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Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is a recognized first-line treatment for psychological trauma. However its neurobiological bases have not been disclosed yet.
Electroencephalography was used for the first time to fully monitor neuronal activation during whole EMDR sessions including the autobiographical script. Nine clients with major psychological trauma were investigated during the first EMDR session and during the last one performed after processing the index trauma. Comparisons between the EEG of the first and last EMDR session and between the EEG of the clients at the first session and those of 9 controls undergoing the same EMDR procedure were performed.
During both script listening and bilateral stimulation EEG showed significantly higher activity in the prefrontal limbic cortex (Brodmann Areas, BA 9–10) at the first as compared to the last EMDR session. The opposite comparison showed a shift of the prevalent activity towards temporal, parietal and occipital cortical regions (BAs 20, 21, 22, 37, 17, 18, 19) with leftward lateralisation. The comparison between the 9 clients and the 9 controls confirmed the maximal activation in the limbic cortex in the clients before processing the trauma.
The implemented methodology made possible to image for the first time the specific activations associated with the therapeutic actions contemplated by EMDR. The findings suggest cognitive processing of traumatic events following successful EMDR therapy supporting the evidence of distinct neurobiological patterns of brain activations during bilateral ocular stimulation associated with a significant relieve from negative emotional experiences.
Palmer amaranth is native to the United States, but was discovered in 2015 in Brazil. Palmer amaranth populations in Brazil were very difficult to control using glyphosate, which resulted in many changes to standard weed management practices. A genotyping assay was used to confirm that the population detected in Mato Grosso State, Brazil, was correctly identified as Palmer amaranth and that it was not tall waterhemp. Greenhouse dose–response curves and shikimate accumulation assays showed that the Brazilian population was highly resistant to glyphosate, with an LD50 value (3,982 g glyphosate ha−1) more than twice the typical use rates and very little shikimate accumulation at 1 mM glyphosate concentrations in a leaf-disk assay. The Brazilian population was also resistant to sulfonylurea and imidazolinone acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor herbicides. The resistance mechanisms in the Brazilian population were identified as increased EPSPS gene copy number for glyphosate resistance (between 50- and 179-fold relative EPSPS gene copy number increase) and two different alleles for target-site mutations in the ALS gene (W574L and S653N). These results confirm the introduction of Palmer amaranth to Brazil using a genetic marker for species identification, as well as resistance to glyphosate and ALS inhibitors.
Postprandial inflammation is an important factor for human health since chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with chronic diseases. Dairy products have a weak but significant anti-inflammatory effect on postprandial inflammation. The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of a high-fat dairy meal (HFD meal), a high-fat non-dairy meal supplemented with milk (HFM meal) and a high-fat non-dairy control meal (HFC meal) on postprandial inflammatory and metabolic responses in healthy men. A cross-over study was conducted in nineteen male subjects. Blood samples were collected before and 1, 2, 4 and 6 h after consumption of the test meals. Plasma concentrations of insulin, glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, TAG and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured at each time point. IL-6, TNF-α and endotoxin concentrations were assessed at baseline and endpoint (6 h). Time-dependent curves of these metabolic parameters were plotted, and the net incremental AUC were found to be significantly higher for TAG and lower for CRP after consumption of the HFM meal compared with the HFD meal; however, the HFM and HFD meals were not different from the HFC meal. Alterations in IL-6, TNF-α and endotoxin concentrations were not significantly different between the test meals. The results suggest that full-fat milk and dairy products (cheese and butter) have no significant impact on the inflammatory response to a high-fat meal.
Experimental evidence supporting the theory of hot tail runaway electron (RE) generation has been identified in TEXTOR disruptions. With higher temperature, more REs are generated during the thermal quench. Increasing the RE generation by increasing the temperature, an obvious RE plateau is observed even with low toroidal magnetic field (1.7 T). These results explain the previously found electron density threshold for RE generation.
Fast-electron beam stopping mechanisms in media ranging from solid to warm dense matter have been investigated experimentally and numerically. Laser-driven fast electrons have been transported through solid Al targets and shock-compressed Al and plastic foam targets. Their propagation has been diagnosed via rear-side optical self-emission and Kα X-rays from tracer layers. Comparison between measurements and simulations shows that the transition from collision-dominated to resistive field-dominated energy loss occurs for a fast-electron current density ~5 × 1011 A cm−2. The respective increases in the stopping power with target density and resistivity have been detected in each regime. Self-guided propagation over 200μm has been observed in radially compressed targets due to ~1kT magnetic fields generated by resistivity gradients at the converging shock front.
