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The spatial-intensity profile of light reflected during the interaction of an intense laser pulse with a microstructured target is investigated experimentally and the potential to apply this as a diagnostic of the interaction physics is explored numerically. Diffraction and speckle patterns are measured in the specularly reflected light in the cases of targets with regular groove and needle-like structures, respectively, highlighting the potential to use this as a diagnostic of the evolving plasma surface. It is shown, via ray-tracing and numerical modelling, that for a laser focal spot diameter smaller than the periodicity of the target structure, the reflected light patterns can potentially be used to diagnose the degree of plasma expansion, and by extension the local plasma temperature, at the focus of the intense laser light. The reflected patterns could also be used to diagnose the size of the laser focal spot during a high-intensity interaction when using a regular structure with known spacing.
Several models of regularities behind plural overgeneralization patterns of four-year-old monolingual Germans and bi-/multilingual children acquiring German were empirically examined within the framework of single- and dual-route models. The factors taken into account were frequency, cue validity, productivity, and iconicity of plural allomorphs. In this large-scale cross-sectional study, the results of 893 children tested with a modified, validated version of the speech and language screening MSS and of 476 children tested with a validated language test SETK 3-5 were analyzed. For all overgeneralization models, paired groups of expected and not expected answers were compared in the Wilcoxon test. At the early stages of plural acquisition the frequency of plural allomorphs and the simplest phonetic–phonologically based regularities seem to be the crucial factors recognized by children acquiring German. Gender-based plural allomorph frequency was associated with advanced German skills. These findings support the single-route theory with its emphasis on the influence of input characteristics on children’s error patterns. No evidence was found for a default status of -s or any other plural marker, and hence for the dual-route theory.
To explore multiple methods of calculating diet diversity scores (DDS) to maximize associations with predicted dietary micronutrient adequacy among schoolchildren in rural Kenya.
Up to three 24 h recall interviews were administered for each child for a total of 1544 d of intake from all schoolchildren. Daily amounts of food consumed were assigned to one of eight food groups. Five DDS were developed based on various minimum intake amounts from each food group: (i) 1 g; (ii) 15 g; (iii) a variable minimum based on the content of a target nutrient for each group; (iv) the median intake level for each group; and (v) the 90th percentile intake level for each group. A diet was assigned 1 point towards the daily DDS if the food group intake was above the defined minimum level. Five scores were calculated for each child, and bivariate longitudinal random-effects models were used to assess the correlation between each DDS and the mean probability of adequacy for fourteen nutrients.
Embu District, Kenya.
Schoolchildren (n 529), mean age 7·00 (sd 1·41) years.
Only DDS based on a 15 g minimum and DDS based on nutrient content were significantly associated with mean probability of adequacy after adjusting for energy intake (0·21 and 0·41, respectively).
A DDS using minimum intakes based on nutrients contributed by a food group best predicted nutrient adequacy in this population. These analyses contribute to the continued search for simpler and more valid dietary quality indicators among low-income nations.
Ice deformation and basal motion characterize the dynamical behavior of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). We evaluate the contribution of basal motion from ice deformation measurements in boreholes drilled to the bed at two sites in the western marginal zone of the GrIS. We find a sustained high amount of basal motion contribution to surface velocity of 44–73% in winter, and up to 90% in summer. Measured ice deformation rates show an unexpected variation with depth that can be explained with the help of an ice-flow model as a consequence of stress transfer from slippery to sticky areas. This effect necessitates the use of high-order ice-flow models, not only in regions of fast-flowing ice streams but in all temperate-based areas of the GrIS. The agreement between modeled and measured deformation rates confirms that the recommended values of the temperature-dependent flow rate factor A are a good choice for ice-sheet models.
The present study examines the effect of animal-source-food (ASF) intake on arm muscle area growth as part of a larger study examining causal links between ASF intake, growth rate, physical activity, cognitive function and micronutrient status in Kenyan schoolchildren. This randomised, controlled feeding intervention study was designed with three isoenergetic feeding interventions of meat, milk, and plain traditional vegetable stew (githeri), and a control group receiving no snack. A total of twelve elementary schools were randomly assigned to interventions, with three schools per group, and two cohorts of 518 and 392 schoolchildren were enrolled 1 year apart. Children in each cohort were given feedings at school and studied for three school terms per year over 2 years, a total of 9 months per year: cohort I from 1998 to 2000 and cohort II from 1999 to 2001. Food intake was assessed by 24 h recall every 1–2 months and biochemical analysis for micronutrient status conducted annually (in cohort I only). Anthropometric measurements included height, weight, triceps skinfold (TSF) and mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC). Mid-upper-arm muscle area (MAMA) and mid-upper-arm fat area (MAFA) were calculated. The two cohorts were combined for analyses. The meat group showed the steepest rates of gain in MUAC and MAMA over time, and the milk group showed the next largest significant MUAC and MAMA gain compared with the plain githeri and control groups (P< 0·05). The meat group showed the least increase in TSF and MAFA of all groups. These findings have implications for increasing micronutrient intake and lean body mass in primary schoolchildren consuming vegetarian diets.
