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The traditional medium for collecting two-dimensional x-ray scattering patterns is photographic film. While x-ray film has excellent resolution, several factors make it a poor choice as a detection device: slow speed, limited dynamic range, the “human factor” (developing, fixing, film handling), and the lack of a commercial scanning system designed for reading two-dimensional x-ray films. Until recently, there were no practical alternatives to the use of photographic film for obtaining two-dimensional x-ray scattering data using a conventional x-ray source. In the past few years, two different detection systems have become available for collecting high quality two-dimensional x-ray scattering data: (1) the Siemens (Xentronics) area detector system, which is a gas filled, wire grid detector, and (2) the Fuji imaging-plate system, which utilizes a phosphor storage plate for imaging the x-ray scattering and a laser scanner to process the image.
The analysis of multi-phase pharmaceuticals, particularly when similar structures are involved (i.e. polymorphs, salts or hydrates), can often be a difficult task. Historically, x-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) have been utilized to study pharmaceutical samples. Relative to other materials, diffraction data for pharmaceuticals are often complex due to the large number of diffraction maxima caused by the size of the molecule and/or the molecular symmetry. Multi-phase mixtures tend to have a large number of overlapping peaks which can hinder the difftactionist's ability to identify phases and interpret the data. When similar structures are analyzed calorimetrically, their thermal events may severely overlap (as will be shown), preventing accurate interpretation of the data. In addition there are several types of thermal events which may not be related to structural transitions. A common one in pharmaceuticals is the loss of solvent or absorbed (versus molecular) water.
The following study is an evaluation of several different types of instrumentation available for use in powder x-ray diffraction work. The particular units used are those at the Dow Chemical Company x-ray diffraction lab. The variety of instrumentation allows analyses from routine phase identification to more specialized work such as low-angle x-ray diffraction of polymers and high-resolution analysis for cell parameter refinements.
The purpose of this work is to compare the relative capabilities of these different instruments under typical day-to-day operating conditions. While not a comprehensive study, the conclusions drawn should be applicable to powder x-ray diffraction in general.
The interfacing of both straight and curved Braun Position- Sensitive Proportional Counters (PSPC's) to a high resolution Huber-Guinier camera system has been accomplished, resulting in a 10 to 100-fold decrease in data collection times when compared to conventional Guinier (film or scintillation counter) detector techniques.
Various factors causing line broadening were evaluated for both PSPC Guinier systems. The depth of the PSPC gas chamber was found to Have the greatest influence on line profiles. An R0% increase in peak half-widths was observed for PSPC-Guinier data compared to our highest resolution Guinier film data, but still yielded significantly better resolution than conventional powder diffractometer data obtained in our laboratory.
A new method for the collection and analysis of high temperature Guinier x-ray data has been devised at The Dow Chemical Co. This technique can be used to monitor various types of structural transformation and thermal expansions up to 900°C. The thermal expansions of α-Al2O3 and two TiO2 structures, anatase and rutile, have been characterized for their use as high temperature internal standards.
Capillary collimators have found a number of uses in fluorescence, diffraction and other x-ray fields. Most of these applications are realized with single, straight glass capillaries. Focussing of synchrotron x-radiation beams has been shown with tapered capillaries. In addition, numerous straight and bent capillaries, bundled into lens-like optics, offer experimenters many other possibilities for better use of the x-radiation from tubes, synchrotron radiation, and plasma sources or the x-ray intensity collected from samples.
Deficits in frontal lobe perfusion have been demonstrated in late-life depression; however, studies to date have generally involved small numbers, used neuroimaging rather than bedside testing and have not controlled for important covariates.
We aimed to examine the association between depressive symptoms and frontal lobe perfusion during standing, in a large cohort of community-dwelling older people.
Participants aged ≥50 years underwent continuous measurement of orthostatic blood pressure by finometry, and frontal lobe perfusion by near-infrared spectroscopy. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the eight-item Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Real-time frontal lobe cerebral oxygenation was measured by the Portalite System, detecting changes in frontal lobe perfusion and reporting a tissue saturation index score.
Almost 8% (209 out of 2616) had clinically significant depressive symptoms. Multilevel models demonstrated a significantly lower tissue saturation index in participants with depressive symptoms at both 60 and 90 s post-stand, with coefficients of −0.43 (95% CI −0.63 to −0.22) and −0.37 (95% CI −0.57 to −0.16), respectively. Controlling for relevant covariates did not significantly attenuate these associations. After addition of systolic blood pressure this association was no longer significant, suggesting lower blood pressure may modify this relationship.
This study demonstrates that lower frontal lobe perfusion, related to lower values of baseline systolic blood pressure, is associated with clinically significant depressive symptoms in a cohort of community-dwelling older people. Given the recognised longitudinal association between lower blood pressure and depression in older people, this may represent a potential therapeutic target for prevention of incident depression.
