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Elevated lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is associated with CVD and is mainly genetically determined. Studies suggest a role of dietary fatty acids (FA) in the regulation of Lp(a); however, no studies have investigated the association between plasma Lp(a) concentration and n-6 FA. We aimed to investigate whether plasma Lp(a) concentration was associated with dietary n-6 FA intake and plasma levels of arachidonic acid (AA) in subjects with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). We included FH subjects with (n 68) and without (n 77) elevated Lp(a) defined as ≥75 nmol/l and healthy subjects (n 14). Total FA profile was analysed by GC–flame ionisation detector analysis, and the daily intake of macronutrients (including the sum of n-6 FA: 18 : 2n-6, 20 : 2n-6, 20 : 3n-6 and 20 : 4n-6) were computed from completed FFQ. FH subjects with elevated Lp(a) had higher plasma levels of AA compared with FH subjects without elevated Lp(a) (P = 0·03). Furthermore, both FH subjects with and without elevated Lp(a) had higher plasma levels of AA compared with controls (P < 0·001). The multivariable analyses showed associations between dietary n-6 FA intake and plasma levels of AA (P = 0·02) and between plasma levels of Lp(a) and AA (P = 0·006). Our data suggest a novel link between plasma Lp(a) concentration, dietary n-6 FA and plasma AA concentration, which may explain the small diet-induced increase in Lp(a) levels associated with lifestyle changes. Although the increase may not be clinically relevant, this association may be mechanistically interesting in understanding more of the role and regulation of Lp(a).
This paper presents first chronological results for a Holocene marshland system from the southern part of the Danube-Tisza Interfluve. Radiocarbon (14C) ages were used to build age-depth models relying of probabilistic tools. Four models have been built: a linear one using dates gained via simple calibration, a P_Sequence model, fitting a polynomial function to calibrated dates; a Gamma_Sequence considering priori given and posterior accumulation rates have been constructed. As there was no significant difference between the mean values of individual models all seem suitable for establishing a reliable chronology despite differences in 95% CI ranges. While P_Sequence models underestimated SR, values calculated from the polynomial model were not significantly different from those of the G_Sequence. Based on multiproxy geochemical, sedimentological, paleoecological data the evolution of the system was reconstructed, covering a timespan of ca. 13,000 years starting from 12,000 BC and lasting until 1300 AD. Highest accumulation rates are dated to the Early Middle Ages from the 11th century. Several climate changes could have been identified which are present in other Hungarian and Western European records too, such as the 5b IRD event at ca. 5800 BC, a humid phase around 1600 BC, and a cool humid phase around the 6th century AD.
The peat bog at Homoródszentpál Kerek-tó (Round Lake), situated in Homoród Hills of the Eastern Carpathians in Romania, provides a continuous record of paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental changes from the Early Holocene. In this study, we present a 7500-year-long high-resolution record of past climatic changes and signs of human impact recorded in a peat bog via integrating sedimentological, paleoecological and geochemical proxies. The basin of Round Lake formed around the Pleistocene–Holocene border when the permafrost thawed. Ponded water accumulated in the catchment basin from the beginning of the Holocene but ca. 7500 cal BP years ago lacustrine sedimentation was exchanged for peat accumulation. The 570-cm-long core was subsampled at 2–4 cm intervals and subjected to grain-size, loss-on-ignition (LOI), pollen, and radiocarbon (14C) analyses. Our findings were correlated with and interpreted in the light of paleobotanical records deriving from archaeological sites and the newest bioclimatological models of the nearby areas. Sedimentological analysis document erosion and accumulation events which were influenced by more complex processes like climate change. Based on environmental historical and climatic data we aimed to reconstruct the environmental changes of forested areas in the Homoródi Hills.