To examine changes in energy intake along with markers of dietary quality (animal-source energy and protein intakes) among household members in the presence of supplementary school feeding in rural Kenya.
A 2-year, longitudinal, randomized controlled feeding intervention study.
Kyeni South Division, Embu District, Kenya.
A total of 182 schoolchildren and selected household members.
There was no evidence that schoolchildren who received supplementary snacks at school experienced reduced intakes at home or that intakes by other family members were increased at the expense of the schoolchild's intake.
This analysis highlights a number of factors useful in planning for supplementary feeding interventions in rural Kenya and similar communities.
As in the past, the primary activity of the IAU Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates and Rotational Elements has been to prepare and publish a triennial (“2009”) report containing current recommendations for models for Solar System bodies (Archinal et al. (2011a)). The authors are B. A. Archinal, M. F. A'Hearn, E. Bowell, A. Conrad, G. J. Consolmagno, R. Courtin, T. Fukushima, D. Hestroffer, J. L. Hilton, G. A. Krasinsky, G. Neumann, J. Oberst, P. K. Seidelmann, P. Stooke, D. J. Tholen, P. C. Thomas, and I. P. Williams. An erratum to the “2006” and “2009” reports has also been published (Archinal et al. (2011b)). Below we briefly summarize the contents of the 2009 report, a plan to consider requests for new recommendations more often than every three years, three general recommendations by the WG to the planetary community, other WG activities, and plans for our next report.
To examine the effects of animal-source foods on toddler growth.
A 5-month comparison feeding intervention study with one of three millet-based porridges randomized to eighteen feeding stations serving 303 children aged 11–40 months. Feeding stations served plain millet porridge (Plain group), porridge with milk (Milk group) or porridge with beef (Meat group). Anthropometry, morbidity and food intake were measured at baseline and regular intervals. Longitudinal mixed models were used to analyse growth.
Two hundred and seventy-four children were included in final analyses.
Linear growth was significantly greater for the Milk group than the Meat group (P = 0·0025). Slope of growth of mid-arm muscle area of the Plain group was significantly greater than in the Meat group (P = 0·0046), while the Milk group's mid-upper arm circumference growth rate was significantly greater than the Meat group's (P = 0·0418). The Milk and Plain groups’ measures did not differ.
Milk and meat porridges did not have a significantly greater effect on growth than plain porridge in this undernourished population. Linear growth was influenced by more than energy intakes, as the Plain group's total body weight-adjusted energy intakes were significantly greater than the Meat group's, although linear growth did not differ. Energy intakes may be more important for growth in arm muscle. The diverse age distribution in the study makes interpretation difficult. A longer study period, larger sample size and more focused age group would improve clarity of the results.
To evaluate the relative validity of recalled intake among schoolchildren and mothers in rural Kenya.
Cross-sectional study. Mothers’ recall of both the schoolchild’s intake and her own intake on the previous day were compared with intakes that were weighed by an interviewer in the home.
Karurumo location of Embu District in Kenya.
A total of forty-two sets of grade 1 students and their mothers.
Between 08.00 and 17.00 hours, when foods were both weighed and recalled, approximately 70 % of weighed food items were recalled the next day. Under-reporting of food amounts was seen across most food categories for the recall, with added sugars, sweets and fats being most affected. The recall underestimated energy intakes by approximately 6–9 % during this period. Correlation coefficients between nutrient intakes ranged from 0·43 to 0·65, while weighted κ values ranged from 0·22 to 0·50. Higher levels of agreement were noted for nutrient densities, with correlation coefficients between 0·46 and 0·82 and weighted κ values between 0·30 and 0·73.
