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Nitrogen (N) leached into groundwater from urine patches of cattle grazing in situ is an environmental problem in pasture-based dairy industries. One potential mitigation is to breed cattle for lower urinary nitrogen (UN) excretion. Urinary nitrogen is difficult to measure, while milk urea nitrogen concentration (MUN) is relatively easy to measure. For animals fed diets of differing N content in confinement, MUN is moderately heritable and is positively related to UN. However, there is little information on the heritability of MUN, and its relationship with other traits such as milk yield and composition, for animals grazing fresh pasture. Milk urea nitrogen concentration data together with milk yield, fat, protein and lactose composition and somatic cell count was collected from 133 624 Holstein-Friesian (HF), Jersey (J) and HF×J (XBd) cows fed predominantly pasture over three full lactations and one part lactation. Mean MUN was 14.0; and 14.4, 13.2 and 13.9 mg/dl for HF, J and XBd cows, respectively. Estimates of heritability of MUN were 0.22 using a repeatability model that fitted year-of-lactation by month-of-lactation by cow-age with days-in-milk within month-of-lactation and cow-age, and 0.28 using a test-day model analysis with Gibbs sampling methods. Sire breeding values (BVs) ranged from −2.8 to +3.2 indicating that MUN could be changed by selection. The genetic correlation between MUN and percent true protein in milk was −0.22; −0.29 for J cows and −0.16 for HF cows. Should the relationship between MUN and UN observed in dietary manipulation studies hold similarly when MUN is manipulated by genetic selection, UN excretion could be reduced by 6.6 kg/cow per year in one generation of selection using sires with low MUN BVs. Although J cows had lower MUN than HF, total herd UN excretion may be similar for the same fixed feed supply because more J cows are required to utilise the available feed. The close relationship between blood plasma urea N concentration and MUN may enable early selection of bulls to breed progeny that excrete less UN.
The Galactic Center contains large amounts of molecular and ionized gas as well as a plethora of energetic objects. Water masers are an extinction-insensitive probe for star formation and thus ideal for studies of star formation stages in this highly obscured region. With the Australia Telescope Compact Array, we observed 22 GHz water masers in the entire Central Molecular Zone with sub-parsec resolution as part of the large SWAG survey: “Survey of Water and Ammonia in the Galactic Center”. We detect of order 600 22 GHz masers with isotropic luminosities down to ~10−7 L⊙. Masers with luminosities of ≳10−6 L⊙ are likely associated with young stellar objects. They appear to be close to molecular gas streamers and may be due to star formation events that are triggered at pericenter passages near Sgr A*. Weaker masers are more widely distributed and frequently show double line features, a tell-tale sign for an origin in evolved star envelopes.
Maternal smoking has consistently been associated with multiple adverse childhood outcomes including externalizing disorders. In contrast the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) and internalizing (anxiety and depressive) disorders in offspring has received less investigation.
We conducted a nationwide cohort study including 957635 individuals born in Denmark between 1991 and 2007. Data on MSDP and diagnoses of depression or anxiety disorders were derived from national registers and patients were followed up from the age of 5 years to the end of 2012. Hazard rate ratios (HRRs) were estimated using stratified Cox regression models. Sibling data were used to disentangle individual- and familial-level effects of MSDP and to control for unmeasured familial confounding.
At the population level, offspring exposed to MSDP were at increased risk for both severe depression [HRR 1.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22–1.36] and severe anxiety disorders (HRR 1.26, 95% CI 1.20–1.32) even when controlling for maternal and paternal traits. However, there was no association between MSDP and internalizing disorders when controlling for the mother's propensity for MSDP (depression: HRR 1.11, 95% CI 0.94–1.30; anxiety disorders: HRR 0.94, 95% CI 0.80–1.11) or comparing differentially exposed siblings (depression: HRR 1.18, 95% CI 0.75–1.89; anxiety disorders: HRR 0.87, 95% CI 0.55–1.36).
The results suggest that familial background factors account for the association between MSDP and severe internalizing disorders not the specific exposure to MSDP.
