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Charge Exchange (CEX) ion is the main factor causing the plume pollution. The distribution of CEX ions is determined by the distribution of beam ions and neutral atoms. Hence, the primary problem in the study of the plume is how to accurately simulate the distribution of beam ions and neutral atoms. At present, the most commonly used model utilised for the plume simulation is the analytical model proposed by Roy for the plume simulation of the NASA Solar Technology Application Readiness (NSTAR) ion thruster. However, this analytical model can only be applied to the ion beam with small divergence angles. In addition, the analytical model is no longer applicable to the simulation for the plume of a new type of ion thruster that appeared recently, which is called the annular ion thruster. In this paper, a 3D particle model is proposed for the plume simulation of ion thrusters consisting of the particle model for beam ions, the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) model for neutral atoms and the Immersed Finite Element-Particle In Cell-Monte Carlo Collision (IFE-PIC-MCC) model for CEX ions. Then, the plume of the NSTAR ion thruster is simulated by both Roy's model and the 3D particle model. The simulation results of both models are then compared with the experimental results. It is shown that the numerical results of the 3D particle model agree well with those of the analytical model and the experimental data. And this 3D particle model can also be used for other electric thrusters.
The nonlinear dynamics of energetic-particle (EP) driven geodesic acoustic modes (EGAM) is investigated here. A numerical analysis with the global gyrokinetic particle-in-cell code ORB5 is performed, and the results are interpreted with the analytical theory, in close comparison with the theory of the beam-plasma instability. Only axisymmetric modes are considered, with a nonlinear dynamics determined by wave–particle interaction. Quadratic scalings of the saturated electric field with respect to the linear growth rate are found for the case of interest. As a main result, the formula for the saturation level is provided. Near the saturation, we observe a transition from adiabatic to non-adiabatic dynamics, i.e. the frequency chirping rate becomes comparable to the resonant EP bounce frequency. The numerical analysis is performed here with electrostatic simulations with circular flux surfaces, and kinetic effects of the electrons are neglected.
We have observed a young stellar object, IRAS 18360-0537, with a far-infrared luminosity of 1.2 × 105 L⊙. It is perhaps the most promising candidate of a high-mass protostar associated with a Keplerian disk and a jet/outflow system in the regime of L > 105L⊙. We are conducting the SMA, VLA, and VLBA studies to provide a comprehensive understanding of this interesting high mass star formation scenario.
The research on the high resolution image reconstruction has been carried out at the Yunnan Observatory, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, since 1983. At the early stage in 1983–1987, our research was concentrated on the Speckle Interferometry. The first developed speckle camera for using the film as the recording medium was made up of an intensifier with a gain of 57,000 and an SB-408-B oscilloscope camera. In May, 1985, 144 speckle interferograms of the binary ζBoo and the unresolved single star 32 Boo apiece were obtained with the speckle camera attached to the 1-M Rcc telescope, and the average power spectrum of ζBoo was then acquired by means of the Optical Fourier Transformation. Soon afterwords, the optical couple of the intensifier to a RCA CCD(320×512 pixels) through a lens was used to replace the film and the oscilloscope camera, thereby making an improvement on the detectability up to 7m from 4m. In December, 1986 the improved camera attached to 1-M telescope was used to observe three binary stars, i.e. Kui23, Σ73 and Σ346AB. The speckle interferograms were processed with a computer and angular seperations of these binaries were obtained approximate to the diffraction-limited resolution of the telescope.
As an industrialized city, Hong Kong annually consumes a large amount of fossil fuel. In addition, the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant in Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, has just begun operation 20 km from Hong Kong. These factors suggest that it may be appropriate and significant to examine the variation of atmospheric 14C levels in Hong Kong. We have collected and tested a variety of samples from different parts of Hong Kong: terrestrial annual grasses, marine plants and atmospheric CO2. We measured their 14C activity and compared it with that of cassia oil samples from Guangxi Province, China. The values obtained indicate that environmental 14C levels in the Hong Kong region agree with those found in Guangxi, both of which are significantly higher than the levels predicted by Povinec, Chudý and Šivo (1986).