Measurements of local plasma parameters in dusty plasma are crucial for understanding
the physics issues related to such systems. The Langmuir probe, a small electrode
immersed in the plasma, provides such measurements. However, designing of a Langmuir
probe system in a dusty plasma environment demands special consideration. First, the
probe has to be miniaturized enough so that its perturbation on the ambient dust
structure is minimal. At the same time, the probe dimensions must be such that a
well-defined theory exists for interpretation of its characteristics. The associated
instrumentation must also support the measurement of current collected by the probe
with high signal to noise ratio. The most important consideration, of course, comes
from the fact that the probes are prone to dust contamination, as the dust particles
tend to stick to the probe surface and alter the current collecting area in
unpredictable ways. This article describes the design and operation of a Langmuir
probe system that resolves these challenging issues in dusty plasma. In doing so,
first, different theories that are used to interpret the probe characteristics in
collisionless as well as in collisional regimes are discussed, with special emphasis
on application. The critical issues associated with the current–voltage
characteristics of Langmuir probe obtained in different operating regimes are
discussed. Then, an algorithm for processing these characteristics efficiently in
presence of ion-neutral collisions in the probe sheath is presented.
In the propagation of seismic waves through layered media, the boundaries play crucial role. The boundaries separating the different layers of the earth are irregular in nature and not perfectly plane. It is, therefore, necessary to take into account the corrugation of the boundaries while dealing with the problem of reflection and refraction of seismic waves. The present study explores the reflection and refraction phenomena of SH-waves at a corrugated interface between visco-elastic half-space and fibre-reinforced half-space. Method of approximation given by Rayleigh is adopted and the expressions for reflection and transmission coefficients are obtained in closed form for the first and second order approximation of the corrugation. The closed form formulae of these coefficients are presented for a corrugated interface of periodic shape (cosine law interface). It is found that these coefficients depend upon the amplitude of corrugation of the boundary, angle of incidence and frequency of the incident wave. Numerical computations for a particular type of corrugated interface are performed and a number of graphs are plotted. Some special cases are derived.
A plausible mechanism underlying flavonoid-associated cognitive effects is increased cerebral blood flow (CBF). However, behavioural and CBF effects following flavanone-rich juice consumption have not been explored. The aim of this study was to investigate whether consumption of flavanone-rich juice is associated with acute cognitive benefits and increased regional CBF in healthy, young adults. An acute, single-blind, randomised, cross-over design was applied with two 500-ml drink conditions – high-flavanone (HF; 70·5 mg) drink and an energy-, and vitamin C- matched, zero-flavanone control. A total of twenty-four healthy young adults aged 18–30 years underwent cognitive testing at baseline and 2-h after drink consumption. A further sixteen, healthy, young adults were recruited for functional MRI assessment, whereby CBF was measured with arterial spin labelling during conscious resting state at baseline as well as 2 and 5 h after drink consumption. The HF drink was associated with significantly increased regional perfusion in the inferior and middle right frontal gyrus at 2 h relative to baseline and the control drink. In addition, the HF drink was associated with significantly improved performance on the Digit Symbol Substitution Test at 2 h relative to baseline and the control drink, but no effects were observed on any other behavioural cognitive tests. These results demonstrate that consumption of flavanone-rich citrus juice in quantities commonly consumed can acutely enhance blood flow to the brain in healthy, young adults. However, further studies are required to establish a direct causal link between increased CBF and enhanced behavioural outcomes following citrus juice ingestion.
The Proterozoic Sushina Hill Complex is the only agpaitic complex, reported from India and is characterized by a eudialyte-rinkite-bearing nepheline syenite. The complex is considered a ‘metamorphosed agpaitic complex'. This study describes the mineral assemblages formed during successive stages of evolution from magmatic to hydrothermal stages and low-temperature subsolidus re-equilibration assemblage. The primary-late magmatic assemblage is characterized by albite, orthoclase, unaltered nepheline, zoned diopside-hedenbergite, rinkite, late magmatic eudialyte and magnesio-arfvedsonite formed at ∼700°C with maximum aSiO2 of 0.60. In contrast, a deuteric assemblage (400-348°C) is represented by aegirine-jadeite-rich clinopyroxene, post-magmatic eudialyte, sodalite, analcime and the decomposition assemblages formed after eudialyte with decreasing aSiO2 (0.52-0.48). A further low-temperature subsolidus assemblage (≤250°C) represented by late-forming natrolite could be either related to regressive stages of metamorphism or a continuum of the subsolidus processes. Considering the P/T range of the greenschist - lower-amphibolite facies of metamorphism it is evident that the incorporation of a jadeite component within pyroxene is related to a subsolidus process between ∼400°C and 348°C in a silica deficient environment. We emphasize that the deuteric fluid itself acted as an agent of metamorphism and the decomposition assemblage formed after eudialyte is retained even after metamorphism due to the convergence of subsolidus and metamorphic domains. The formation of jadeite-rich aegirine is not considered to result from metamorphism. Overall it is near-impossible to discern any bona fide metamorphic textures or mineral assemblages in these syenites which appear to preserve a relict mineralogy regardless of their occurrence in country rocks which have experienced greenschist - amphibolite facies metamorphism. The Sushina complex is very similar in this respect to the Norra Kärr complex (Sweden).