We present the first results from SWAN: “Survey of Water and Ammonia in Nearby galaxies”. Nearby galaxies are conveniently located to probe molecular gas properties on scales of 10 to 200 pc, which are appropriate for the study of Giant Molecular Clouds (GMCs). The resolution of the Very Large Array in D and C configurations corresponds to a few 10s of parsecs in these galaxies. To advance studies of galaxy evolution it is paramount to understand how processes in the molecular Interstellar Medium(ISM) and star formation are linked on these scales. We have observed the metastable transitions of ammonia and the 22GHz water maser line in four nearby galaxies: NGC 253, IC 342, NGC 2146, and NGC 6946 using the VLA. These galaxies were chosen to span an order of magnitude in star formation rate, and a range of galactic ecosystems. We use the ammonia transitions to derive kinetic temperatures, which exposes the heating and cooling balance of the ISM. We then aim to relate these conditions to energetic feedback from star formation as indicated by water masers.
Currently, our analysis is focused on NGC 253. NGC 253 is a barred spiral starburst galaxy with a nucleated star formation rate (SFR) of ≈ 3M⊙ per year. We use a distance of 3.9Mpc for analysis. We have observed ammonia transitions (1,1) to (5,5) and the 22GHz water maser line with a resolution of ≈63pc. We have identified nine regions across the nucleated starburst for study. The ammonia (3,3) line appears to be masing in the centermost 200pc. We have identified two regions of water maser emission. The first region is a minor axis extension, about the center of the galaxy, and is very close to the outflow. By means of these measurements, we gain an understanding of the molecular ISM associated with the nucleated starburst environment in NGC 253.
PECVD growth of the microcrystalline silicon junction on a highly textured amorphous top cell often leads to defective absorber layers and finally to low quality bottom cell. This paper reports on the current status of using an innovative smoothening/reflective layer (SRL) as alternative intermediate reflector between top and bottom cell of a Micromorph tandem device deposited on as-grown highly textured LPCVD ZnO layer. Manufacturing of the SRL layer is realized by “liquid phase” deposition technologies. Optical and electrical properties, smoothening effect and photoelectrical results of Micromorph tandem devices are discussed. The implementation of our novel SRL results in the growth of a crack-free bottom cell and to an efficient current transfer from the bottom to the top cell.
Osteohistological characteristics of the large temnospondyl amphibian Metoposaurus diagnosticus from the Upper Triassic of Poland (Krasiejów locality) were determined using vertebral intercentra thin-sections from different regions and growth stages. The intercentra showed a trabecular structure in both the endochondral and periosteal domains. Endochondral ossification developed first, and the primary bone occurs near the periphery with a higher degree of remodelling in the centre. Periosteal bone deposition begins later; first on the ventral side, continuing laterally and finally onto the dorsal side. Periosteal growth rate was initially very rapid, and then subsequently decreased in rate. In all sections, numerous remains of calcified cartilage are visible, which may indicate a juvenile, paedomorphic or plesiomorphic character. The four histologic ontogenetic stages (HOS) of sampled vertebrae were determined based on growth marks. Most of the sampled bones belong to juvenile individuals (HOS 1 to 3), apart from one atlas and the largest anterior dorsal intercentrum, which represent the oldest described stage (HOS 4). Sharpey's fibres are preserved in ventro-lateral cortical regions, around parapophyses and on the posterior side of the neural arch.
Mineral borates, the primary industrial source of boron, are found in a large variety of compositions. One such source, kernite (Na2B4O6(OH)2·3H2O), offers an array of challenges for traditional electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA)—it is hygroscopic, an electrical insulator, composed entirely of light elements, and sensitive to both low pressures and the electron beam. However, the approximate stoichiometric composition of kernite can be analyzed with careful preparation, proper selection of reference materials, and attention to the details of quantification procedures, including correction for the time dependency of the sodium X-ray signal. Moreover, a reasonable estimation of the mineral's water content can also be made by comparing the measured oxygen to the calculated stoichiometric oxygen content. X-ray diffraction, variable-pressure electron imaging, and visual inspection elucidate the structural consequences of high vacuum treatment of kernite, while Auger electron spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirm electron beam-driven migration of sodium and oxygen out of the near-surface region (sampling depth ≈ 2 nm). These surface effects are insufficiently large to significantly affect the EPMA results (sampling depth ≈ 400 nm at 5 keV).
