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Early-life environmental and nutritional exposures are considered to contribute to the differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) burden. Among sub-Saharan African populations, the association between markers of early-life exposures such as leg length and sitting height and CVD risk is yet to be investigated. This study assessed the association between leg length, sitting height, and estimated 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk among Ghanaian-born populations in Europe and Ghana. We constructed sex-specific quintiles for sitting height and leg length for 3250 participants aged 40–70 years (mean age 52 years; men 39.6%; women 60.4%) in the cross-sectional multicenter Research on Diabetes and Obesity among African Migrants study. Ten-year risk of ASCVD was estimated using the Pooled Cohort Equations; risk ≥7.5% was defined as “elevated” CVD risk. Prevalence ratios (PR) were estimated to determine the associations between sitting height, leg length, and estimated 10-year ASCVD risk. For both men and women, mean sitting height and leg length were highest in Europe and lowest in rural Ghana. Sitting height was inversely associated with 10-year ASCVD risk among all women (PR for 1 standard deviation increase of sitting height: 0.75; 95% confidence interval: 0.67, 0.85). Among men, an inverse association between sitting height and 10-year ASCVD risk was significant on adjustment for study site, adult, and parental education but attenuated when further adjusted for height. No association was found between leg length and estimated 10-year ASCVD risk. Early-life and childhood exposures that influence sitting height could be the important determinants of ASCVD risk in this adult population.
We give examples of calculi that extend Gentzen’s sequent calculus LK by unsound quantifier inferences in such a way that (i) derivations lead only to true sequents, and (ii) proofs therein are nonelementarily shorter than LK-proofs.
Rising sea levels due to climate change can have severe consequences for coastal populations and ecosystems all around the world. Understanding and projecting sea-level rise is especially important for low-lying countries such as the Netherlands. It is of specific interest for vulnerable ecological and morphodynamic regions, such as the Wadden Sea UNESCO World Heritage region.
Here we provide an overview of sea-level projections for the 21st century for the Wadden Sea region and a condensed review of the scientific data, understanding and uncertainties underpinning the projections. The sea-level projections are formulated in the framework of the geological history of the Wadden Sea region and are based on the regional sea-level projections published in the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR5). These IPCC AR5 projections are compared against updates derived from more recent literature and evaluated for the Wadden Sea region. The projections are further put into perspective by including interannual variability based on long-term tide-gauge records from observing stations at Den Helder and Delfzijl.
We consider three climate scenarios, following the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), as defined in IPCC AR5: the RCP2.6 scenario assumes that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions decline after 2020; the RCP4.5 scenario assumes that GHG emissions peak at 2040 and decline thereafter; and the RCP8.5 scenario represents a continued rise of GHG emissions throughout the 21st century. For RCP8.5, we also evaluate several scenarios from recent literature where the mass loss in Antarctica accelerates at rates exceeding those presented in IPCC AR5.
For the Dutch Wadden Sea, the IPCC AR5-based projected sea-level rise is 0.07±0.06m for the RCP4.5 scenario for the period 2018–30 (uncertainties representing 5–95%), with the RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 scenarios projecting 0.01m less and more, respectively. The projected rates of sea-level change in 2030 range between 2.6mma−1 for the 5th percentile of the RCP2.6 scenario to 9.1mma−1 for the 95th percentile of the RCP8.5 scenario. For the period 2018–50, the differences between the scenarios increase, with projected changes of 0.16±0.12m for RCP2.6, 0.19±0.11m for RCP4.5 and 0.23±0.12m for RCP8.5. The accompanying rates of change range between 2.3 and 12.4mma−1 in 2050. The differences between the scenarios amplify for the 2018–2100 period, with projected total changes of 0.41±0.25m for RCP2.6, 0.52±0.27m for RCP4.5 and 0.76±0.36m for RCP8.5. The projections for the RCP8.5 scenario are larger than the high-end projections presented in the 2008 Delta Commission Report (0.74m for 1990–2100) when the differences in time period are considered. The sea-level change rates range from 2.2 to 18.3mma−1 for the year 2100.
