To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The eastern Arabian Sea is influenced by both the advection of upwelled water from the western Arabian Sea and winter convective mixing. Therefore, sediments collected from the eastern Arabian Sea can help to understand the long-term seasonal hydrographic changes. We used the planktonic foraminifera census and stable isotopic ratio (δ18O) from sediments drilled during the International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 355 to reconstruct surface hydrographic changes in the eastern Arabian Sea during the last 350 kyr. The increased abundance of Globigerina bulloides suggests enhanced advection of upwelled water during the latter half of MIS7 and the beginning of MIS6, as a result of a strengthened summer monsoon. A large drop in upwelling and/or advection of upwelled water from the western Arabian Sea is inferred during the subsequent interval of MIS6, based on the rare presence of G. bulloides. The comparable relative abundance of Neogloboquadrina dutertrei, G. bulloides and Globigerinoides ruber suggests that during the early part of MIS5, hydrographic conditions were similar to today. The upwelling decreased and winter convection increased with the progress of the glacial interval. A good coherence between planktonic foraminiferal assemblage-based monsoon stacks from both the eastern and western Arabian Sea suggests a coeval response of the entire northern Arabian Sea to the glacial–interglacial changes. The glacial–interglacial difference in δ18Osw-ivc was at a maximum with 4–5 psu change in salinity during Termination 2 and 3, and a minimum during Termination 4. The significantly reduced regional contribution to the glacial–interglacial change in δ18Osw-ivc during Termination 4 suggests a lesser change in the monsoon.
The Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) Consortium and the National Center for Advancing Translational Science (NCATS) undertook a Common Metrics Initiative to improve research processes across the national CTSA Consortium. This was implemented by Tufts Clinical and Translational Science Institute at the 64 CTSA academic medical centers. Three metrics were collaboratively developed by NCATS staff, CTSA Consortium teams, and outside consultants for Institutional Review Board Review Duration, Careers in Clinical and Translational Research, and Pilot Award Publications and Subsequent Funding. The implementation program included training on the metric operational guidelines, data collection, data reporting system, and performance improvement framework. The implementation team provided small-group coaching and technical assistance. Collaborative learning sessions, driver diagrams, and change packages were used to disseminate best and promising practices. After 14 weeks, 84% of hubs had produced a value for one metric and about half had produced an initial improvement plan. Overall, hubs reported that the implementation activities facilitated their Common Metrics performance improvement process. Experiences implementing the first three metrics can inform future directions of the Common Metrics Initiative and other research groups implementing standardized metrics and performance improvement processes, potentially including other National Institutes of Health institutes and centers.
In this article, we investigate the chronology of a large parallel-walled mudbrick structure at the site of Pachamta in Rajasthan, India. Pachamta is larger than the contemporaneous Harappan site of Kalibangan and part of a society collectively known as the Ahar Culture. Recent excavations at Pachamta provided an opportunity to elaborate on the available dates for this society and to investigate the chronology of an enigmatic parallel-walled structure. The chronology and function of such prominent structures remains murky, although scholars have suggested that these buildings served as public storage because they resemble the granary at Harappa. Through excavation, our team collected data for assessing the Pachamta parallel-walled structure including construction methods, process of abandonment, and associated dates. The thirteen 14C assays from the site and an associated phase and sequence model performed in OxCal 4.3 demonstrate that the building was constructed, used, and abandoned in a relatively brief period. If parallel-walled structures are storage buildings, then expansion of the building may indicate prosperity or surplus, while abandonment may indicate an end to abundance or a shift in resource management. Carefully dating the structure allows us to investigate the timing of social processes including political and economic shifts within the settlement.
