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The World Health Organization recently reported that maternal mental health is a major public health concern. As many as one in four women suffer from psychiatric disorders at some point during pregnancy or the first postpartum year. Furthermore, self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITBs) represent one of the leading causes of death among women during this time. Thus, efforts to identify women at risk for serious forms of psychopathology and especially for SITBs are of utmost importance. Despite this urgency, current single-diagnostic approaches fail to recognize a significant subset of women who are vulnerable to perinatal stress and distress. The current study was among the first to investigate emotion dysregulation—a multilevel, transdiagnostic risk factor for psychopathology—and its associations with stress, distress, and SITBs in a sample of pregnant women (26–40 weeks gestation) recruited to reflect a range of emotion dysregulation. Both self-reported emotion dysregulation and respiratory sinus arrhythmia, a biomarker of emotion dysregulation, demonstrated expected associations with measures of mental health, including depression, anxiety, borderline personality pathology, and SITBs. In addition, self-reported emotion dysregulation was associated with blunted respiratory sinus arrhythmia responsivity to an ecologically valid infant cry task. Findings add to the literature considering transdiagnostic risk during pregnancy using a multiple-levels-of-analysis approach.
We investigated whether neurobehavioral markers of risk for emotion dysregulation were evident among newborns, as well as whether the identified markers were associated with prenatal exposure to maternal emotion dysregulation. Pregnant women (N = 162) reported on their emotion dysregulation prior to a laboratory assessment. The women were then invited to the laboratory to assess baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and RSA in response to an infant cry. Newborns were assessed after birth via the NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale. We identified two newborn neurobehavioral factors—arousal and attention—via exploratory factor analysis. Low arousal was characterized by less irritability, excitability, and motor agitation, while low attention was related to a lower threshold for auditory and visual stimulation, less sustained attention, and poorer visual tracking abilities. Pregnant women who reported higher levels of emotion dysregulation had newborns with low arousal levels and less attention. Larger decreases in maternal RSA in response to cry were also related to lower newborn arousal. We provide the first evidence that a woman's emotion dysregulation while pregnant is associated with risks for dysregulation in her newborn. Implications for intergenerational transmission of emotion dysregulation are discussed.
The development of executive function (EF) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been investigated using only “cool”-cognitive EF tasks while there is limited knowledge regarding the development of “hot”-affective EF. Although cool EF development and its links to theory of mind (ToM) have been widely examined, understanding of the influence of hot EF to ToM mechanisms is minimal. The present study introduced a longitudinal design to examine the developmental changes in cool and hot EF of children with ASD (n = 45) and matched (to age and IQ) controls (n = 37) as well as the impact of EF on ToM development over a school year. For children with ASD, although selective cool (working memory and inhibition) and hot (affective decision making) EF domains presented age-related improvements, they never reached the performance level of the control group. Early cool working memory predicted later ToM in both groups but early hot delay discounting predicted later ToM only in the ASD group. No evidence was found for the reverse pattern (early ToM predicting later EF). These findings suggest that improvements in some EF aspects are evident in school age in ASD and highlight the crucial role that both cool and hot EF play in ToM development.
Maternal perinatal depression exerts pervasive effects on the developing brain, as evidenced by electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns that differ between children of women who do and do not meet DSM or ICD diagnostic criteria. However, little research has examined if the same EEG pattern of right-frontal alpha asymmetry exists in newborns and thus originates in utero independent of postnatal influences, and if depressive symptoms are associated with this neural signature. Utilizing 125-lead EEG (n=18), this study considered clinician-rated maternal prenatal depressive symptoms in relation to newborn EEG. Maternal depressive symptomatology was associated with greater relative right-frontal alpha asymmetry during quiet sleep. These results suggest that even subclinical levels of maternal depression may influence infant brain development, and further support the role of the prenatal environment in shaping children’s future neurobehavioral trajectories.
We show how to apply convolution quadrature (CQ) to approximate the time domain electric field integral equation (EFIE) for electromagnetic scattering. By a suitable choice of CQ, we prove that the method is unconditionally stable and has the optimal order of convergence. Surprisingly, the resulting semi discrete EFIE is dispersive and dissipative, and we analyze this phenomena. Finally, we present numerical results supporting and extending our convergence analysis.
There is a small, but growing, body of research investigating peer-victimisation between preschoolers, an age which has been identified as being important both theoretically and practically for the development of interventions. This study compares aggressive and defending behaviour and victim status of preschoolers in three European countries; England, Spain and Italy. The results provide further confirmation that some children behave aggressively towards their peers during preschool in each of the countries studied. There are similarities between preschool children involved in peer-victimisation in the three countries in terms of the roles taken, sex differences and the types of aggressive behaviours used and experienced by the children. There were differences in the profiles of children identified as taking the roles by teachers and peers. Overall, it was found that those children identified by peers or teachers as being aggressive were more likely to be male, rated as physically strong and more likely to be rejected by classmates. Also, in general, the targets of peer-victimisation differed depending on the reporter. Peer-nominated victims were not identifiable in terms of gender, popularity or physical strength. Teacher-nominated victims were more likely to be socially rejected and physically weak. There are several subtle differences between the countries which deserve further investigation. The findings are discussed in relation to furthering our understanding of the development of peer-victimisation in preschools and the need for interventions which address this phenomenon.
Bullying has a tendency to be associated with aggression between children in the playground, but bullying and abuse can also be observed in other social settings. Bullying in Different Contexts brings together, for the first time, leading international researchers to discuss these behaviours in a wide range of settings, including preschool, school, the home, residential care, prisons, the workplace and cyberspace. The authors provide background to the different contexts, discuss the impact and types of interpersonal aggression and the characteristics of those involved. A final chapter collates the findings from each context to draw conclusions on the similarities and differences between the behaviours, risk factors for involvement and theoretical approaches to explain bullying. This original volume will further our understanding of bullying and inform preventative and intervention work. The authors seek to show how research from diverse settings may inform our understanding of the bullying phenomenon as a whole.