We also assess the effect of accelerated ice mass loss on the sea-level projections under the RCP8.5 scenario, as recent literature suggests that there may be a larger contribution from Antarctica than presented in IPCC AR5 (potentially exceeding 1m in 2100). Changes in episodic extreme events, such as storm surges, and periodic (tidal) contributions on (sub-)daily timescales, have not been included in these sea-level projections. However, the potential impacts of these processes on sea-level change rates have been assessed in the report.
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) is doing research and development in the field of megawatt-class radio frequency (RF) sources (gyrotrons) for the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ECRH) systems of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the DEMOnstration Fusion Power Plant that will follow ITER. In the focus is the development and verification of the European coaxial-cavity gyrotron technology which shall lead to gyrotrons operating at an RF output power significantly larger than 1 MW CW and at an operating frequency above 200 GHz. A major step into that direction is the final verification of the European 170 GHz 2 MW coaxial-cavity pre-prototype at longer pulses up to 1 s. It bases on the upgrade of an already existing highly modular short-pulse (ms-range) pre-prototype. That pre-prototype has shown a world record output power of 2.2 MW already. This paper summarizes briefly the already achieved experimental results using the short-pulse pre-prototype and discusses in detail the design and manufacturing process of the upgrade of the pre-prototype toward longer pulses up to 1 s.
Suicide has been decreasing over the past decade. However, we do not know whether socioeconomic inequality in suicide has been decreasing as well.
We assessed recent trends in socioeconomic inequalities in suicide in 15 European populations.
The DEMETRIQ study collected and harmonised register-based data on suicide mortality follow-up of population censuses, from 1991 and 2001, in European populations aged 35–79. Absolute and relative inequalities of suicide according to education were computed on more than 300 million person-years.
In the 1990s, people in the lowest educational group had 1.82 times more suicides than those in the highest group. In the 2000s, this ratio increased to 2.12. Among men, absolute and relative inequalities were substantial in both periods and generally did not decrease over time, whereas among women inequalities were absent in the first period and emerged in the second.
The World Health Organization (WHO) plan for ‘Fair opportunity of mental wellbeing’ is not likely to be met.
This paper presents a fully-integrated direct-conversion fundamentally-operated mixer-first quadrature receiver module with a tunable LO in the 219–266 GHz band. It has been implemented in a 0.13-μm SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor technology. It includes an on-chip LO path driven externally from the printed circuit board (PCB) connector level at 13.6–16.7 GHz. A hybrid coupler generates the quadrature LO signal, which drives a pair of double-balanced fundamentally-operated down-conversion mixers, whose RF ports are connected to a wideband lens-integrated on-chip ring antenna. The chip-on-lens assembly is placed in the recess of a high-speed PCB and wire-bonded. To compensate the inductive behavior of the wire-bond interconnection between the chip and the PCB at the high-speed IF outputs, an on-board 8-section step-impedance low-pass filter has been implemented. The module shows a 47 GHz 3-dB radio frequency/local oscillator operation bandwidth (BW), a peak conversion gain of 7.8 dB, a single-side-band noise figure of 11.3 dB, and a 3-dB IF BW of 13 GHz. The in-phase and quadrature amplitude imbalance stays below 1.58 dB for the 210–280 GHz band. The down-conversion and the baseband stages consume together 75.5 mW, while the LO path 378 mW. The maximum data-rate achieved with this receiver in combination with the transmitter presented in [1–3] is 60 Gbps for quadrature phase shift keying modulation.