Rumination is an important cognitive risk factor for onset and relapse of depression. However, no studies have employed a dimensional approach in investigating the neural correlates of rumination and the relationship with depression.
Non-clinical healthy subjects (n = 306), who completed the classical rumination and depression scales, were studied using voxel-based morphometry and regional homogeneity (ReHo). Subsequently, mediation analysis was conducted to examine the influence of rumination on the relationship between brain structure and depression. Moreover, depressive patients (n = 60) and a control group (n = 63) of comparable age and education were studied with regions of interest that were identified in the healthy individuals.
For healthy individuals, regional grey-matter volume (rGMV) of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and parahippocampal gyrus (PHG) were positively correlated with rumination. In addition, rumination had a mediating effect on the relationship between the DLPFC and PHG and depression. Moreover, ReHo analysis showed that rumination had a significantly negative correlation with functional homogeneity of DLPFC. However, compared to the control group, depressed patients showed significant decrease of rGMV in the DLPFC and PHG and there was a significant negative correlation between DLPFC volume and depressive rumination.
Increased DLPFC volume (decreased ReHo) in healthy individuals while decreased in depression indicated the trend of DLPFC from inefficient inhibition (‘overload state’) to impaired regulatory mechanism (‘paralysis state’). This finding might elucidate when and why healthy individuals would develop sustained negative mood and depression eventually.
Early life environments interact with genotype to determine stable phenotypic outcomes. Here we examined the influence of a variant in the brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) gene (Val66Met), which underlies synaptic plasticity throughout the central nervous system, on the degree to which antenatal maternal anxiety associated with neonatal DNA methylation. We also examined the association between neonatal DNA methylation and brain substructure volume, as a function of BDNF genotype. Infant, but not maternal, BDNF genotype dramatically influences the association of antenatal anxiety on the epigenome at birth as well as that between the epigenome and neonatal brain structure. There was a greater impact of antenatal maternal anxiety on the DNA methylation of infants with the methionine (Met)/Met compared to both Met/valine (Val) and Val/Val genotypes. There were significantly more cytosine–phosphate–guanine sites where methylation levels covaried with right amygdala volume among Met/Met compared with both Met/Val and Val/Val carriers. In contrast, more cytosine–phosphate–guanine sites covaried with left hippocampus volume in Val/Val infants compared with infants of the Met/Val or Met/Met genotype. Thus, antenatal Maternal Anxiety × BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism interactions at the level of the epigenome are reflected differently in the structure of the amygdala and the hippocampus. These findings suggest that BDNF genotype regulates the sensitivity of the methylome to early environment and that differential susceptibility to specific environmental conditions may be both tissue and function specific.
In the eastern Tibetan plateau both human cystic and alveolar echinococcosis (AE) caused by infection with Echincoccus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis, respectively are highly endemic. The domestic dog plays a key role in zoonotic transmission in this region. Our primary objective was to investigate the role of domestic dogs in maintaining transmission of E. multilocularis in Shiqu county, Sichuan. A cohort of 281 dogs was followed up over one year after a single treatment with praziquantel followed by re-infection surveillance at 2, 5 and 12 months post-treatment. Faecal samples were tested by an Echinococcus genus-specific coproantigen ELISA and two species-specific copro-PCR tests. Total Echinococcus coproantigen prevalence in Shiqu at baseline was 21% and 9·6% after 2 months. E. multilocularis copro-PCR was positive in 11·2% of dogs before treatment (vs 3·6% with E. granulosus copro-DNA), 2·9% at 2 months post-treatment, and 0% at 5 month and 12 months. The results suggest that dogs may have the potential to maintain E. multilocularis transmission within local pastoral communities, and thus dog dosing could be an effective strategy to reduce transmission of E. multilocularis as well as E. granulosus in these co-endemic Tibetan communities.