From a physiological-behavioral perspective, it has been shown that fish with a higher density of black eumelanin spots are more dominant, less sensitive to stress, have higher feed intake, better feed efficiency and therefore are larger in size. Thus, we hypothesized that genetic (co)variation between skin pigmentation patterns and growth exists and it is advantageous in rainbow trout. The objective of this study was to determine the genetic relationships between skin pigmentation patterns and BW in a breeding population of rainbow trout. We performed a genetic analysis of pigmentation traits including dorsal color (DC), lateral band (LB) intensity, amount of spotting above (SA) and below (SB) the lateral line, and BW at harvest (HW). Variance components were estimated using a multi-trait linear animal model fitted by restricted maximum likelihood. Estimated heritabilities were 0.08±0.02, 0.17±0.03, 0.44±0.04, 0.17±0.04 and 0.23±0.04 for DC, LB, SA, SB and HW, respectively. Genetic correlations between HW and skin color traits were 0.42±0.13, 0.32±0.14 and 0.25±0.11 for LB, SA and SB, respectively. These results indicate positive, but low to moderate genetic relationships between the amount of spotting and BW in rainbow trout. Thus, higher levels of spotting are genetically associated with better growth performance in this population.
Antineuronal antibodies are associated with psychosis, although their clinical significance in first episode of psychosis (FEP) is undetermined.
To examine all patients admitted for treatment of FEP for antineuronal antibodies and describe clinical presentations and treatment outcomes in those who were antibody positive.
Individuals admitted for FEP to six mental health units in Queensland, Australia, were prospectively tested for serum antineuronal antibodies. Antibody-positive patients were referred for neurological and immunological assessment and therapy.
Of 113 consenting participants, six had antineuronal antibodies (anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibodies [n = 4], voltage-gated potassium channel antibodies [n = 1] and antibodies against uncharacterised antigen [n = 1]). Five received immunotherapy, which prompted resolution of psychosis in four.
A small subgroup of patients admitted to hospital with FEP have antineuronal antibodies detectable in serum and are responsive to immunotherapy. Early diagnosis and treatment is critical to optimise recovery.
This essay adopts an innovative interdisciplinary approach to the analysis of Disney's representations of the American founding in television and movie productions as secondary works; that is, as works of historical interpretation. “The Liberty Story” (1957), Johnny Tremain (1957) and The Swamp Fox (1959–60) are analysed in the context of contemporaraneous historiographical trends. The essay demonstrates that despite certain flaws and weaknesses, Disney's representations sometimes presented innovative themes and insightful interpretations, which at the height of the Cold War influenced popular understanding of the American founding and the society that it produced.
Lectotypes are designated for eight names in Eriocaulon in tropical Asia, namely E. alatum, E. hamiltonianum, E. hookerianum, E. infirmum, E. lanigerum, E. nautiliforme, E. nigrum and E. ubonense. Additional information on the lectotype of Eriocaulon quinquangulare is given.
This review represents the Southern Ocean community’s satellite data needs for the coming decade. Developed through widespread engagement and incorporating perspectives from a range of stakeholders (both research and operational), it is designed as an important community-driven strategy paper that provides the rationale and information required for future planning and investment. The Southern Ocean is vast but globally connected, and the communities that require satellite-derived data in the region are diverse. This review includes many observable variables, including sea ice properties, sea surface temperature, sea surface height, atmospheric parameters, marine biology (both micro and macro) and related activities, terrestrial cryospheric connections, sea surface salinity, and a discussion of coincident and in situ data collection. Recommendations include commitment to data continuity, increases in particular capabilities (sensor types, spatial, temporal), improvements in dissemination of data/products/uncertainties, and innovation in calibration/validation capabilities. Full recommendations are detailed by variable as well as summarized. This review provides a starting point for scientists to understand more about Southern Ocean processes and their global roles, for funders to understand the desires of the community, for commercial operators to safely conduct their activities in the Southern Ocean, and for space agencies to gain greater impact from Southern Ocean-related acquisitions and missions.
We carried out a cross-sectional study to assess cognitive function in a sample of adult CHD patients, within the Functioning in Adult Congenital Heart Disease study London. The association between cognitive functioning and disease complexity was examined.
A total of 310 patients participated in this study. Patients were classified into four structural complexity groups – tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of the great arteries, single ventricle, and simple conditions. Each patient underwent neuropsychological assessment to evaluate cognitive function, including memory and executive function, and completed questionnaires to assess depression and anxiety.
Among all, 41% of the sample showed impaired performance (>1.5 SD below the normative mean) on at least three tests of cognitive function compared with established normative data. This was higher than the 8% that was expected in a normal population. The sample exhibited significant deficits in divided attention, motor function, and executive functioning. There was a significant group difference in divided attention (F=5.01, p=0.002) and the mean total composite score (F=5.19, p=0.002) between different structural complexity groups, with the simple group displaying better cognitive function.
The results indicate that many adult CHD patients display impaired cognitive function relative to a healthy population, which differs in relation to disease complexity. These findings may have implications for clinical decision making in this group of patients during childhood. Possible mechanisms underlying these deficits and how they may be reduced or prevented are discussed; however, further work is needed to draw conclusive judgements.