A compilation of nitrate (NO3–) data from Greenland has shown that recent NO3– concentrations reveal a temperature dependence similar to that seen in Antarctica. Except for sites with very low accumulation rates, lower temperatures tend to lead to higher NO3– concentrations preserved in the ice. Accumulation rate, which is closely linked to temperature, might influence the concentrations preserved in snow as well, but its effect cannot be separated from the temperature imprint. Processes involved in NO3– deposition are discussed and shown to be temperature- and/or accumulation-rate-dependent. Apart from scavenging of nitric acid (HNO3) during formation of precipitation, uptake of HNO3 onto the ice crystal’s surface during and after precipitation seems to contribute further to the NO3– concentrations found in surface snow. Post-depositional loss of NO3– from the top snow layers is caused by release of HNO3 and by photolysis of NO3–. It is suggested that photolysis accounts for considerable losses at sites with very low accumulation rates. Depending on the site characteristic, and given that the temperature and accumulation-rate dependence is quantified, it should be possible to infer changes in atmospheric HNO3 concentrations.
A novel flow-through microparticle detector was deployed concurrently with continuous flow analyses of major ions during the North Greenland Icecore Project 2000 field season. the easy-handling detector performs continuous counting and sizing. In this deployment the lower size-detection limit was conservatively set to 1.0 μm equivalent spherical particle diameter, and a depth resolution of ≤1cm was achieved for microparticle concentrations. the dust concentration usually followed the Ca2+ variability. Here results are presented from an inspection of the Ca/dust mass ratio in 23 selected intervals, 1.65 m long each, covering different climatic periods including Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). A (Ca2+)/(insoluble dust) mass ratio of 0.29 was found for the Holocene and 0.11 for LGM. Changes to the Ca/dust ratio occur on an annual to multi-annual time-scale exhibiting the same pattern, i.e. a lower Ca/dust ratio for higher crustal concentrations. Moreover, the Ca2+/dust ratio may increase significantly during episodic events such as volcanic horizons due to enhanced dissolution of CaCO3. This calls into question the notion of deploying Ca2+ as a quantitative mineral dust reference species and shows the importance of variable source properties or fractionating processes during transport and deposition.
It remains unclear so far whether the role of cognitive reserve may differ between physically frail compared to less frail individuals. Therefore, the present study set out to investigate the relation of key markers of cognitive reserve to cognitive status in old age and its interplay with physical frailty in a large sample of older adults.
We assessed Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in 701 older adults. We measured grip strength as indicator of physical frailty and interviewed individuals on their education, past occupation, and cognitive leisure activity.
Greater grip strength, longer education, higher cognitive level of job, and greater engaging in cognitive leisure activity were significantly related to higher MMSE scores. Moderation analyses showed that the relations of education, cognitive level of job, and cognitive leisure activity to MMSE scores were significantly larger in individuals with lower, compared to those with greater grip strength.
Cognitive status in old age may more strongly depend on cognitive reserve accumulated during the life course in physically frail (compared to less frail) older adults. These findings may be explained by cross-domain compensation effects in vulnerable individuals.
Using RAVE data release 5 (DR5), we explore the age and chemistry of a sample of ~25,000 FGK turnoff stars in the extended solar neighbourhood (7 < R < 9 kpc), by separating our sample into two chemical disc components, and investigating the nature of the age-metallicity relation for both. Overall, we find a flat trend in [Fe/H] as a function of age for our α-low disc, and a correlation between age and metallicity for the oldest α-high stars, confirming age-metallicity trends found in more local, high-resolution studies now for a larger volume. We also find a positive gradient in [Mg/Fe] as a function of age for our oldest stars. These results have implications for models which include dynamical evolutionary processes such as radial migration.