The growth hormone (GH)–insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis is dramatically altered in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether GH and IGF-1 could be predictors of outcome in patients with a restrictive form of AN. Blood levels of GH, IGF-1, adipocytokines, ghrelin, insulin, glucose, and sex and thyroid hormones were measured in eleven women inpatients with AN and in ten healthy women controls. Three stages were compared during refeeding: admission (T0), when BMI reached 16 kg/m2 (T1) and at discharge when BMI reached 17·5 kg/m2 (T2). Clinical status was assessed 6 months after discharge from hospital (T3), and remission was defined by the maintenance of a BMI ≥ 17·5 kg/m2. AN patients in remission (AN-R; n 6) had significantly higher GH levels at admission than those who relapsed (AN-NR; n 5) (P< 0·05). During refeeding (Δ = T2 − T0), the AN-R group differed from the AN-NR group only by both GH level decrease (P< 0·05) and BMI increase (P< 0·05). In multiple regression analysis, ΔGH was associated negatively and significantly and Δleptin and Δbody fat mass levels were associated positively and significantly with BMI at T3 and explained 88 % of its variability (r2 0·88, P< 0·05). The present study suggests that a low GH level at admission and the absence of its decrease after weight recovery could predict short-term relapse in women suffering from a restrictive form of AN.
We investigated an international outbreak of Salmonella Agona with a distinct PFGE pattern associated with an Irish Food company (company X) producing pre-cooked meat products sold in various food outlet chains in Europe. The outbreak was first detected in Ireland. We undertook national and international case-finding, food traceback and microbiological investigation of human, food and environmental samples. We undertook a matched case-control study on Irish cases. In total, 163 cases in seven European countries were laboratory-confirmed. Consumption of food from food outlet chains supplied by company X was significantly associated with being a confirmed case (mOR 18·3, 95% CI 2·2–149·2) in the case-control study. The outbreak strain was isolated from the company's pre-cooked meat products and production premises. Sufficient evidence was gathered to infer the vehicles of infection and sources of the outbreak and to justify the control measures taken, which were plant closure and food recall.
Bell's palsy is the eponym for idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis. It is named after Sir Charles Bell (1774–1842), who, in the first half of the nineteenth century, discovered the function of the facial nerve and attracted the attention of the medical world to facial paralysis. Our knowledge of this condition before Bell's landmark publications is very limited and is based on just a few documents. In 1804 and 1805, Evert Jan Thomassen à Thuessink (1762–1832) published what appears to be the first known extensive study on idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis. His description of this condition was quite accurate. He located several other early descriptions and concluded from this literature that, previously, the condition had usually been confused with other afflictions (such as ‘spasmus cynicus’, central facial paralysis and trigeminal neuralgia). According to Thomassen à Thuessink, idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis and trigeminal neuralgia were related, being different expressions of the same condition. Thomassen à Thuessink believed that idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis was caused by ‘rheumatism’ or exposure to cold. Many aetiological theories have since been proposed. Despite this, the cold hypothesis persists even today.
Interactions of laser driven plasma jets with He and Ar gas puffs was investigated experimentally by means of three-frame interferometric/shadowgraphic system and three-frame X-ray pinhole camera. A defocused iodine laser beam using the Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS) interacting with massive planar Cu targets generated high-speed well-collimated plasma jets. The PALS third harmonic (0.438 µm), with pulse duration of 250 ps (full width at half maximum), and energy of 100 J was employed in two irradiation geometries: with an incidence normal to the target surface and with an oblique one (30° with respect to the target normal), in order to minimize the heating of the ambient gas by the laser beam. The results of these interaction experiments, in particular, those obtained in case of the oblique incidence geometry, are presented and discussed. They show the effect of the double shock formation in ambient gases: starting by the ablative plasma action, followed by that of the jet.
The Deep Ice Sheet Coring (DISC) drill developed by Ice Coring and Drilling Services under contract with the US National Science Foundation is an electromechanical ice-drill system designed to take 122mm ice cores to depths of 4000 m. The new drill system was field-tested near Summit camp in central Greenland during the spring/summer of 2006. Testing was conducted to verify the performance of the DISC drill system and its individual components and to determine the modifications required prior to the system’s planned deployment for coring at the WAIS Divide site in Antarctica in the following year. The experiments, results and the drill crew’s experiences with the DISC drill during testing are described and discussed.
Deep mesa etching and surface roughening have been implemented to InAs flip-chip LEDs emitting at 3300 nm (300 K). Near field and power measurements confirmed the output power enhancement of about 2 and brightness increase with and equivalent to a black body temperature of about 1250 K.
In numerical simulations of skeletal muscle contractions, geometric
information is of major importance. The
aim of the present study was to determine whether the diffusion tensor
imaging (DTI) technique is suitable
to obtain valid input with regard to skeletal muscle fibre direction. The
accuracy of the DTI method was
therefore studied by comparison of DTI fibre directions in the rat tibialis
anterior muscle with fascicle
striation patterns visible on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging
(MRI) and with fibre directions in
an actual longitudinal section (ALS) through the same muscle. The results
showed an excellent qualitative
agreement between high-resolution MRI and DTI. Despite less accurate quantitative
comparison with ALS,
it was concluded that DTI does indeed measure skeletal muscle fibre direction.
After the experiment, it was
possible to determine an appropriate voxel size (0.9 mm3) that
provided enough resolution and acceptable
accuracy (5°) to use DTI fibre directions in biomechanical analyses.
Muscle deformation during contraction,
resulting from a finite element simulation with a mesh that was directly
generated from the experimental
data, has been presented.
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