The study characterizes a collection of 67 neonatal septicaemic Escherichia coli isolates on the basis of phylogroup, serotype, virulence, antibiotic resistance and also the association of CTX-M-producing E. coli and the ST131 clone in a developing country. Phylogroups B2 and D were predominant (33% and 19%, respectively). The most prevalent virulence factors (VFs) were traT (69%) and iucC (68%) and most VFs were concentrated in the B2 isolates. High levels of resistance (⩾70%) to cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was recorded but meropenem remained the most active antimicrobial. Six (9%) of the study isolates belonged to the ST131 clone, five of which were from the same hospital, and were either indistinguishable or closely related by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Although the prevalence of CTX-M-15-producing isolates was high (81%), the ST131 clone was relatively infrequent (11%) in extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producers. The ST131 clone was characterized by the presence of blaCTX-M-15, qnrS, aac(6′)-Ib-cr, IncF plasmids and virulence determinants such as iucC, papC, traT, usp, hlyA, iroNE.coli, cnf, and sat. We conclude that clonal spread of ST131 did not contribute directly to the high prevalence of CTX-M-15 in our settings.
In a quasineutral plasma, electrons undergo collective oscillations, known as plasma oscillations, when perturbed locally. The oscillations propagate due to finite temperature effects. However, the wave can lose the phase coherence between constituting oscillators in an inhomogeneous plasma (phase mixing) because of the dependence of plasma oscillation frequency on plasma density. The longitudinal electric field associated with the wave may be used to accelerate electrons to high energies by exciting large amplitude wave. However when the maximum amplitude of the wave is reached that plasma can sustain, the wave breaks. The phenomena of wave breaking and phase mixing have applications in plasma heating and particle acceleration. For detailed experimental investigation of these phenomena a new device, inverse mirror plasma experimental device (IMPED), has been designed and fabricated. The detailed considerations taken before designing the device, so that different aspects of these phenomena can be studied in a controlled manner, are described. Specifications of different components of the IMPED machine and their flexibility aspects in upgrading, if necessary, are discussed. Initial results meeting the prerequisite condition of the plasma for such study, such as a quiescent, collisionless and uniform plasma, are presented. The machine produces δnnoise/n ⩽ 1%, Luniform ~ 120 cm at argon filling pressure of ~10−4 mbar and axial magnetic field of B = 1090 G.
This study investigates Sr surface segregation behavior and phase formation in La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF), a commonly used cathode material for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). (100)-oriented LSCF thin films were deposited on (110)-oriented NdGaO3 (NGO) substrates by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD). The samples were annealed in atmospheres with various CO2 partial pressures at 800°C. Using the synchrotron technique of Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF), surface segregation in these thin films were quantified. The morphological changes at the surface were examined by AFM studies. The kinetics and thermodynamics of the segregation are discussed.