Magnetostriction and thin film stress have been studied in high moment single layer FeTaN films deposited by high rate reactive dc magnetron sputtering. Low Magnetostriction (Magnitude less than 1 × 10-6) can be obtained over a fairly large range of nitrogen flow rates during film deposition by vacuum annealing at 500°C. After annealing at 500°C for two hours, all films were found to be in a state of tensile stress. Stress versus temperature measurements up to 400°C show film stress in as-deposited films to be highly hysteretic during the first temperature cycle reflecting the films' processing history. Stress-temperature cycles on annealed samples indicate that extremely stable films are produced in an intermediate range of nitrogen content.
High Moment single layer FeTaN films with excellent soft magnetic properties have been grown by high rate reactive dc magnetron sputtering. The best combination of properties (easy and hard axis coercivities < 1 Oe, saturation Magnetization > 1650 emu/cc, anisotropy field of 5 Oe, and initial permeability of 4800) are found in films containing ∼3.2 a/O Ta and ∼7.5 a/o N after 400°C annealing in a 200 Oe dc field for two hours. These properties are associated with a single phase, random, nanocrystalline structure consisting of a-Fe crystallites (grain size of ∼ 100Å) whose lattice is expanded by both Ta and N.
Teflon amorphous fluoropolymer (TAF) multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) suspensions have the potential for creating conductive coatings on insulating films for numerous applications. However, there are few studies on polymer MWCNT suspension properties and even fewer that use Teflon. To define mechanical and electrical property relationships, bilayer films of TAF-MWCNT were created with differing concentrations of MWCNTs. Nanoindentation revealed that addition of 8 wt% MWCNTs to TAF increased the elastic modulus by about 25% and hardness by about 15%. Conducting indentation showed 8 wt% MWCNT films exhibit uniform stable conductance once indentation depth exceeds several hundred nanometers. Films with lower concentrations of CNTs were insulating. The two techniques provide a unique description of structure property relationships in this suspension film system.
On the Eastern Tibetan Plateau region (Sichuan province, China) dogs are regarded as important definitive hosts of Echinococcus multilocularis. We studied dog spatial behaviour in 4 Tibetan villages in order to determine the role of dogs in environmental contamination and their potential interactions with small mammal intermediate hosts. We identified definitive host species and Echinococcus spp. infection status of feces collected in the field by PCR methods and analysed the spatial distribution of canid feces. Nocturnal space utilization of GPS collared dogs in and around villages was also undertaken. E. multilocularis DNA was amplified in 23% of dog feces (n=142) and in 15% of fox feces (n=13) but this difference was not significant. However, dog feces were more frequently observed (78% of collected feces) than fox feces and are therefore assumed to largely contribute to human environment contamination. Feces were mainly distributed around houses of dog owners (0–200 m) where collared dogs spent the majority of their time. Inside villages, the contamination was aggregated in some micro-foci where groups of dogs defecated preferentially. Finally, small mammal densities increased from the dog core areas to grasslands at the periphery of villages occasionally used by dogs; male dogs moving significantly farther than females. This study constitutes a first attempt to quantify in a spatially explicit way the role of dogs in E. multilocularis peri-domestic cycles and to identify behavioural parameters required to model E. multilocularis transmission in this region.
Experiments of the return current post installed X-pinches were carried out on the 1-MA “QiangGuang-1” facility with the purpose of understanding X-pinch characteristics under this setup and establishing X-pinch backlighting diagnostics for the wire-array Z-pinches. Different wire-array loads along with the two-wire 30 µm Mo X-pinch backlighter were tested. The X-pinches emit the X-ray radiation with the burst time variation of ± 4 ns and the bright spot size of ~30 µm. X-ray backlighting shadowgraphy images of the over-mass and radiation-suppressed Z-pinch wire array were obtained.
Multilayers of Fe(100)/Ag(100) were grown by MBE and analyzed with in situ RHEED and MÖssbauer spectroscopy. These films had a constant Ag layer thickness of 40 monolayers (ML) and varying Fe layer thicknesses of 3, 6, and 9 ML. Using MÖssbauer spectroscopy the presence of three Fe sites was inferred. From considerations of the hyperflne parameters and the relative intensities of the sextets, we assign one site to the bulk, and one to each interface: Fe on Ag and Ag on Fe. We believe that one explanation of this is differing tetragonal distortions at the two interfaces. Consequently, another series of films was grown in an attempt to distinguish these sites. These films were essentially identical to the 9 ML film above, but the Fe layers were composed of 56Fe, with a 2 ML 57Fe probe layer effused at the bulk and at each interface in turn. At this point 57Fe MÖssbauer spectroscopy was used to determine the hyperfine field and its temperature dependence for each of the three sites.
