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To assess the feasibility, reliability and validity of reflection spectroscopy (RS) to assess skin carotenoids in a racially diverse sample.
Study 1 was a cross-sectional study of corner store customers (n 479) who completed the National Cancer Institute Fruit and Vegetable Screener as well as RS measures. Feasibility was assessed by examining the time it took to complete three RS measures, reliability was assessed by examining the variation between three RS measures, and validity was examined by correlation with self-reported fruit and vegetable consumption. In Study 2, validity was assessed in a smaller sample (n 30) by examining associations between RS measures and dietary carotenoids, fruits and vegetables as calculated from a validated FFQ and plasma carotenoids.
Eastern North Carolina, USA.
It took on average 94·0 s to complete three RS readings per person. The average variation between three readings for each participant was 6·8 %. In Study 2, in models adjusted for age, race and sex, there were statistically significant associations between RS measures and (i) FFQ-estimated carotenoid intake (P<0·0001); (ii) FFQ-estimated fruit and vegetable consumption (P<0·010); and (iii) plasma carotenoids (P<0·0001).
RS is a potentially improved method to approximate fruit and vegetable consumption among diverse participants. RS is portable and easy to use in field-based public health nutrition settings. More research is needed to investigate validity and sensitivity in diverse populations.
This experiment aimed to assess the effect of different indoor winter growth rates (WGR) followed by different concentrate supplementation levels at pasture on meat quality of 90 bulls. During the first winter, bulls were offered grass silage ad libitum and either 3 kg (WGR3) or 6 kg (WGR6) of concentrates. After turn-out to pasture, bulls were offered: grass without supplementation (PO), grass plus 0.2 predicted dry matter intake (DMI) as concentrates (PL) or grass plus 0.4 predicted DMI as concentrates (PH). After finishing, colour, chemical composition (unaged), instrumental texture and sensory characteristics (14 days of ageing) of longissimus thoracis were measured. WGR6 bulls had heavier carcasses than WGR3 bulls. There was an interaction between WGR and supplementation for instrumental texture and redness (a). Within WGR3, PO beef was the most tender, whereas within WRG6, PL was the most tender. However, these differences were not detected by the sensory panel. Within WGR3, redness was the lowest for PL, whereas within WRG6, PO was the least red. No differences were found for chemical composition. The multivariate analysis highlighted WGR as the main variable affecting meat quality characteristics. In conclusion, variations in growth path exerted minor effects on appearance and instrumental texture which did not affect the perception of bull beef by a trained sensory panel.
Representing a rotation in three dimensions by a unit tensor quaternion and supposing that the errors in the measurements of a number of vector directions follow Fisher's distribution, the maximum likelihood estimator of a rotation is obtained. It is shown that the natural Haar measure for three-dimensional rotations is mapped 1:2 onto the natural Haar measure for random directions in 4-space. The natural Haar measure for rotations in 4-space is also mappable onto the product measure of the Haar measures for two separate random directions in 4-space.
The RadioAstron space-VLBI mission has successfully detected extragalactic H2O MegaMaser emission regions at very long Earth to space baselines ranging between 1.4 and 26.7 Earth Diameters (ED). The preliminary results for two galaxies, NGC 3079 and NGC 4258, at baselines longer than one ED indicate masering environments and excitation conditions in these galaxies that are distinctly different. Further observations of NGC 4258 at even longer baselines are expected to reveal more of the physics of individual emission regions.