Global climate change (GCC) is expected to affect key environmental variables such as temperature and rainfall, which in turn influence the infection dynamics of metazoan parasites in tropical aquatic hosts. Thus, our aim was to determine how temporal patterns of temperature and rainfall influence the mean abundance and aggregation of three parasite species of the fish Cichlasoma urophthalmus from Yucatán, México. We calculated mean abundance and the aggregation parameter of the negative binomial distribution k for the larval digeneans Oligogonotylus manteri and Ascocotyle (Phagicola) nana and the ectoparasite Argulus yucatanus monthly from April 2005 to December 2010. Fourier analysis of time series and cross-correlations were used to determine potential associations between mean abundance and k for the three parasite species with water temperature and rainfall. Both O. manteri and A. (Ph.) nana exhibited their highest frequency peaks in mean abundance at 6 and 12 months, respectively, while their peak in k occurred every 24 months. For A. yucatanus the frequency peaks in mean abundance and k occurred every 12 months. We suggest that the level of aggregation at 24 months of O. manteri increases the likelihood of fish mortality. Such a scenario is less likely for A. (Ph.) nana and A. yucatanus, due to their low infection levels. Our findings suggest that under the conditions of GCC it would be reasonable to expect higher levels of parasite aggregation in tropical aquatic hosts, in turn leading to a potential increase in parasite-induced host mortality.
The present article reviews the historical and popular uses of garlic, its antioxidant, haematological, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective and antineoplastic properties and its potential toxicity (from sulfoxide). Garlic has been suggested to affect several cardiovascular risk factors. It has also been shown that garlic and its organic allyl sulfur components are effective inhibitors of the cancer process. Since garlic and its constituents can suppress carcinogen formation, bioactivation and tumour proliferation, it is imperative that biomarkers be established to identify which individuals might benefit most. Garlic powder, aged garlic and garlic oil have demonstrated antiplatelet and anticoagulant effects by interfering with cyclo-oxygenase-mediated thromboxane synthesis. Garlic has also been found to have synergistic effects against Helicobacter pylori with a proton pump inhibitor. The active compound allicin may affect atherosclerosis not only by acting as an antioxidant, but also by other mechanisms, such as lipoprotein modification and inhibition of LDL uptake and degradation by macrophages. Freshly prepared garlic homogenate protects against isoniazid+rifampicin-induced liver injury in experimental animal models. Several mechanisms are likely to account for this protection.
The electronic structure of nanodiamond clusters containing between 34 and 913 carbon atoms was calculated using a tight-binding Hamiltonian. All clusters had shapes represented by an octahedron with (111) facets with the top and the bottom vertices truncated to introduce (100) surfaces. The tight-binding Hamiltonian consisted of environment-dependent matrix elements, and C-H parameters fit to reproduce energy states of the cyclic C6 and methane. The calculations predict a density of states similar to bulk diamond for clusters with radii greater than ∼2.5nm, and insignificant differences in the potential distribution between the clusters and bulk diamond for radii greater than ∼1nm. Hydrogen passivated nanodiamond clusters are estimated to have an electron affinity of approximately -1.8 eV.
Nonlinear optical properties of two thiophene-based conjugated polymers (PTT and PDTB) were studied by the photoinduced absorption spectroscopy and the third harmonic generation spectroscopy. The results obtained with these two methods are used to estimate the value of χ(3) in these materials. Resonant χ(3) are (2.0 ± 0.2) × 10−11 e.s.u. and (1.0 ± 0.1) × 10−11 e.s.u. for PTT and PDTB, respectively. χ(3) is shown to be related to the width of the optical gap through a sixth-power law. In PTT a vibronic structure due to the C = C stretching mode appears in the χ(3) spectrum.
Cathodoluminescence (CL) technique has been employed to study the optical properties of GaSb after deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). CL images recorded at various depths in the samples clearly show passivation of extended defects on the surface as well as in the bulk region. The passivation of various recombination centres in the bulk is attributed to formation of hydrogen-impurity complexes by diffusion of hydrogen ions from the plasma. Enhancement in luminescence intensity is seen due to passivation of non-radiative recombination centres. The passivation efficiency is found to improve with increase in a-Si:H deposition temperature.
