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Knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of the population regarding severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) in endemic areas of Lu'an in China were assessed before and after an intervention programme. The pre-intervention phase was conducted using a sample of 425 participants from the 12 selected villages with the highest rates of endemic SFTS infection. A predesigned interview questionnaire was used to assess KAP. Subsequently, an intervention programme was designed and applied in the selected villages. KAP was re-assessed for each population in the selected villages using the same interview questionnaire. Following 2 months of the programme, 339 participants had completed the re-assessed survey. The impact of the intervention programme was evaluated using suitable statistical methods. A significant increase in the KAP and total KAP scores was noted following the intervention programme, whereas the proportion of correct knowledge, the positive attitudes and the effective practices toward SFTS of respondents increased significantly. The intervention programme was effective in improving KAP level of SFTS in populations that were resident in endemic areas.
A 40.9 m ice core was recovered from Far East Rongbuk Glacier (FER), Qomolangma (Mount Everest), Himalaya, and an 80.4 m core from neighboring East Rongbuk Glacier (ER). Both are dated by seasonal variations of δ18O and major-ionic profiles, together with references of β-activity peaks. In this paper we compare the chemical records of these two cores to show post-depositional modification processes. The smoothed β18O profiles of the two cores show a similar trend. However, the mean β18O value of the FER core for the period 1954—96 is 3.12%o less than that of the corresponding part of the ER core, and the major-ionic profiles of the two cores differ considerably. We suggest that melting-away of the snow layer deposited during the pre-monsoon season may account for lower β18O values of the FER than of the ER core, and higher terrestrial ion concentrations in the FER core for the period 1957-63 may contribute to changes by chemical reactions in the presence of snowmelting. The significantly decreased NH4 and, to a lesser degree, SO42 concentrations in the FER core could be caused by the ion elution process that moved most chemicals away with runoff.
A 36C1 peak has been found at about 37 ka BP in the Guliya ice core, drilled from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. This peak is indicative of enhanced cosmogenic isotope production in the atmosphere, rather than a change in accumulation rate. Comparison with the records of 10Be and 36C1 in ice cores from Antarctica and Greenland indicates that peaks of the cosmogenic isotopes are global, and that they can be used as time markers for dating ice cores. Interestingly, the 37 ka BP global event coincided with a cold period.
High-resolution chemical records from an 80.4m ice core from the central Himalaya demonstrate climatic and environmental changes since 1844. the chronological net accumulation series shows a sharp decrease from the mid-1950s, which is coincident with the widely observed glacier retreat. A negative correlation is found between the ice-core δ18O record and the monsoon precipitation for Indian region 7. the temporal variation of the terrestrial ions (Ca2+ and Mg2+) is controlled by both the monsoon precipitation for Indian regions 3,7 and 8, located directly south and west of the Himalaya, and the dust-storm duration and frequency in the northern arid regions, such as the Taklimakan desert, China. the NH4+ profile is fairly flat until the 1940s, then substantially increases until the end of the 1980s, with a slight decrease during the 1990s which may reflect new agricultural practices. the SO42– and NO3– profiles show an apparent increasing trend, especially during the period 1940s–80s. Moreover, SO42– concentrations for the East Rongbuk Glacier core are roughly double that of the nearby Dasuopu core at Xixabangma, Himalaya, due to local human activity including that of climbing teams who use gasoline for cooking, energy and transport.
An updated compilation of published and new data of major-ion (Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na, NO3, SO4) and methylsulfonate (MS) concentrations in snow from 520 Antarctic sites is provided by the national ITASE (International Trans-Antarctic Scientific Expedition) programmes of Australia, Brazil, China, Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, Norway, the United Kingdom, the United States and the national Antarctic programme of Finland. The comparison shows that snow chemistry concentrations vary by up to four orders of magnitude across Antarctica and exhibit distinct geographical patterns. The Antarctic-wide comparison of glaciochemical records provides a unique opportunity to improve our understanding of the fundamental factors that ultimately control the chemistry of snow or ice samples. This paper aims to initiate data compilation and administration in order to provide a framework for facilitation of Antarctic-wide snow chemistry discussions across all ITASE nations and other contributing groups. The data are made available through the ITASE web page (http://www2.umaine.edu/itase/content/syngroups/snowchem.html) and will be updated with new data as they are provided. In addition, recommendations for future research efforts are summarized.
