity vectors diverge from the glacier center-line near the terminus, in response to surface ice loss, but converge toward it near the firn line because of channel narrowing. Plunge of the vectors gives an emergence flow component that falls short of balancing ice loss by about 1 m/year. Center-line velocities vary systematically with ice thickness and surface slope. In the upper half of the reach studied, effects of changing thickness and slope tend to compensate, and velocities are nearly constant; in the lower half, the effects are cumulative and velocities decrease progressively down-stream. Where the slope increases down-stream from 7° to 9°, reflecting a bedrock step, there is localized longitudinal extension of 0.03 year–1 followed by compression of 0.08 year–1 where the slope decreases. Marginal shear (up to 0.5 year–1) is strongly asymmetric due to flow around the bend: the stress center-line, where one of the principal axes becomes longitudinal, is displaced 150 m toward the inside of the bend. This effect is prominently visible in the crevasse pattern. Ice fluxes calculated independently by “laminar” flow theory and by continuity disagree in a way which shows that internal deformation of the ice is controlled not by local surface slope but by an effective slope that is nearly constant over the reach studied.
Quantifying consumer responses to beef across a broad range of demographics, nationalities and cooking methods is vitally important for any system evaluating beef eating quality. On the basis of previous work, it was expected that consumer scores would be highly accurate in determining quality grades for beef, thereby providing evidence that such a technique could be used to form the basis of and eating quality grading system for beef. Following the Australian MSA (Meat Standards Australia) testing protocols, over 19 000 consumers from Northern Ireland, Poland, Ireland, France and Australia tasted cooked beef samples, then allocated them to a quality grade; unsatisfactory, good-every-day, better-than-every-day and premium. The consumers also scored beef samples for tenderness, juiciness, flavour-liking and overall-liking. The beef was sourced from all countries involved in the study and cooked by four different cooking methods and to three different degrees of doneness, with each experimental group in the study consisting of a single cooking doneness within a cooking method for each country. For each experimental group, and for the data set as a whole, a linear discriminant function was calculated, using the four sensory scores which were used to predict the quality grade. This process was repeated using two conglomerate scores which are derived from weighting and combining the consumer sensory scores for tenderness, juiciness, flavour-liking and overall-liking, the original meat quality 4 score (oMQ4) (0.4, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3) and current meat quality 4 score (cMQ4) (0.3, 0.1, 0.3, 0.3). From the results of these analyses, the optimal weightings of the sensory scores to generate an ‘ideal meat quality 4 score (MQ4)’ for each country were calculated, and the MQ4 values that reflected the boundaries between the four quality grades were determined. The oMQ4 weightings were far more accurate in categorising European meat samples than the cMQ4 weightings, highlighting that tenderness is more important than flavour to the consumer when determining quality. The accuracy of the discriminant analysis to predict the consumer scored quality grades was similar across all consumer groups, 68%, and similar to previously reported values. These results demonstrate that this technique, as used in the MSA system, could be used to predict consumer assessment of beef eating quality and therefore to underpin a commercial eating quality guarantee for all European consumers.
Effects of plant maturity on apparent ruminal synthesis and post-ruminal supply of B vitamins were evaluated in two feeding trials. Diets containing alfalfa (Trial 1) or orchardgrass (Trial 2) silages harvested either (1) early cut, less mature (EC) or (2) late cut, more mature (LC) as the sole forage were offered to ruminally and duodenally cannulated lactating Holstein cows in crossover design experiments. In Trial 1, conducted with 16 cows (569±43 kg of empty BW (ruminal content removed) and 43.7±8.6 kg/day of 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield; mean±SD) in two 17-day treatment periods, both diets provided ~22% forage NDF and 27% total NDF, and the forage-to-concentrate ratios were 53 : 47 and 42 : 58 for EC and LC, respectively. In Trial 2, conducted with 13 cows (588±55 kg of empty BW and 43.7±7.7 kg/day of 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield; mean±SD) in two 18-day treatment periods, both diets provided ~25% forage NDF and 31% total NDF; the forage-to-concentrate ratios were 58 : 42 and 46 : 54 for EC and LC, respectively. Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folates and vitamin B12 were measured in feed and duodenal content. Apparent ruminal synthesis was calculated as the duodenal flow minus the intake. Diets based on EC alfalfa decreased the amounts of thiamin, niacin and folates reaching the duodenum, whereas diets based on EC orchardgrass increased riboflavin duodenal flow. Daily apparent ruminal synthesis of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin and vitamin B6 were correlated negatively with their intake, suggesting a microbial regulation of their concentration in the rumen. Vitamin B12 apparent ruminal synthesis was correlated negatively with total volatile fatty acids concentration, but positively with ruminal pH and microbial N duodenal flow.