A field experiment was conducted to study the long-term effects of nutrient management practices on micronutrient concentrations in soil and their uptake by crops under a long-term rice–wheat cropping system. The treatments comprised different combinations of N, P, K, Zn and farm yard manure (FYM), used as nutrient management practices. After 25 years of continuous cropping, the higher grain yields and uptake of iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) were obtained when FYM was applied along with mineral sources of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) when compared to mineral sources of NPK alone. The residual effect of FYM, applied to rice, on the yield of subsequent wheat was significant. The application of mineral NPK with FYM recorded higher diethylene triamine penta acetic acid extracted (DTPA)-Fe, Mn and Cu concentrations in the soil compared to any other treatment. The plots with Zn application showed higher DTPA-Zn concentration in the soil compared to any other treatments. The available Fe, Mn and Cu in the soil were higher than their critical limits and the soil was low in Zn where inorganic fertilizers were applied alone (without Zn). Integrated application of mineral NPK and FYM to the rice crop and mineral NPK to wheat was found to be the best nutrient management practice in producing higher yields of rice and wheat and improve long-term soil micronutrient concentrations.
High-energy lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries still suffer from poor rate capability and short cycle life caused by the polysulfides shuttle and insulating nature of S (and the discharge product, Li2S). Selenium disulfide (SeS2), with a theoretical specific capacity of 1342 mAh g−1, is a promising cathode material as it has better conductivity compared to sulfur. The electrochemical reaction kinetics of CNFs-S/SeS2 composites (denoted as CNFs/S1-xSex, where x ≤ 0.1) are expected to be remarkably improved because of the better conductivity of SeS2 compared to sulfur. Here, a high-performance composite cathode material of CNFs/S1-xSex for novel Li-S batteries is reported. The CNFs/S1-xSex composites combine the higher conductivity and higher density of SeS2 with high specific capacity of sulfur. The CNFs/S1-xSex electrode shows good initial discharge capacity of ∼1050 mAh g−1 at 0.05 C rate with high mass loading of materials (∼6-7 mg cm−2 of composites) and > 97% initial coulombic efficiency. The CNFs/S1-xSex electrode shows more than 600 mAh g-1 specific capacity after 50 charge-discharge cycles at 0.5C rate, much higher compared to the CNFs/S cathodes.
This study reports a high-performance tin (Sn)-coated vertically aligned carbon nanofiber array anode for lithium-ion batteries. The array electrodes have been prepared by coaxial sputter-coating of tin (Sn) shells on vertically aligned carbon nanofiber (VACNF) cores. The robust brush-like highly conductive VACNFs effectively connect high-capacity Sn shells for lithium-ion storage. A high specific capacity of 815 mAh g-1 of Sn was obtained at C/20 rate, reaching toward the maximum value of Sn. However, the electrode shows poor cycling performance with conventional LiPF6 based organic electrolyte. The addition of fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC) improve the performance significantly and the Sn-coated VACNFs anode shows stable cycling performance. The Sn-coated VACNF array anodes exhibit outstanding capacity retention in the half-cell tests with electrolyte containing 10 wt.% FEC and could deliver a reversible capacity of 480 mAh g-1 after 50 cycles at C/3 rate.
Lithium sulfide (Li2S) is one of the most attractive cathode materials for high energy density lithium batteries as it has a high theoretical capacity of 1166 mA h g-1. However, Li2S suffers from poor rate performance and short cycle life due to its insulating nature and polysulfide shuttle during cycling. In this work, we report a facile and viable approach to address these issues. We propose a method to synthesize a Li2S based nanocomposite cathode material by dissolving Li2S as the active material, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as the carbon precursor, and graphene oxide (GO) as a matrix to enhance the conductivity, followed by a co-precipitation and high-temperature carbonization process. The Li2S/rGO cathode yields an exceptionally high initial capacity of 817 mAh g-1 based on Li2S mass at C/20 rate and also shows a good cycling performance. The carbon-coated Li2S/rGO cathode demonstrates the capability of robust core-shell nanostructures for different rates and improved capacity retention, revealing carbon coated Li2S/rGO composites as an outstanding system for high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries.