The Submillimeter Array (SMA) has been used to image the emission from radio recombination lines of hydrogen at subarcsecond angular resolution from the young high-mass star MWC349A in the H26α, H30α, and H31α transitions at 353, 232, and 211 GHz, respectively. Emission was seen over a range of 80 km s−1 in velocity and 50 mas (corresponding to 60 AU for a distance of 1200 pc). The emission at each frequency has two distinct components, one from gas in a nearly edge-on annular disk structure in Keplerian motion, and another from gas lifted off the disk at distances of up to about 25 AU from the star. The slopes of the position-velocity (PV) curves for the disk emission show a monotonic progression of the emission radius with frequency with relative radii of 0.85 ± 0.04, 1, and 1.02 ± 0.01 for the H26α, H30α, and H31α transitions, respectively. This trend is consistent with theoretical excitation models of maser emission from a region where the density decreases with radius and the lower transitions are preferentially excited at higher densities. The mass is difficult to estimate from the PV diagrams because the wind components dominate the emission at the disk edges. The mass estimate is constrained to be only in the range of 10–30 solar masses. The distribution of the wind emission among the transitions is surprisingly different, which reflects its sensitivity to excitation conditions. The wind probably extracts significant angular momentum from the system.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Allergic asthma is a chronic lung disease driven by inappropriate inflammatory responses against inhaled allergens. Neuropilin-2 (NRP2) is a pleiotropic transmembrane receptor expressed in the lung, but its role in allergic airway inflammation is unknown. Here, we characterized NRP2 expression in lung immune cells and investigated the effects of NRP2 deficiency on airway inflammation. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: NRP2 expression by lung immune cells from NRP2 reporter mice was determined by flow cytometry. NRP2 expression by human alveolar macrophages (AM) from healthy individuals was determined by mRNA analysis and flow cytometry. Airway inflammation in NRP2-deficient mice was assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cytology and inflammatory gene expression in lung tissue. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: NRP2 expression in lung immune cells was negligible under steady-state conditions. In contrast, inhalational exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) adjuvant dramatically induced NRP2 expression in AM, as 63.3% of AM from LPS-treated mice were NRP2+ compared with 1.5% of AM from control mice. Ex vivo treatment of human AM with LPS resulted in a 1.5-fold and 2.6-fold increase in NRP2 mRNA and surface protein expression, respectively. Compared to littermate controls, NRP2-deficient mice had greater numbers of BAL leukocytes and increased lung expression of the T helper type 2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5. Furthermore, NRP2 deficiency resulted in stochastic development of allergic airway inflammation, as spontaneous airway eosinophilia was detected in 25% (2/8) of NRP2-deficient mice compared with 0% (0/8) of littermate controls. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: NRP2 is expressed by activated human and murine AM and suppresses the spontaneous development of allergic airway inflammation. These findings suggest that NRP2 may play a key role in allergic asthma pathogenesis, and could prove to be an important therapeutic target in patients with asthma and other allergic diseases.
Imaging of active regions in continuum around 1.6 μm shows that many facular regions are less bright than the photosphere when observed nearer to disk center than μ = cos θ ~ 0.75. The contrast of these dark faculae increases with magnetic flux above a threshold of approximately 2 × 1018 Mx. This explains why not all faculae are dark at 1.6 μm, since the magnetic flux density in many regions of bright Ca K plage emission falls below this threshold. After correction for blurring, the typical contrast value is about 4-5%, so the brightness temperature deficit is about 130 K. Faculae are brighter than the photosphere at 1.63 μm nearer to the limb than μ ~ 0.5. The negative contrast of dark faculae may arise from cooling of the surrounding photosphere, or from increased visibility of cool layers of the facular flux tube itself. Quantitative comparison of these IR data with MHD models awaits calculation of flux tube contrasts at realistic angular resolution.
The UK has one of the largest systems of immigration detention in Europe.. Those detained include asylum-seekers and foreign national prisoners, groups with a higher prevalence of mental health vulnerabilities compared with the general population. In light of little published research on the mental health status of detainees in immigration removal centres (IRCs), the primary aim of this study was to explore whether it was feasible to conduct psychiatric research in such a setting. A secondary aim was to compare the mental health of those seeking asylum with the rest of the detainees.
Cross-sectional study with simple random sampling followed by opportunistic sampling. Exclusion criteria included inadequate knowledge of English and European Union nationality. Six validated tools were used to screen for mental health disorders including developmental disorders like Personality Disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Intellectual Disability, as well as for needs assessment. These were the MINI v6, SAPAS, AQ-10, ASRS, LDSQ and CANFOR. Demographic data were obtained using a participant demographic sheet. Researchers were trained in the use of the screening battery and inter-rater reliability assessed by joint ratings.
A total of 101 subjects were interviewed. Overall response rate was 39%. The most prevalent screened mental disorder was depression (52.5%), followed by personality disorder (34.7%) and post-traumatic stress disorder (20.8%). 21.8% were at moderate to high suicidal risk. 14.9 and 13.9% screened positive for ASD and ADHD, respectively. The greatest unmet needs were in the areas of intimate relationships (76.2%), psychological distress (72.3%) and sexual expression (71.3%). Overall presence of mental disorder was comparable with levels found in prisons. The numbers in each group were too small to carry out any further analysis.
It is feasible to undertake a psychiatric morbidity survey in an IRC. Limitations of the study include potential selection bias, use of screening tools, use of single-site study, high refusal rates, the lack of interpreters and lack of women and children in study sample. Future studies should involve the in-reach team to recruit participants and should be run by a steering group consisting of clinicians from the IRC as well as academics.
The impact of underlying parental psychological vulnerability on the future mental health of offspring is not fully understood. Using a prospective cohort design, we investigated the association between dysfunctional parental personality traits and risks of offspring self-harm, depression and anxiety.
The association between dysfunctional parental personality traits (monotony avoidance, impulsivity, anger, suspicion, and detachment), measured in both mothers and fathers when offspring were age 9 years, and risk of offspring depression, anxiety and self-harm at age 18 years, was investigated in a population-based cohort (ALSPAC) from over 8000 parents and children.
