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Destruction of tropical rainforests reduces many unprotected habitats to small fragments of remnant forests within agricultural matrices. To date, these remnant forest fragments have been largely disregarded as wildlife habitat, and little is known about mammalian use of these areas in Sumatra. Here, we conducted camera trap surveys (2285 trap-nights) within Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park and five surrounding remnant forest fragments during 2010–2013 and used species composition metrics to compare use. We found 28 mammal species in the protected forest and 21 in the fragments. The fragments harboured a subset of species found in the protected forest and several species not observed in the protected forest. Critically endangered species such as Sunda pangolin (Manis javanica) and Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) were found in the forest fragments, along with species of conservation concern such as marbled cat (Pardofelis marmorata) and Asiatic golden cat (Pardofelis temminckii). The biodiversity found within the fragments suggests that these small patches of remnant forest may have conservation value to certain mammal species and indicates the importance of further research into the role these habitats may play in landscape-level, multispecies conservation planning.
The majority of sulfide mineral patterns in the International Centre for Diffraction Data Mineral Powder Diffraction File have historically been of low quality (e.g., FN < 10 and qualitative intensities). A five-year study has resulted in upgrading approximately 20% of the poorer quality patterns and will triple the number of “star quality” patterns. This paper describes the experimental methods used to obtain these upgraded patterns. The essential role of diffraction pattern calculations and diffractogram simulations is stressed.
Current methods of control recruitment for case-control studies can be slow (a particular issue for outbreak investigations), resource-intensive and subject to a range of biases. Commercial market panels are a potential source of rapidly recruited controls. Our study evaluated food exposure data from these panel controls, compared with an established reference dataset. Market panel data were collected from two companies using retrospective internet-based surveys; these were compared with reference data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS). We used logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios to compare exposure to each of the 71 food items between the market panel and NDNS participants. We compared 2103 panel controls with 2696 reference participants. Adjusted for socio-demographic factors, exposure to 90% of foods was statistically different between both panels and the reference data. However, these differences were likely to be of limited practical importance for 89% of Panel A foods and 79% of Panel B foods. Market panel food exposures were comparable with reference data for common food exposures but more likely to be different for uncommon exposures. This approach should be considered for outbreak investigation, in conjunction with other considerations such as population at risk, timeliness of response and study resources.
Let R be a ring with a unity element. An ideal Q of R is called (right) primary if for ideals A and B of R, AB ⊂ Q and A ⊄ Q imply that Bn ⊂ Q for some positive integer n. If R satisfies the ascending chain condition for ideals (ACC), then R is said to have a Noetherian ideal theory if every ideal of R is an intersection of a finite number of primary ideals. If R is a commutative ring that satisfies the ACC, then R has a Noetherian ideal theory. However, it is known that in general R may satisfy the ACC without having a Noetherian ideal theory (an example of such a ring is given in (2)). Thus there is some interest in conditions that imply that a ring R satisfying the ACC will have a Noetherian ideal theory.
The Bernoulli polynomials of order k, where k is a positive integer, are defined by
Bm(k)(x) is a polynomial of degree m with rational coefficients, and the constant term of Bm(k)(x) is the mth Bernoulli number of order k, Bm(k). In a previous paper (3) we obtained some conditions, in terms of k and m, which imply that Bm(k)(x) is irreducible (all references to irreducibility will be with respect to the field of rational numbers). In particular, we obtained the following two results.