Bullying is widely recognised as being a problem, not only for those individuals involved, but also for the organisation within which it occurs and the wider community. Few people can be unaware of bullying, either having been involved in it (as a perpetrator or target), having witnessed it occurring or seen it reported within the local or national media. Although bullying has long been recognised as an issue that warrants concern and action, empirical research on the topic only really began in the late 1970s. Since this time, there have been many books and journal articles published on this important topic. Work on dealing with and preventing bullying has come from many different quarters, from governments creating laws for dealing with and punishing bullying, and drawing up legal guidelines for institutions to follow with the aim of preventing bullying, to practitioners developing models of intervention and prevention work with those suffering or at risk of being involved in bullying.
We currently have an established body of research focusing on the nature and extent of bullying, as well as highlighting some of the risk factors for involvement in bullying (both individual and situational) across a number of different contexts. Much of this research could be criticised as being somewhat atheoretical and descriptive. However, the authors within this volume have drawn on theory in an attempt to develop models to further our understanding of the phenomenon.
There is an extensive body of research which has examined the bullying behaviours of schoolchildren during middle childhood and adolescence (see Smith, Chapter 3). Fewer studies have focused on children during preschool/kindergarten (between the ages of three and six years in most Western countries). Preschool settings may vary considerably within and between countries and attendance at preschool is not compulsory in most countries. However, according to UNICEF (2008), in developed countries, approximately 80 per cent of children in this age range spend some time in out-of-home child-care settings. Therefore, it is clearly important to explore the development of children's relationships with peers (including peer-victimisation) at this point.
The comparative lack of research with preschoolers is probably a reflection of the methods used to ask about bullying, which, in the main, have employed anonymous self-report questionnaires (e.g. the Olweus Bullying Questionnaire), and which are inappropriate for use with young children because of their more limited reading and writing skills. During the last decade, researchers have developed new methods of finding out about bullying and have begun to investigate these behaviours among younger children. Researching these behaviours among children during preschool/kindergarten (when their first peer-relations may develop) may provide insights into the ways in which peer-victimisation develops and provide us with methods of dealing with it early on, before it becomes an established part of a child's social repertoire.
In editing this book, we have illustrated that bullying and abuse emerge over the lifespan of human beings. It is identified within each of the settings detailed in the book and has serious mental and physical consequences for those involved, as well as associated costs for families, schools, organisations and society. Our vision was to obtain subject matter experts' perspectives on current research and practice within each of these different contexts, as well as debate possible avenues of research and practice that may cross settings. In creating this reference, our vision is that individuals interested in bullying and abuse in one specific context may learn from other contexts and consider adapting methodologies, models, interventions, and so forth to their own area of research or practice. Whilst we accept there will be contextual limitations and unique elements to different settings, we also argue that a greater appreciation of bullying and abuse more widely may enable us to develop common theoretical frameworks and interventions to better understand and reduce this phenomenon.
We are conscious that the book should not spread panic or present the idea that the human experience is plagued with abuse, bullying and neglect. Whilst this is theoretically possible, we cannot envisage the likelihood that the same individual will become a continual victim who is bullied or cyberbullied at school and at home by their siblings, is taken into care and bullied by other children, then, as they develop and start to form relationships, is abused by their partner.
In this paper we shall discuss plane wave methods for approximating the time-harmonic wave equation paying particular attention to the Ultra Weak Variational Formulation (UWVF). This method is essentially a Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method in which the approximating functions are special traces of solutions of the underlying Helmholtz equation. We summarize the known error analysis for this method, as well as recent attempts to improve the conditioning of the resulting linear system. There are several refinement strategies that can be used to improve the accuracy of the computed solution: h-refinement in which the mesh is refined with a fixed number of basis functions per element, the p-version in which the number of approximating functions per element is increased with a fixed mesh, and a combined hp strategy. We shall provide some numerical results on h and p convergence showing how methods of this type can sometimes provide an efficient solver.
Traditional methods for discretizing the Helmholtz equation based on using the equation directly suffer from the problem that they become rapidly more expensive as the wave number k (see Eq. (1.1)) increases. For example, finite element, finite difference, finite volume and discontinuous Galerkin methods all suffer from “pollution error” due to the fact that discrete waves have a slightly different wavelength than their exact counterparts (since this error in the wavelength depends on the wave number k, this leads to the “dispersion” of a wave).
Field experiments were conducted in Alabama during 1999 and 2000 to test the hypothesis that any glyphosate-induced yield suppression in glyphosate-resistant cotton would be less with irrigation than without irrigation. Yield compensation was monitored by observing alterations in plant growth and fruiting patterns. Glyphosate treatments included a nontreated control, 1.12 kg ai/ha applied POST at the 4-leaf stage, 1.12 kg/ha applied DIR at the prebloom stage, and 1.12 kg/ha applied POST at 4-leaf and postemergence directed (DIR) at the prebloom cotton stages. The second variable, irrigation treatment, was established by irrigating plots individually with overhead sprinklers or maintaining them under dryland, nonirrigated conditions. Cotton yield and all measured parameters including lint quality were positively affected by irrigation. Irrigation increased yield 52% compared to nonirrigated cotton. Yield and fiber quality effects were independent of glyphosate treatments. Neither yield nor any of the measured variables that reflected whole plant response were influenced by glyphosate treatment or by a glyphosate by irrigation interaction.