Free and bound exciton luminescences as well as donor-acceptor pair recombination of GaN epitaxial layers on 6H-SiC and sapphire substrates were investigated using time integrated and time resolved photoluminescence measurements at low temperatures. Lifetimes are determined for the donor bound exciton at 3.4722eV and for two acceptor bound excitons with energies of 3.4672eV and 3.459eV. Luminescences between 3.29eV and 3.37eV are identified as due to excitons deeply bound to centers located near the substrate-epilayer interface.
Two series of Fe/Ag multilayers were grown in a Perkin-Elmer 430B MBE system, one of the Fe(110)/Ag(lll) orientation and another of the Fe(100)/Ag(100) orientation. Vastly different techniques were developed by this group and others to achieve epitaxial growth of both of these systems. Using RHEED, it was inferred that the optimal growth of Fe(110) on Ag(lll) occurred at a substrate temperature of 180° C. In contrast, the growth of Fe(lO0)/Ag(100) proceeded with the sharpest RHEED streaks at a reduced substrate temperature. We believe that these fundamentally different growth parameters are the result of physically different growth modes, conjectured to be: edge growth (Fe 110), and a more nucleated growth (Fe 100).
Accordingly, dissimilar magnetic interfacial properties are also strongly in evidence, accounted for by the structural differences associated with the different Fe planes. Furthermore, Fe(110) layers as thin as 3 ML were grown on Ag(lll) and showed no superparamagnetism and a genuine 2-dimensional behavior of M(T). However, the Fe(100) on Ag(100) multilayers in a similar thickness range exhibited strong relaxation and a comparatively reduced Curie temperature.
We have grown a series of Fe(110)/Ag(111)/Fe(110) sandwich structures using a PHI 430B MBE system and analyzed their magnetic properties using transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy. The heterostructures consisted of two 30-monolayer (ML) 56Fe(110) slabs separated by an intervening Ag(111) layer 2 to 35 ML thick, with a 2 ML 57Fe Mössbauer probe layer placed at one of the Fe/Ag interfaces. We found that temperature dependence of the hyperfine field in the probe layer and the saturation hyperfine field value as well stronly depend on the Ag interlayer thickness. This result demonstrates that there exists an interlayer magnetic exchange interaction between the Fe layers across Ag. In addition, preliminary evidence suggests that this is probably an RKKY interaction.
Nanocrytslline composite films of Ag-Mo and Ag-Ni have been made by a co-deposition technique in UHV. The structure and composition have been studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). For practical applications, the friction coefficient and wear rate were measured using a pin-on-plate machine for Ag-Mo composites deposited on steel. For fundamental studies, the hardness of the Ag-Ni composites deposited on oxidized Si wafers was measured using a nanoindenter. Experiments show that (1) reduction of friction and wear rate can be achieved using these nanocomposite coatings and (2) the hardness of the nanocomposites depends on the grain size. As the grain size of the Ag decreases from 100 to 10 nm, the hardness increases about 4 times.
A variety of recent measurements has shown that the phase diagrams of Langmuir monolayers of relatively simple amphiphiles such as fatty acids and their methyl and ethyl esters are remarkably complex. Nine condensed phases have been identified; their structures can be related to those of known smectic phases. A key distinction between phases is the orientation of the molecular tilt azimuth with respect to the local hexagonal order of the head groups. When monolayers are examined by fluorescence microscopy, regions of uniform tilt can be observed if the exciting radiation is polarized with respect to the surface normal. The tilt regions form patterns similar to those observed in freely suspended films of smectic liquid crystals. The patterns can be changed by compressing the film and by changing the temperature. Transitions between different phases can be observed.