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Restricted growth in utero and accelerated postnatal growth (APG) in the postnatal period have been associated with the development of overweight, obesity and an increased cardiovascular risk in childhood. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the influence of prenatal and perinatal conditions on APG and to evaluate the influence of this APG on different cardiovascular risk factors such as body mass index (BMI), body fat mass index (FMI), blood pressure (BP) and arterial wall stiffness [carotid to femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV)]. All measurements were performed in 355 children (185 boys and 170 girls; 8–11 years). Data on mother weight before and during pregnancy, gestational age (weeks), birth weight (g) and breastfeeding of children were obtained through interviews with families. Children who presented APG were born of mothers with lower BMIs before pregnancy and who gained less weight during the second trimester of pregnancy. They also have a lower gestational age and birth weight, a shorter duration of breastfeeding and a longer duration of artificial feeding (AF). Later in childhood, they had higher values of cf-PWV, BMI, FMI and higher prevalence of hypertension. Low maternal gestational weight gain, inadequate fetal development (low birth weight, shorter gestational age) and reduced breastfeeding duration favor APG. Infants with such APG had higher values of cf-PWV, BP, BMI and FMI later in childhood, along with a higher risk of hypertension and obesity. The interaction between APG and a longer duration of AF had a negative effect on cf-PWV (arterial stiffness) and FMI.
This study explains the erosion of conservative rule and the rise of leftist opposition at the subnational level in the Northeast of Brazil in recent electoral cycles. Compared with explanations based on economic modernization, social spending, and fiscal reform, the data best support the hypothesis that the organizational and spatial dimensions of leftist mobilization in these states have shifted to the detriment of conservative machines. Specifically, urban mobilization of leftist supporters has determined the electoral success of these oppositions. The study also explains where conservatives maintain a floor of support based on the continuation of clientele networks.
It is difficult to argue with success. Brazil’s public steel firms—once the crown jewels of a state-led model of development—were, by the late 1980s, heavily indebted, unproductive, and dependent on the financial support of a state in fiscal crisis. As if by a wave of the proverbial magic wand, their privatization in the period 1990–94 made them exponentially more productive, financially sound, and competitive. Of the eight major Brazilian steel enterprises, seven were returning profits by the end of 1994. One of the seven, Usiminas, became the most profitable private firm in Brazil in 1993, two years after it was privatized.
Comparative examples of “good government” at the subnational level may underanalyze the “public goods” problem facing politicians. Delegating authority and resources to policymaking agencies is possible when political conflict is low. The benefits can be maintained only if public agencies establish ties of “horizontal embeddedness” with industrial clients. This case study of innovative industrial policymaking in Minas Gerais, which is compared with one from Rio de Janeiro, finds that horizontal, interagency ties were critical to policy success. The contrast leads to an examination of the mineiro system's efficacy in promoting externalities, attracting foreign investment, and planning infrastructure in the state's automotive industry.
Because individuals develop dementia as a manifestation of neurodegenerative or neurovascular disorder, there is a need to develop reliable approaches to their identification. We are undertaking an observational study (Ontario Neurodegenerative Disease Research Initiative [ONDRI]) that includes genomics, neuroimaging, and assessments of cognition as well as language, speech, gait, retinal imaging, and eye tracking. Disorders studied include Alzheimer’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson’s disease, and vascular cognitive impairment. Data from ONDRI will be collected into the Brain-CODE database to facilitate correlative analysis. ONDRI will provide a repertoire of endophenotyped individuals that will be a unique, publicly available resource.
The MIRAGE sample (Merging & isolated high-redshift AMR galaxies; Perret 2014, PhD dissertation; Perret et al. 2014, AA 562, 1) has been built in order to understand the contribution of the merger processes to the mass assembly in the MASSIV (Mass Assembly Survey with SINFONI in VVDS, Contini et al. 2012, AA 539, 91) sample. It consists of a sample of idealized simulations based on the RAMSES code; the initial conditions were designed to reproduce the physical properties of the most gas-rich young galaxies. The sample is composed of 20 simulations of mergers exploring the initial parameters of mass and orientation of the disks with a spatial resolution reaching 7 parsecs.