Vanadium Pentoxide (V2O5) has been identified as a potential cathode material owning to its high specific capacity, theoretically, 441 mAh g-1 for 3Li+ ions insertion/extraction. However, the intrinsic drawbacks of V2O5, i.e. structural instability and poor electronic and ionic conductivity, greatly inhibit its application as a cathode. Here, we report a cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-assisted hydrothermal reaction to synthesize V2O5 nanoclusters. Unique aggregated fiber structure was obtained after annealing. To achieve a porous structure and increase the conductivity, nitrogen-doped Graphene (NG) suspended in ethylene glycol was added to the reaction mixture. The obtained spherical V2O5 nanoparticles and NG sheets were randomly dispersed in the matrix of the V2O5 spheres. As a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries, the V2O5/NG hybrids demonstrate better rate performance compared to the bundle-like V2O5 fibers, delivering higher specific capacity of ∼ 300 and 150 mAh g-1 at a rate of C/10 and 5C, respectively. The enhanced performance in lithium storage are attributed to the synergistic effect of the nanostructured V2O5/NG composites.
Immunoactivation depends upon the antigen potential to modulate T-cell repertoires. The present study has enumerated the effect of 61 kDa recombinant Leishmania donovani co-factor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase (rLd-iPGAM) on mononuclear cells of healthy and treated visceral leishmaniasis subjects as well as on THP-1 cell line. rLd-iPGAM stimulation induced higher expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the phagocytic cell, its receptor and CD69 on T-cell subsets. These cellular activations resulted in upregulation of host-protective cytokines IL-2, IL-12, IL-17, tumour necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ, and downregulation of IL-4, IL-10 and tumour growth factor-β. This immune polarization was also evidenced by upregulation of nuclear factor-κ light-chain enhancer of activated B cells p50 and regulated expression of suppressor of mother against decapentaplegic protein-4. rLd-iPGAM stimulation also promoted lymphocyte proliferation and boosted the leishmaniacidal activity of macrophages by upregulating reactive oxygen species. It also induced 1·8-fold higher release of nitric oxide (NO) by promoting the transcription of inducible nitric oxide synthase gene. Besides, in silico analysis suggested the presence of major histocompatibility complex class I and II restricted epitopes, which can proficiently trigger CD8+ and CD4+ cells, respectively. This study reports rLd-iPGAM as an effective immunoprophylactic agent, which can be used in future vaccine design.
A possible role of the APC/beta-catenin pathway in the pathogenesis of sporadic juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma has been suggested. This paper presents its current status and clinical association in our patients.
A prospective observational study was conducted at King George Medical University and Central Drug Research Institute, in Lucknow, India. Western blot analysis was undertaken in 16 cases to examine beta-catenin expression. The clinical details were recorded along with follow up observations, to determine associations.
Up-regulation of beta-catenin expression was seen in 69 per cent of cases. The clinical variables did not reveal significant differences between patients with extremes of expression (extreme under- vs over-expression). However, absent expression was shown exclusively in young adults aged over 18 years, while enhanced expression was associated with an altered facial profile.
Although a beta-catenin association was seen in a subset of our sporadic juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma cases, its expression was not homogeneous. This is in contrast to the Western literature that suggests a universal (homogenous) enhanced expression in the majority. Hence, further research is required to better define its molecular cascade.
Rotavirus (RV) infection causes acute infantile diarrhoea in humans and animals and remains a major concern for vaccine development. The close proximity of humans to animals may foster cross-species infection resulting in the emergence of novel/unusual strains by genetic reassortment. In this study, we characterized 500 diarrhoeal samples for group A rotaviruses (RVA) from children (n = 290), piglets (n = 95) and calves (n = 115) in Northeast India during 2012–2013. The data showed that 142/500 (28·4%) faecal samples were positive for RVA with the highest level of infection detected in piglets (57/142, 40·1%) followed by children (51/142, 35·9%) and calves (34/142, 23·9%). Sequence-based G- and P-typing showed G1P (25%) and G1P (35%) were the prevailing genotypes in both humans and animals. Single cases of unusual genotypes, i.e. G9P, G5P in humans and G1P, G1P and G3P in animals were also identified. Cluster analyses of the sequences showed regional strains were genetically closer to their homologous strains. However, human G5P and porcine G1P strains showed homology to heterologous hosts of their prototype strains. The subsequent global spread of unusual RV strains may result in their establishment over time, presenting challenges to future vaccine evaluation programmes. More studies on emerging genotypes are required to elucidate how RVA strains evolve post-vaccination. This study supports the need for continuous surveillance of RVA infections after detecting from diverse hosts in a common setting.