This study examines a sediment core (SR-63) from a mangrove ecosystem along the Sibun River in Belize, which is subject to both changes in sea-level and in the characteristics of the river's drainage basin. Radiocarbon dates from the core show a decreased sedimentation rate from ~ 6 ka to 1 cal ka BP and a marked change in lithology from primarily mangrove peat to fluvial-derived material at ~ 2.5 cal ka BP. Changes in the sedimentation rates observed in mangrove ecosystems offshore have previously been attributed to changes in relative sea-level and the rate of sea-level rise. Pollen analyses show a decreased abundance of Rhizophora (red mangrove) pollen and an increased abundance of Avicennia (black mangrove) pollen and non-mangrove pollen coeval with the decreased sedimentation rates. Elemental ratios ([N:C]a) and stable isotope analyses (δ15N and δ13C) show that changes in the composition of the organic material are also coeval with the change in lithology. The decrease in sedimentation rate at the site of core SR-63 and at offshore sites supports the idea that regional changes in hydrology occurred during the Holocene in Belize, influencing both mainland and offshore mangrove ecosystems.
To counteract plasma instabilities like Neoclassical Tearing Modes (NTM-modes) in nuclear fusion reactors (JET, ITER, DEMO) high power microwaves are used for the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) and for the plasma current drive (CD). The foreseen power level for ITER (Cadarache, France) is Ptot = 24 MW at f = 170 GHz. Each transmission line is designed for a maximum of 2 MW power. The vacuum and tritium barrier to the ITER vacuum vessel is realized by a CVD diamond disk window assembly. Diamond has an extremely high thermal conductivity of about k = 2100 W/Km and a very low loss tangent of tan δ < 10-5 for this frequency and shows therefore a very small microwave absorption. The normalized absorbed power A=Pabs/P0 can be calculated as A = (f/c) • π • (1+εr‘) • tan δ • t (with the rule of thumb estimate: (f/c)=0.5 mm-1; π • (1+εr‘) = 20; tan δ =10-5; A=10-4 • t [mm]); i.e. each t = 1 mm thickness of diamond absorbs Pabs = 100 W of Po = 1 MW microwave power transmitted through the CVD diamond window with an effective tanδ of 10-5.
Information and communication technologies, especially in the forms of mobile telecommunications, satellite imaging, and geographical information systems, promise to significantly improve the practice of humanitarian relief. A working group convened at the Humanitarian Action Summit 2009, has begun investigating the challenges to implementing these technologies in field operations, keeping in mind the ethical considerations of linking people to place, and pledging to build a community of practice among academics, practitioners, and developers.
The genus Cryptomys contains a number of social, subterranean rodents that are widely distributed throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Specimens of Cryptomys from 23 localities in south-west Zambia were karyotyped using a standard staining protocol. A minimum of five metaphases per specimen was scored for 2n and the fundamental number (NF) was determined in females. Nine new karyotypes, which may represent several new species, were identified: (1) 2n=42, NF=78 (Dongo, Southern Province); (2) 2n=44, NF=76 (Salujinga, North-western Province); (3) 2n=45, NF=78 (Lochinvar, Southern Province); (4) 2n=52, NF=86 (Chinyingi, North-western Province); (5) 2n=54, NF=78 (Monze, Southern Province); (6) 2n=56, NF=76 (Watopa, North-western Province); (7) 2n=58, NF=80 (Livingstone, Southern Province); (8) 2n=58, NF=86 (Senanga, Western Province); (9) 2n=60, NF=82 (Kataba, Western Province; type locality of C. damarensis micklemi). Contrary to previous reports, the specimens from Kataba and Senanga on the left bank of the Zambezi do not correspond to C. damarensis and should be considered a separate species: C. micklemi (as confirmed by molecular analyses; Ingram, Burda & Honeycutt, 2004). According to the karyotype, C. damarensis occurs only on the right bank of the Zambezi River in the Western Province. In contrast to the high karyotypic variability on the right bank of the Kafue River, it was found that C. anselli (2n=68) is widely distributed throughout the Central province on the left bank of the Kafue River. The resulting pattern of occurrence of the different karyotypes correlates well with the extant river system configuration that separates most karyotypes. We hypothesize that geomorphological changes and in particular river system dynamics in recent geological times have played an important role in the chromosomal diversification and may have provided opportunities for speciation to occur.
Diffusion coefficients and accessible porosities for HTO were measured on 30 samples from the Andra Underground Rock Laboratory in Meuse/Haute-Marne (France) using the through diffusion technique. Two distinct geological formations were studied: Oxfordian limestone and Callovo-oxfordian argillite between 166 and 477 m depth. The experiences were carried out with synthetic pore-water from each formation. The measured values of the effective diffusion coefficients (De) are ranging from 2.6× 10-12 to 12.4 × 10-11 m2 s-1 while accessible porosities (ε) are between 2.4 and 24%. Good correlations are found between these two parameters.