Comparison of the terminus locations of Rongbuk Glacier, Mount Everest, measured in 1966 and 1997 shows that in the past 30 years the glacier has retreated 170–270 m equivalent to a retreat speed of 5.5–8.7 m a–1 . During summer 1997, a 15 m firn core was recovered from Dasuopu glacier (28°23’ N, 85°44’ E; 7000 m a.s.D on the northwest margin of Xixabangma Feng, Xizang (Tibet). The seasonal variations of δ18O values in the core indicate that monsoon signals are clearly recorded in the glacier. δ18O values are controlled by the amount effect in the monsoon season; more negative δ18O is representative of the monsoon season in snow layers. Analysis of the relationship between ice-core δ18O, sampled from 6500 m a.s.l. on the north side of Mount Everest, and instrumental series representing regional-scale precipitation, atmospheric circulation and temperature suggests a change in the relative influence of these parameters on δ18O since the 1940s. The results of the comparison add to and lengthen the sparse array of instrument data available for the Tibetan (Qinghai-Xizang) Plateau and demonstrate a recent decline in moisture flux for at least the southern part of the plateau. Glacier retreat, associated with a recent increase in temperature in the region, is coincident with this period of decreased moisture flux.
During summer 1997, a 15 m firn core was recovered from Dasuopu glacier (28°23′ N, 85°44′ E; 7000 m a.s.l.) on the northwest margin of Xixabarngma Feng in the central Himalaya. Oxygen isotope values and concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4+, SO42− and NO3− were measured over the 10 years of snow accumulation captured in the firn core. The seasonal variations of δ18O values and major-ion concentrations in the Dasuopu core indicate that summer monsoon and dust signals are clearly recorded in Dasuopu glacier. Annual variations in δ18O values are controlled by the amount effect, with more negative (i.e. lighter) δ18O values representing summer monsoon precipitation characteristic of tropical regions. Higher concentrations of Ca2+, Mg2+ and SO42− reflect the influx of mineral aerosols from the vast arid and semi-arid desert regions to the north and west during the spring dust-storm period. High spring concentrations of NH4+ and NO3− appear to reflect changes in regional biogenic-source strength.
We investigated the first presence of qnrA among Shigella sonnei clinical isolates in Jiangsu Province, China. The qnrA-positive isolates coexisted with the mutation in gyrA at codon 83, these isolates were resistant to nalidixic acid and 22·2% (2 of 9) of them were resistant to norfloxacin.
Psychosocial therapy after deliberate self-harm might be associated with reduced risk of specific causes of death.
In this matched cohort study, we included patients, who after an episode of deliberate self-harm received psychosocial therapy at a Suicide Prevention Clinic in Denmark between 1992 and 2010. We used propensity score matching in a 1:3 ratio to select a comparison group from 59 046 individuals who received standard care. National Danish registers supplied data on specific causes of death over a 20-year follow-up period.
At the end of follow-up, 391 (6.9%) of 5678 patients in the psychosocial therapy group had died, compared with 1736 (10.2%) of 17 034 patients in the matched comparison group. Lower odds ratios of dying by mental or behavioural disorders [0.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37–0.79], alcohol-related causes (0.63, 95% CI 0.50–0.80) and other diseases and medical conditions (0.61, 95% CI 0.49–0.77) were noted in the psychosocial therapy group. Also, we found a reduced risk of dying by suicide as well as other external causes, however, not by neoplasms and circulatory system diseases. Numbers needed to treat were 212.9 (95% CI 139.5–448.4) for mental or behavioural disorders as a cause of death, 111.1 (95% CI 79.2–210.5) for alcohol-related causes and 96.8 (95% CI 69.1–161.8) for other diseases and medical conditions.