IC5146 is one of the filamentary clouds observed in Herschel Gould Belt Survey. Here we present our polarization observations toward IC5146 taken with AIMPOL, TRIPOL and Mimir. Our results reveal that the large scale structure of magnetic field is well perpendicular to the main filament, but is likely parallel to the sub-filaments, which are structure extended out from the main filaments. We have also conducted CO observations to reveal the gas kinematics along the filaments or magnetic field; this result suggests the gas is possibly confined by magnetic field in most of the region until reaching supercritical. Based on our results, we suggests that at least four types of filaments can be found in IC5146, behaving different physical properties and consistent with different formation mechanisms. Our conclusions reveal that filaments are a combination of a variety types of objects.
We present a multi-wavelength study of a nearby radio loud elliptical galaxy NGC 708, selected from the Bologna B2 sample of radio galaxies. We obtained optical broad band and narrow images from IGO 2m telescope (Pune, India). We supplement the multi-wavelength coverage of the observation by using X-ray data from Chandra, infrared data from 2MASS, Spitzer and WISE and optical image from DSS and HST. In order to investigate properties of interstellar medium, we have generated unsharp-masked, color, residual, quotient, dust extinction, Hα emission maps. From the derived maps it is evident that cool gas, dust, warm ionized Hα and hot X-ray gas are spatially associated with each other. We investigate the inner and outer photometric and kinematic properties of the galaxy using surface brightness profiles. From X-ray 2d beta model, unsharp masking, surface brightness profiles techniques, it is evident that pair of X-ray cavities are present in this system and which are ~5.6 Kpc away from the central X-ray source.
As indicated by the sporadic Japanese encephalitis (JE) cases reported from the districts of Uttar Pradesh (UP), India, the disease is endemic in the state despite the fact that a JE vaccination programme has been ongoing in the state since 2006. Hence, the present study was undertaken to study the annual trend of JE in UP during January 2011 to December 2013. CSF and/or serum samples collected from acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) cases were referred to the virology laboratory at King George's Medical University, Lucknow and were tested for anti-JEV IgM antibodies by JEV MAC-ELISA kit. The study reveals that 26·9%, 9·9% and 14·8% of AES cases were positive for anti-JEV IgM in the years 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. Of the total JE confirmed cases, 30% were adults. Males were more commonly affected than females. A distinct peak of JE was seen in the monsoon and post-monsoon season, although sporadic cases were also reported in other months. JE vaccination by district in UP is discussed. This study reports that the proportion of JE positives in AES cases is decreasing in UP although the number of AES cases has not decreased. The study also discusses the probable causes of this decrease, including JE vaccination and natural periodicity due to herd immunity.
The synthesis of biocompatible noble metal nanoparticles dispersible in a wide range of biological media with control of polycrystalinity and nanogeometry, pH sensitivity and salt tolerance has been a challenging requirements. The role of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (3-APTMS) and organic reducing reagents for real time synthesis of amphilic noble metal nanoparticles meeting these requirements are demonstrated justifying the following; (1) 3-APTMS capped noble metal ions are converted into respective metal nanoparticles in the presence of one of organic reducing agents i.e., cyclohexanone, tetrahydrofuran hydroperoxide (THF-HPO), formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, t-buty dimethyl keotone, 3-Glycidoxy-propyltrimethoxysilane (3-GPTMS); (2) 3-APTMS acts as micelle, promotes the interaction of metal ions with organic reducing agent, precisely controls the size of metal nanoparticles, pH sensititvity and salt tolerance and also provides a suitable medium for nanoparticles suspension, (3) the use of suitable organic reagent precisely controls the polarity of as made noble metal nanoparticles allowing specific biological interactions, and (4) 3-APTMS significantly increases the stability and controls the pH sensitivity and salt tolerance of metal nanoparticles. The as synthesized nanomaterials show potential viability in biomedical applications from many angles i.e. (a) as potential bioelectrocatalyst, (b) selective interaction with active proteins and cellular components, and (c) peroxidase mimetic.