The ability to determine the in-situ optoelectronic behavior of semiconductor materials has become especially important as the size of device architectures is reduced and the development of complex microsystems has increased. Scanning Tunneling Optical Resonance Microscopy or STORM has the ability to interrogate the optical bandgap as a function of position within a semiconductor microstructure. This technique uses a tunable solid-state Ti sapphire laser whose output is “chopped” using a spatial light modulator and is coupled by a fiber optic to a scanning tunneling microscope in order to illuminate the tip-sample junction. The photoenhanced portion of the tunneling current is spectroscopically measured using a lock-in technique. The capabilities of this technique were verified using semiconductor microstructure calibration standards that were grown by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Bandgaps characterized by STORM measurements were found to be in good agreement with the bulk values determined by transmission spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and with the theoretical values that were based on x-ray diffraction results.
We report a study of the electrical and optical properties of thin films of tetraanilinobenzene (TAB) and polyaniline (PANI) deposited using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB), layer-by-layer selfassembly and vacuum-evaporation techniques. The paper will mainly concentrate on TAB LB films, but also results for other films are presented for comparison. The optical studies of undoped TAB LB films indicate H-aggregates. Upon doping new polaronic absorption bands appear and the photoluminescence of TAB becomes quenched. Doped LB and self-assembled films can reach conductivities up to about 10−4/cm for TAB and a few S/cm for PANT. The conductivity has a temperature dependence logσ α T−1/2, suggesting variable-range hopping in a quasi-gap, possibly due to the Coulomb interactions between localized carriers.
Highly transparent films with tailorable sheet resistivity were prepared by ion-beam sputtering of indium tin oxide (ITO) with MgF2 or SiO2 in the presence of high-purity air. Sheet resistivities of 103−101 ohms/square (ω/–) and visible transmittances as high as 92% (not corrected for substrate absorption) were obtained in films ∼30 nm thick. Resistivity increased by as much as two orders of magnitude in the first year after preparation; however, thicker films (e.g. 80 nm) were much more stable but somewhat less transparent. Preliminary data from exposure of film samples to atomic oxygen in a plasma asher indicate minimal degradation in optical properties. Heat-treating pure ITO in air produced transparent, slightly conductive films but with poorer stability of sheet resistivity in air than co-deposited ITO with either SiO2, or MgF2. Electrical transport measurements yielded new information on the electronic properties of ITO and related materials. These films show promise as low-absorption static bleedoff coatings for space photovoltaic arrays as well as CRT faceplates and other commercial applications.
As a result of their electron structure, rare earth ions in crystals at high temperature emit radiation in several narrow bands rather than in a continuous blackbody manner. This study presents a spectral emittance model for films and cylinders of rare earth doped yttrium aluminum garnets. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical film spectral emittances was found for erbium and holmium aluminum garnets. Spectral emittances of films are sensitive to temperature differences across the film. For operating conditions of interest, the film emitter experiences a linear temperature variation whereas the cylinder emitter has a more advantageous uniform temperature. Emitter efficiency is also a sensitive function of temperature. For holminum aluminum garnet film the efficiency is 0.35 at 1446K but only 0.27 at 1270 K.
The last decade has seen some dramatic changes in the demands placed on core networks. Data has permanently replaced voice as the dominant traffic unit. The growth of applications like file sharing and storage area networking took many by surprise. Video distribution, a relatively old application, is now being delivered via packet technology, changing traffic profiles even for traditional services.
The shift in dominance from voice to data traffic has many consequences. In the data world, applications, hardware, and software change rapidly. We are seeing an unprecedented unpredictability and variability in traffic patterns. This means network operators must maintain an infrastructure that quickly adapts to changing subscriber demands, and contain infrastructure costs by efficiently applying network resources to meet those demands.
Current core network transport equipment supports high-capacity global-scale core networks by relying on higher speed interfaces such as 40 and 100 Gb/s. This is necessary but in and of itself not sufficient. Today, it takes considerable time and human involvement to provision a core network to accommodate new service demands or exploit new resources. Agile, autonomous, resource management is imperative for the next-generation network.
Today's core network architectures are based on static point-to-point transport infrastructure. Higher-layer services are isolated within their place in the traditional Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) network stack. While the stack has clear benefits in collecting conceptually similar functions into layers and invoking a service model between them, stovepiped management has resulted in multiple parallel networks within a single network operator's infrastructure.