Our findings indicate that psychosocial therapy after deliberate self-harm might reduce long-term risk of death from select medical conditions and external causes. These promising results should be tested in a randomized design.
Through-Silicon-Via (TSV) is considered to be the most potential solution for 3D electronic packaging, and the mechanical properties of TSV-Cu are critical for TSV reliability improving. In this paper, to make deeply understand the creep behavior of TSV-Cu, nanoindentation creep tests were conducted to obtain its creep parameters. At first, the TSV specimens were fabricated by means of a typical TSV manufacturing process. Then a combination programmable procedure of the constant indentation strain rate method and the constant load method was employed to study the creep behavior of TSV-Cu. To understand the influence of the previous loading schemes, including the different values of the indentation strain and the maximum depths, the nanoindentation creep tests under different loading conditions were conducted. The values of creep strain rate sensitivity m were derived from the corresponding displacement-holding time curves, and the mean value of m finally determined was 0.0149. The value of m is considered no obvious correlation with the different indentation strain rates and the maximum depths by this method. Furthermore, the mechanism for the room temperature creep was also discussed, and the grain boundaries might play an significant role in this creep behavior.
At the end of 2013, China reported a countrywide outbreak of measles. From January to May 2014, we investigated the clinical and immunological features of the cases of the outbreak admitted to our hospital. In this study, all 112 inpatients with clinically diagnosed measles were recruited from the 302 Military Hospital of China. The virus was isolated from throat swabs from these patients, and cytokine profiles were examined. By detecting the measles virus of 30 of the 112 patients, we found that this measles outbreak was of the H1 genotype, which is the major strain in China. The rates of complications, specifically pneumonia and liver injury, differed significantly in patients aged <8 months, 8 months to 18 years, and >18 years: pneumonia was more common in children, while liver injury was more common in adults. Pneumonia was a significant independent risk factor affecting measles duration. Compared to healthy subjects, measles patients had fewer CD4+IL-17+, CD4+IFN-γ+, and CD8+IFN-γ+ cells in both the acute and recovery phases. In contrast, measles patients in the acute phase had more CD8+IL-22+ cells than those in recovery or healthy subjects. We recommend that future studies focus on the age-related distribution of pneumonia and liver injury as measles-related complications as well as the association between immunological markers and measles prognosis.
Dentinogenesis imperfecta type II (DGI-II) lacks intrafibrillar mineral with severe compromise of dentin mechanical properties. A Dspp knockout (Dspp–/–) mouse, with a phenotype similar to that of human DGI-II, was used to determine if poly-L-aspartic acid [poly(ASP)] in the “polymer-induced liquid-precursor” (PILP) system can restore its mechanical properties. Dentin from six-week old Dspp–/– and wild-type mice was treated with CaP solution containing poly(ASP) for up to 14 days. Elastic modulus and hardness before and after treatment were correlated with mineralization from Micro x-ray computed tomography (Micro-XCT). Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)/Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) were used to compare matrix mineralization and crystallography. Mechanical properties of the Dspp–/– dentin were significantly less than wild-type dentin and recovered significantly (P < 0.05) after PILP-treatment, reaching values comparable to wild-type dentin. Micro-XCT showed mineral recovery similar to wild-type dentin after PILP-treatment. TEM/SAED showed repair of patchy mineralization and complete mineralization of defective dentin. This approach may lead to new strategies for hard tissue repair.