There is increasing interest among developmental psychopathologists in broad transdiagnostic factors that give rise to a wide array of clinical presentations (multifinality), but little is known about how these processes lead to particular psychopathological manifestations over the course of development. We examined whether individual differences in the error-related negativity (ΔERN), a neural indicator of error monitoring, predicts whether early persistent irritability, a prototypical transdiagnostic construct, is associated with later internalizing versus externalizing outcomes. When children were 3 years old, mothers were interviewed about children's persistent irritability and completed questionnaires about their children's psychopathology. Three years later, EEG was recorded while children performed a go/no-go task to measure the ΔERN. When children were approximately 9 years old, mothers again completed questionnaires about their children's psychopathology. The results indicated that among children who were persistently irritable at age 3, an enhanced or more negative ΔERN at age 6 predicted the development of internalizing symptoms at age 9, whereas a blunted or smaller ΔERN at age 6 predicted the development of externalizing symptoms. Our results suggest that variation in error monitoring predicts, and may even shape, the expression of persistent irritability and differentiates developmental trajectories from preschool persistent irritability to internalizing versus externalizing outcomes in middle to late childhood.
Contributors to this Special Issue of the Cognitive Behaviour Therapist have considered the kind of infrastructure that should be in place to best support and guide CBT supervisors, providing practical advice and extensive procedural guidance. Here we briefly summarize and discuss in turn the 10 papers within this Special Issue, including suggestions for further enhancements. The first paper, by Milne and Reiser, conceptualized this infrastructure in terms of an ‘SOS’ (supporting our supervisors) framework, from identifying supervision competencies, to training, evaluation and feedback strategies. The next nine papers illustrate this framework with specific technical innovations, educational enhancements and procedural issues, or through comprehensive quality improvement systems, all designed to support supervisors. These papers suggest an assortment of workable infrastructure developments: two large-scale and comprehensive initiatives, some promising proposals and technologies, and a series of local, exploratory work. Collectively, they provide us with models for further developing evidence-based cognitive-behavioural supervision, and offer practical suggestions for giving supervisors the tools and support to maximize their supervisees’ learning, and to improve the associated client outcomes. Much research and development work remains to be done, and successful implementation will require institutional and political support, as well as cross-cultural adaptations. We conclude with an optimistic assessment of progress toward addressing some of the infrastructure improvements required to adequately support supervisors.
Results of protein residue and lithic microwear analyses are reported for Paleoindian and Early Archaic stone tools from a Carolina bay sand rim on the Aiken Plateau of South Carolina, USA. Protein residue analysis is performed using crossover Immunoelectrophoresis (CIEP), and indicates positive results for Bovidae, Cervidae, Galliformes, and Meleagris gallopavo. These results are complemented by a larger immunological study of 135 diagnostic hafted bifaces from South Carolina and Georgia. Among other species identified, bovid residue was found on multiple Paleoindian hafted bifaces, an Early Archaic hafted biface, and a Middle Archaic hafted biface. Results suggest continuity of species selection and availability across the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary and provide no support for the exploitation of extinct fauna. The data do provide compelling evidence for a demographic shift and/or regional extirpation of Bovidae possibly as late as the early mid-Holocene in the Southeast. In addition, microwear analysis of artifacts from Flamingo Bay indicate intensive hide scraping, antler boring, bone graving/planing/pointing, wood whittling, and hafting traces. Microwear data suggest intentional snap-fracture or bipolarization of exhausted or broken Clovis points for reuse as hide scrapers, and use of large bifacial knives and unifacial scrapers in intensive defleshing activities consistent with large animal butchery.
We wanted to present our experience with the extended endoscopic approach to clival pathology, focusing on cerebrospinal fluid leak and reconstruction challenges.
We examined a consecutive series of 37 patients undergoing the extended endoscopic approach for skull base tumours, 9 patients with clival pathology. Patients were examined for the incidence of post-operative cerebrospinal fluid leak in relation to tumour pathology, location, size, reconstruction and lumbar drain.
The overall incidence of post-operative cerebrospinal fluid leak was 10.8 per cent. Seventy-five per cent of patients who had a post-operative cerebrospinal fluid leak underwent a transclival approach (p < 0.05). All patients with clival pathology who underwent an intradural dissection had a post-operative cerebrospinal fluid leak (p < 0.05).
Post-operative cerebrospinal fluid leak rates after the extended endoscopic approach have improved significantly after advancements including the vascularised nasoseptal flap. Despite this, transclival approaches continue to pose much difficulty. Further investigation is necessary to develop technical improvements that can meet the unique challenges associated with this region.
Foodborne illness is a major cause of morbidity and loss of productivity in developed nations. Although low socioeconomic status (SES) is generally associated with negative health outcomes, its impact on foodborne illness is poorly understood. We conducted a systematic review to examine the association between SES and laboratory-confirmed illness caused by eight important foodborne pathogens. We completed this systematic review using PubMed for all papers published between 1 January 1980 and 1 January 2013 that measured the association between foodborne illness and SES in highly developed countries and identified 16 studies covering four pathogens. The effect of SES varied across pathogens: the majority of identified studies for Campylobacter, salmonellosis, and E. coli infection showed an association between high SES and illness. The single study of listeriosis showed illness was associated with low SES. A reporting bias by SES could not be excluded. SES should be considered when targeting consumer-level public health interventions for foodborne pathogens.