Higher levels of dysfunctional maternal, but not paternal, personality traits were associated with an increased risk of self-harm, depression, and anxiety in offspring. Maternal associations were best explained by the accumulation of dysfunctional traits. Associations were strongest for offspring depression: Offspring of mothers with three or more dysfunctional personality traits were 2.27 (1.45–3.54, p < 0.001) times as likely to be depressed, compared with offspring of mothers with no dysfunctional personality traits, independently of maternal depression and other variables.
The accumulation of dysfunctional maternal personality traits is associated with the risk of self-harm, depression, anxiety in offspring independently of maternal depression and other confounding variables. The absence of associations for equivalent paternal traits makes a genetic explanation for the findings unlikely. Further research is required to elucidate the underlying mechanism. Mothers with high levels of dysfunctional personality traits may benefit from additional support to reduce the risk of adverse psychological outcomes occurring in their offspring.
Haiti has the highest human rabies burden in the Western Hemisphere. There is no published literature describing the public's perceptions of rabies in Haiti, information that is critical to developing effective interventions and government policies. We conducted a knowledge, attitudes and practices survey of 550 community members and 116 health professionals in Pétionville, Haiti in 2013 to understand the perception of rabies in these populations. The majority of respondents (85%) knew that dogs were the primary reservoir for rabies, yet only 1% were aware that bats and mongooses could transmit rabies. Animal bites were recognized as a mechanism of rabies transmission by 77% of the population and 76% were aware that the disease could be prevented by vaccination. Of 172 persons reporting a bite, only 37% sought medical treatment. The annual bite incidence rate in respondents was 0·9%. Only 31% of bite victims reported that they started the rabies vaccination series. Only 38% of respondents reported that their dog had been vaccinated against rabies. The majority of medical professionals recognized that dogs were the main reservoir for rabies (98%), but only 28% reported bats and 14% reported mongooses as posing a risk for rabies infection. Bites were reported as a mechanism of rabies transmission by 73% of respondents; exposure to saliva was reported by 20%. Thirty-four percent of medical professionals reported they would wash a bite wound with soap and water and 2·8% specifically mentioned rabies vaccination as a component of post-bite treatment. The majority of healthcare professionals recommended some form of rabies assessment for biting animals; 68·9% recommended a 14-day observation period, 60·4% recommended a veterinary consultation, and 13·2% recommended checking the vaccination status of the animal. Fewer than 15% of healthcare professionals had ever received training on rabies prevention and 77% did not know where to go to procure rabies vaccine for bite victims. Both study populations had a high level of knowledge about the primary reservoir for rabies and the mode of transmission. However, there is a need to improve the level of knowledge regarding the importance of seeking medical care for dog bites and additional training on rabies prevention for healthcare professionals. Distribution channels for rabies vaccines should be evaluated, as the majority of healthcare providers did not know where rabies vaccines could be obtained. Canine rabies vaccination is the primary intervention for rabies control programmes, yet most owned dogs in this population were not vaccinated.
The isotopic composition of ancient wood has the potential to provide information about past environments. We analyzed the δ13C, δ18O, and δ2H of cellulose of conifer trees from several cross-sections at each of 9 sites around the Great Lakes region ranging from ∼4000 to 14,000 cal BP. Isotopic values of Picea, Pinus, and Thuja species seem interchangeable for δ18O and δ2H comparisons, but Thuja appears distinctly different from the other 2 in its δ13C composition. Isotopic results suggest that the 2 sites of near-Younger Dryas age experienced the coldest conditions, although the Gribben Basin site near the Laurentide ice sheet was relatively dry, whereas the Liverpool site 500 km south was moister. The spatial isotopic variability of 3 of the 4 sites of Two Creeks age shows evidence of an elevation effect, perhaps related to sites farther inland from the Lake Michigan shoreline experiencing warmer daytime growing season temperatures. Thus, despite floristic similarity across sites (wood samples at 7 of the sites being Picea), the isotopes appear to reflect environmental differences that might not be readily evident from a purely floristic interpretation of macrofossil or pollen identification.
Many problems in geometrical probability have been surveyed in the monograph by Professor M. G. Kendall and myself (Kendall and Moran (1963)). In 1966 I published a note in J. Appl. Frob. 3 describing researches which had either been carried out since that book appeared, or which had escaped our notice. The present paper attempts to describe still further investigations classified roughly as to whether they are concerned with points, lines, planes, estimation of area and length, and coverage.