In this study, Vickers indentation was used to investigate the two-way shape-memory effect (TWSME) in an austenitic Ti-50.9 at.% Ni alloy, exposed to different heat treatments. Three aging treatments were used to manipulate the size of Ti3Ni4 precipitates. All samples were Vickers indented, and the indent depth was investigated as function of thermal cycling. The TWSME was found only in the material aged at 400 °C, which contained coherent precipitates. Thermal cycling shows stable TWSME, however, heating well above the austenite finish temperature lead to permanent austenitic protrusions. The results indicate that stabilized martensite plays a critical role in creating TWSME surfaces.
A microcompressor is a precision mechanical device that flattens and immobilizes living cells and small organisms for optical microscopy, allowing enhanced visualization of sub-cellular structures and organelles. We have developed an easily fabricated device, which can be equipped with microfluidics, permitting the addition of media or chemicals during observation. This device can be used on both upright and inverted microscopes. The apparatus permits micrometer precision flattening for nondestructive immobilization of specimens as small as a bacterium, while also accommodating larger specimens, such as Caenorhabditis elegans, for long-term observations. The compressor mount is removable and allows easy specimen addition and recovery for later observation. Several customized specimen beds can be incorporated into the base. To demonstrate the capabilities of the device, we have imaged numerous cellular events in several protozoan species, in yeast cells, and in Drosophila melanogaster embryos. We have been able to document previously unreported events, and also perform photobleaching experiments, in conjugating Tetrahymena thermophila.
A model for acidity within pores within corrosion products on anodically-dissolving UO2 was developed using Comsol Multiphysics 3.2 to complement ongoing electrochemical measurements. It was determined that a depression of pH within pores can be maintained if: electrochemically measured dissolution currents used in the calculations are attenuated to reflect very localized pores; corrosion potentials exceed -250 mV (vs. SCE); and pore depths are > 1 μm for 300 mV or >100 μm for -50 mV (vs. SCE). Mixed diffusional-chemical equilibria control is suggested through deviations in the shapes between pH-potential and pH-pore depth plots.
This paper reviews our works about the development of thin composite film based on aligned carbon nanotubes (CNT) forest, embedded in epoxy or PMMA polymer matrix, in order to fabricate membranes dedicated to water purification issue. Indeed, the small internal radius of nanotubes, the smoothness of their inner core and the hydrophobic properties of its interna surface induce remarkable flowing properties for water molecules. In this article, thinnin technology process is investigated to obtain composite film with opened CNT. Different etching techniques as grinding, Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP) and isotropic plasma O2ar investigated in term of etching rate and membrane roughness, using AFM and SEM characterizations. Results show CMP process in lapping configuration permits to obtain agreement between high etching rate and membrane roughness. Moreover, to improve water flowing through membrane, O2plasma treatment is used to remove polymer residue spread over CNT. Joint use of lapping and plasma treatment permits to obtain 35μm-thick nanoporous membrane with well-opened protruding nanotubes.
DNA Computing is a rapidly-developing interdisciplinary area which could benefit from more experimental results to solve problems with the current biological tools. In this study, we have integrated microelectronics and molecular biology techniques for showing the feasibility of Hopfield Neural Network using DNA molecules. Adleman’s seminal paper in 1994 showed that DNA strands using specific molecular reactions can be used to solve the Hamiltonian Path Problem. This accomplishment opened the way for possibilities of massively parallel processing power, remarkable energy efficiency and compact data storage ability with DNA. However, in various studies, small departures from the ideal selectivity of DNA hybridization lead to significant undesired pairings of strands and that leads to difficulties in schemes for implementing large Boolean functions using DNA. Therefore, these error prone reactions in the Boolean architecture of the first DNA computers will benefit from fault tolerance or error correction methods and these methods would be essential for large scale applications. In this study, we demonstrate the operation of six dimensional Hopfield associative memory storing various memories as an archetype fault tolerant neural network implemented using DNA molecular reactions. The response of the network suggests that the protocols could be scaled to a network of significantly larger dimensions. In addition the results are read on a Silicon CMOS platform exploiting the semiconductor processing knowledge for fast and accurate hybridization rates.