Transparent conductive oxide less flexible dye-sensitized solar cells (TCO-less DSC) with flat and cylinder shapes are reported. The cell consists of a plastic cover, a flexible titania/dye sheet back contacted with a metal mesh sheet, a gel electrolyte sheet, and Pt layer on a Ti sheet. How to increase the efficiency were discussed. We concluded that making a titania/dye layer on a metal mesh sheet thinner and using a thinner electrolyte layer were effective for increasing the efficiency. A flat TCO-less DSC with 6.1 % efficiency and a cylindrical TCO-less DSC with 5.1 % efficiency are reported.
Maldives is a nation of approximately 1,190 coral islands, which constitute two lengthy chains running north to south and covering an area of 90,000 sq km. Its Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) is spread over 859,000 sq km in the Indian Ocean. Male, the capital of the country has a land area of 2.5 sq km and contains about a third of the population of the country. Only 200 islands are inhabited; most of them have less than 1,000 inhabitants each. Maldives occupies a respectable position in the Asia-Pacific region both in national GDP growth rate, and human development.
Located at 4°10' and 4°.16'67” North latitudes, and 73°30' and 73°.5' East longitudes, Male (pronounced as Maale') is the only island city in the world devoid of mountains, highlands, and rivers. It is a sea-dominated flat land. The surging waves of the sea and lush green vegetation instill natural charm and pristine beauty to it. Male' (Kaafu) Atoll (coral formation) is one of the 20 atoll groups of Maldives (Figure 16.1). It was traditionally the King's Island where the Royal Palace was located and from which the Royal dynasties ruled over the islands. Prior to 1968, it had a fortification wall with entry and exit gates (doroshi) all around. When the city was remodelled by Ibrahim Nasir, the second president of Maldives (1968-1978), the Royal Palace (Gan'duvaru) along with its picturesque forts (kotte) and bastions (buruzu), was demolished.
Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) electrodes are prepared by a novel ultrashort galvanic pulse electropolymerization technique for application in solid-state supercapacitors. Microstructure studies using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) show that PEDOT electrodes deposited by pulse polymerization are highly porous as compared to the conventional potentiostatic polymerization. In addition, as revealed by the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies in the PEDOT films formed by pulse polymerization, the polymer chains are fully conjugated with the dopant ClO4- ions. Solid-state supercapacitor cells using pulse polymerized PEDOT electrodes and ionic liquid gel polymer electrolyte were fabricated and characterized. The impedance spectroscopy studies show that the pulse polymerized PEDOT electrode have specific capacitance value of ∼ 65 F g-1 as compared to ∼52 F g-1for potentiostatically polymerized PEDOT and significantly lower interfacial and charge transfer resistance. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge-discharge characterization show highly capacitive behavior of the supercapacitor cells in the solid-state configuration.
A buffalo oocyte-specific subtracted cDNA library was constructed to identify exclusively or preferentially oocyte-expressed genes. The library represented an enriched population of transcripts obtained from oocytes of diverse ovarian follicular origin and at different stages of in vitro maturation. A total of 1173 high-quality sequences of oocyte-specific genes were clustered into 645 unique sequences, out of which 65.76% were represented as singlets and 34.26% as contig expressed sequence tags (ESTs; clusters). Analysis of sequences revealed that 498 of these sequences were identified as a known sequence in mammalian species including buffalo, 103 as uncharacterized ESTs and 44 unknown sequences including 1 novel EST, so far not reported in any species. Gene ontology annotation classified these sequences into functional categories of cellular events and biological processes associated with oocyte competence. Expression status of the isolated unknown ESTs confirmed that many of these are expressed in oocytes exclusively and in others preferentially, some in excess of 80-fold greater in comparison with a variety of somatic tissues. The isolated novel EST was detected to be expressed exclusively in oocytes and testicular cells only. To our knowledge, this is the first report giving a detailed transcriptome account of oocyte-expressed genes in buffalo. This study will provide important information on the physiological control of oocyte development, as well as many questions yet to be addressed on the reproductive process of buffalo.