Close binary systems may undergo the “Common Envelope” (CE) phase when the primary star expands on the red giant branch or the asymptotic giant branch. Filling its Roche Lobe, the primary transfers mass to the companion driving it out of thermal equilibrium and causing it to expand as well. The giant core and the companion star become surrounded by a CE. When sufficient energy is deposited in the circumstellar material this will be ejected and the binary orbit will shrink further (see review by Iben 1995). Planetary nebulae (PNe) with short-period binary nuclei are considered the most probable post-CE candidates. Abell 35, Lotr 1 and Lotr 5 (the Abell 35-like objects) are the only three PNe with binary nuclei known to contain a very hot UV-bright primary and a chromospherically active, rapidly rotating, G-K companion that dominates the optical spectrum. The origin of these unusual systems is unclear and hence presents a challenge to theories of binary star evolution. Identified in 1966 by Abell, Abell 35 is possibly the largest PN known (D=1.6 pc at a distance of 360 pc, Jacoby 1981) and also the oldest (the kinematical age is 185.000 years from the small expansion velocity of 4.2 km/s, Bohuski 1974). The bright giant star BD −22° 3467 (mv = 9.6mag) lies off-center within the nebula. A white dwarf was detected at the same location in 1988 in IUE spectra obtained by Grewing and Bianchi. BD − 22° 3467 has a vsin i of 90 km/s (Vilhu et al. 1991), variable Hα and Ca II emission lines associated with chromospheric activity, and a variable light curve (P=0.76 days, Jasniewicz and Acker 1988) probably produced by the rotation of the giant star. All attempts to determine the orbital period have failed, raising doubts as to whether the nucleus of Abell 35 is a close binary at all. In pursuit of this point, we have started a radial velocity study of the giant companion.
Observations of the angular distribution of the water masers in the nucleus of NGC4258 reveal the presence of a thin molecular disk in nearly perfect Keplerian orbit (Miyoshi et al., 1995; Moran et al., 1995). About 300 galaxies have been searched for nuclear water masers to a limiting sensitivity of about 0.1 Jy (e.g., Braatz, 1996); and 16 masers have been detected. The maser imaged by Miyoshi et al. (1995) offers the best example of disk structure. VLA data of NGC1068 shows evidence of disk structure (Gallimore et al., 1996; Greenhill & Gwinn, 1996) and NGC2639 has drifting features, which may be due to centripetal acceleration (Wilson et al., 1995).
Radio astronomy has seen major advances in both instrumentation and scientific discovery during the last three years. This report is not encyclopedic but is intended to show the breadth of activity in the field. Division X is a technique-based division, and radio telescopes are becoming increasingly more international in character and usage. For these reasons this report devotes considerable attention to advances in instrumentation. More complete information on radio telescopes and scientific advances in the field can be found at the following Web site: http://www.stsci.edu/science/net-resources.html
In this paper we present a new instrument called Social Skills Questionnaire for Argentinean College Students (SSQ-U). Based on the adapted version of the Social Skills Inventory - Del Prette (SSI-Del Prette) (Olaz, Medrano, Greco, & Del Prette, 2009), we wrote new items for the scale, and carried out psychometric analysis to assess the validity and reliability of the instrument. In the first study, we collected evidence based on test content through expert judges who evaluated the quality and the relevance of the items. In the second and third studies, we provided validity evidence based on the internal structure of the instrument using exploratory (n = 1067) and confirmatory (n = 661) factor analysis. Results suggested a five-factor structure consistent with the dimensions of social skills, as proposed by Kelly (2002). The fit indexes corresponding to the obtained model were adequate, and composite reliability coefficients of each factor were excellent (above .75). Finally, in the fourth study, we provided evidence of convergent and discriminant validity. The obtained results allow us to conclude that the SSQ-U is the first valid and reliable instrument for measuring social skills in Argentinean college students.
Our previous observations established the small angular size and high brightness temperature of emission from the v=1, J=1-0 transition of SiO from the circumstellar envelopes of the supergiant VX Sgr and the Mira variable R Cas. We performed a second VLBI experiment on the SiO masers in several late type stars on 31 Oct.-2 Nov. 1978 to compare the physical characteristics of the SiO masers in the v=1 and v=2 states. With an energy separation of 1258 cm-1 (an equivalent temperature of 1753 K) between the two vibrational states, differences in excitation and pumping of the maser states may lead to different maser properties.
Little is known about the relative extent of crime against people with
severe mental illness (SMI).
To assess the prevalence and impact of crime among people with SMI
compared with the general population.
A total of 361 psychiatric patients were interviewed using the national
crime survey questionnaire, and findings compared with those from 3138
general population controls participating in the contemporaneous national
Past-year crime was experienced by 40% of patients v.
14% of controls (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.8, 95% CI 2.0–3.8); and
violent assaults by 19% of patients v. 3% of controls
(adjusted OR = 5.3, 95% CI 3.1–8.8). Women with SMI had four-, ten- and
four-fold increases in the odds of experiencing domestic, community and
sexual violence, respectively. Victims with SMI were more likely to
report psychosocial morbidity following violence than victims from the
People with SMI are at greatly increased risk of crime and associated
morbidity. Violence prevention policies should be particularly focused on
people with SMI.