Polycrystalline and mono-crystalline CVD diamonds have been investigated in relation to radiation dosimetry applications. In this work we report results on the thermoluminescence (TL), afterglow (AG) and dosimetric performance on two mono-crystalline CVD diamonds containing boron and silicon as doping materials. The samples were exposed to beta (Sr90/Y90) in the dose range of 0.07-8.26 Gy and UV light in the range of 200-400 nm, followed in both cases, by TL and AG read-outs. The boron doped sample exhibited one main TL peak at 130 °C and some overlapped peaks around 250 °C and the silicon doped samples exhibited two TL peaks around 148 and 286 °C after the crystals were subjected to beta radiation. UV radiation exposed samples showed two main TL peaks around 139 oC for boron doped, with overlapped components in the high temperature side, and at 220 and 355 oC for silicon doped samples. The integrated TL and AG intensities reached saturation around to 3.0 and 1.0 Gy in boron and silicon doped samples, respectively. The AG signal from boron doped samples reached saturation for around 60 s of 230 nm UV light irradiation and the silicon doped sample showed a linear response up to 10 minutes of 300 nm UV exposure with no apparent saturation for higher irradiation times. The TL/AG behavior of the present CVD diamond indicates the promising applications of these materials as TL/AG dosimeter for ionizing and UV radiation.
Understanding the different mechanisms of galaxy assembly at various cosmic epochs is a key issue for galaxy evolution and formation models. We present MASSIV (Mass Assembly Survey with SINFONI in VVDS) in this context, an on-going survey with VLT/SINFONI aiming to probe the kinematics and chemical abundances of a unique sample of 84 star-forming galaxies selected in the redshift range z ~ 1−2. This large sample, spanning a wide range of stellar masses, is unique at these high redshifts and statistically representative of the overall galaxy population. In this paper, we give an overview of the MASSIV survey and then focus on the spatially-resolved chemical properties of high-z galaxies and their implication on the process of galaxy assembly.
A comparative study of three main igneous rock associations that plot in the K2O–SiO2 diagram shoshonite field: shoshonite series absarokites–shoshonites–banakites (henceforth referred to as shoshonites s.l.), vaugnerites, and potassic lamprophyres, reveals that similarities between the associations are superficial. Vaugnerites and lamprophyres are more magnesian, richer in large ion lithophile and high field strength elements and have higher light rare earth/heavy rare earth ratios than shoshonites. Furthermore, shoshonites have low radiogenic heat production, typical of subduction-related rocks, but most vaugnerites and some lamprophyres are highly radioactive. Relative to bulk-Earth, shoshonites have depleted, asthenospheric mantle-like Sr and Nd isotope signatures, whereas vaugnerites and potassic lamprophyres have enriched, crust or lithospheric mantle-like compositions. Though vaugnerites and some lamprophyres show evidence of crustal contamination, the contaminated magma was not originally shoshonitic. Their composition is consistent with derivation from a metasomatised upper mantle source enriched long before melting, thus precluding an active subduction setting. In conclusion, the term shoshonite, implying late-stage arc magmas, cannot be applied to a rock series simply because it plots into the K2O–SiO2 diagram shoshonite field. Shoshonites with a subduction-related source may, however, be identified by discriminant function analysis.
Dating the pre-Middle Ordovician metavolcanic rocks and metagranites of the Ollo de Sapo Domain has, historically, been difficult because of the small compositional variation, the effects of the Variscan orogeny and, as revealed in this paper, the unusually high fraction of inherited zircon components. The first reliable zircon data (U–Pb ion microprobe and Pb–Pb stepwise evaporation) indicate that the Ollo de Sapo volcanism spanned 495±5 Ma to 483±3 Ma, and was followed by the intrusion of high-level granites from 483±3 Ma to 474±4 Ma. In both metavolcanic rocks and metagranites, no less than 70–80% of zircon grains are either totally Precambrian or contain a Precambrian core overgrown by a Cambro-Ordovician rim. About 80–90% of inherited zircons are Early Ediacaran (602–614 Ma) and derived from calc-alkaline intermediate to felsic igneous rocks generated at the end of the Pan-African arc–continent collision. In the Villadepera region, located to the west, both the metagranites and metavolcanic rocks also contain Meso-Archaean zircons (3.0–3.2 Ga) which ultimately originated from the West African Craton. In the Hiendelaencina region, located to the east, both the metagranites and metavolcanic rocks lack Meso-Archaean zircons, but they have two different inherited zircon populations, one Cryogenian (650–700 Ma) and the other Tonian (850–900 Ma), which suggest older-than-Ediacaran additional island-arc components. The different proportion of source components and the marked variation of the 87Sr/86Srinit. suggest, at least tentatively, that the across-arc polarity of the remnants of the Pan-African arc of Iberia trended east–west (with respect to the current coordinates) during Cambro-Ordovician times, and that the passive margin was situated to the west.