Although the recall method provides an acceptable alternative to the more labour-intensive and expensive food-weighing method, there is need to further improve its performance in this population through more accurate recall of single foods, especially fruits, as well as added sugars, fats, dairy products and meats, which are often added in small amounts to mixed dishes.
Nanostructured materials from almost all classes of materials are of great interest because the reduced dimensionality may drastically change the physical properties. In general, these properties are a function of size, shape, arrangement and chemical composition of the nano-sized materials. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a powerful tool to get a detailed insight into the material characteristics. To correlate microstructure as well as microchemistry and materials properties the various TEM techniques for imaging, diffraction and spectroscopy have to be combined. The potential applicability of quantitative TEM will be demonstrated for different nano-sized objects, particularly for semiconductor islands, nanowires, quantum dots and for soft magnetic materials. The classical diffraction contrast method of conventional TEM is applied to analyse the size, shape and arrangement of nano-sized structures, where a quantitative analysis often requires image simulations of diffraction contrast for theoretical structure models. An alternative and powerful method is the three-dimensional reconstruction of the shape from two-dimensional phase mapping by means of electron holography. This reqires the exact calculation of the mean inner potential of the specimen. Quantitative high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (qHRTEM) has to be applied to analyse structure and chemical composition on an atomic scale of magnitude. Particularly the application of aberration-corrected HRTEM offers new possibilities for quantitative structure analysis due to a contrast transfer by means of negative spherical aberration imaging (NCSI) and the resulting strong suppression of image delocalisation effects. An example for quantitative composition analysis will be demonstrated for ternary semiconductor quantum structures by means of a combined analysis of dark-field imaging and qHRTEM. The results will be compared with analytical TEM data (energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), and energy-filtered TEM (EFTEM)). The retrieval of chemical information with atomic resolution will be illustrated for III-V semiconductor nanostructures using STEM (scanning TEM) Z-contrast imaging. The correlation of structure and magnetic properties of soft magnetic materials will be demonstrated by combined application of Lorentz microscopy and electron holography. The potential applicability of the different quantitative TEM methods will be shown for following systems:
(i) (Si,Ge) islands
(ii) ZnTe and (Zn,Mn)Te nanowires
(iii) Ga(As,Sb) quantum dots (QDs) on GaAs substrate
(iv) nc softmagnetic FeCo alloys
The possibilities and limitations of the various methods applied will be critically evaluated.
The IAU/IAG Working Group on Cartographic Coordinates & Rotational Elements published its (2006) triennial report containing current recommendations for models for solar system bodies (Seidelmann et al. 2007). P. Kenneth Seidelmann stepped down as chairperson and B. A. Archinal was elected chairperson at the Working Group business meeting that took place at the IAU XXVI General Assembly in Prague in 2006.
With the exception of iodine and Fe, there is still very limited information on the effect of micronutrients on cognitive function, especially among school-age children. The present analysis evaluates the relationship between dietary Fe, Zn and B vitamins (B12, B6, folate and riboflavin) and gains in cognitive test scores among school children in rural Kenya. Data for the present study were obtained from The Child Nutrition Kenya Project, a 2-year longitudinal, randomised controlled feeding intervention study using animal source foods. Dietary nutrient values were based on monthly and bimonthly 24 h recall data collected during the study period. In longitudinal regression analyses, available Fe, available Zn, vitamin B12 and riboflavin showed significant relationships with improved cognitive test scores, after controlling for confounders such as energy intake, school, socio-economic status and morbidity. Available Fe intake was associated with significantly higher gains in Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices test scores over time. Available Zn intake was associated with significantly higher gains in digit span-total test scores over time, while vitamin B12 and riboflavin intakes were each associated with significantly higher gains in digit span-forward test scores over time. This analysis demonstrates the influence of improved dietary micronutrient status on school children's cognitive function.
We present the adaptive optics assisted, near-infrared VLTI instrument GRAVITY for precision narrow-angle astrometry and interferometric phase referenced imaging of faint objects. With its two fibers per telescope beam, its internal wavefront sensors and fringe tracker, and a novel metrology concept, GRAVITY will not only push the sensitivity far beyond what is offered today, but will also advance the astrometric accuracy for UTs to 10 μas. GRAVITY is designed to work with four telescopes, thus providing phase referenced imaging and astrometry for 6 baselines simultaneously. Its unique capabilities and sensitivity will open a new window for the observation of a wide range of objects, and — amongst others — will allow the study of motion within a few times the event horizon size of the Galactic Center black hole.