Ion angular current and energy distributions are important parameters for ion thrusters, which are typically measured at a few tens of centimetres to a few metres distance from the thruster exit. However, fully kinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are not able to simulate such domain sizes due to high computational costs. Therefore, a parallelisation strategy of the code is presented to reduce computational time. The calculated ion beam angular distributions in the plume region are quite sensitive to boundary conditions of the potential, possible additional source contributions (e.g. from secondary electron emission at vessel walls) and charge exchange collisions. Within this work a model for secondary electrons emitted from the vessel wall is included. In order to account for limits of the model due to its limited domain size, a correction of the simulated angular ion energy distribution by the potential boundary is presented to represent the conditions at the location of the experimental measurement in
distance. In addition, a post-processing procedure is suggested to include charge exchange collisions in the plume region not covered by the original PIC simulation domain for the simulation of ion angular distributions measured at
The particle-in-cell (PIC) method was used to simulate heat flux mitigation experiments with partially ionised argon. The experiments demonstrate the possibility of reducing heat flux towards a target using magnetic fields. Modelling using the PIC method is able to reproduce the heat flux mitigation qualitatively. This is driven by modified electron transport. Electrons are magnetised and react directly to the external magnetic field. In addition, an increase of radial turbulent transport is also needed to explain the experimental observations in the model. Close to the target an increase of electron density is created. Due to quasi-neutrality, ions follow the electrons. Charge exchange collisions couple the dynamics of the neutrals to the ions and reduce the flow velocity of neutrals by radial momentum transport and subsequent losses. By this, the dominant heat-transport channel by neutrals gets reduced and a reduction of the heat deposition, similar to the experiment, is observed. Using the simulation a diagnostic module for optical emission is developed and its results are compared with spectroscopic measurements and photos from the experiment. The results of this study are in good agreement with the experiment. Experimental observations such as a shrank bright emission region close to the nozzle exit, an additional emission in front of the target and an overall change in colour to red are reproduced by the simulation.
We describe a procedure for the efficient measurement of large quantities of PN radial velocities (RVs) in early-type galaxies, using the Focal Reducer and Spectrograph (FORS) at the Cassegrain foci of the ESO Very Large Telescope. The PNs are detected using the classic on-band/off-band filter technique. The radial velocity is obtained by measuring and calibrating the displacement of a PN image on the CCD produced by the insertion of a grism in the light path. Since no slits are used, it is possible to measure RVs for all the detected PNs, irrespective of their number and distribution in the field. All the images needed to find the PNs and measure their brightness and RVs can be collected in just one observing run, without the complicated preparation procedures typical of multi-object slit spectroscopy. The RVs have errors of about 40 km/s.
Surprisingly little is known about the mechanism and symmetry of superconducting pairing in PuCoGa5. A common thread with other unconventional superconductors is the presence of spin fluctuations in the normal state, which in this particular case is controlled by strong spin–orbit coupling split bands. The many and anisotropic Fermi surfaces make the guessing of the potential spin-fluctuation nesting vector and resulting symmetry of the pairing function a nontrivial task. To provide much needed guidance for the identification of the pairing symmetry in this multiband superconductor, we perform first-principles based magnetic spin susceptibility calculations to identify the dominant nesting vectors that potentially give rise to interband pairing with nodal d- or s±-wave gap functions.
There is epidemiological evidence for associations between dietary patterns and type 2 diabetes. However, for sub-Saharan Africa, information on dietary patterns and their contribution to diabetes is lacking. The aim of the present study was to identify dietary patterns and their associations with type 2 diabetes in an urban Ghanaian population. In a hospital-based case–control study on risk factors for type 2 diabetes in Kumasi, a FFQ was administered to 675 controls and 542 cases. Dietary patterns were identified by using factor analysis including thirty-three food items. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the associations of dietary patterns with type 2 diabetes. Overall, two dietary patterns were identified: (1) a ‘purchase’ dietary pattern which positively correlated with the consumption of sweets, rice, meat, fruits and vegetables and (2) a ‘traditional’ dietary pattern that correlated with the intake of fruits, plantain, green leafy vegetables, fish, fermented maize products and palm oil. In the highest quintile of the ‘purchase’ dietary pattern, participants were younger, leaner and of higher socio-economic status than those in the lower quintiles. In contrast, participants in the highest quintile of the ‘traditional’ dietary pattern were older, heavier and more deprived compared with those in the lower quintiles. In the multivariate model, the ‘purchase’ dietary pattern was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes (OR per 1 sd 0·41, 95 % CI 0·33, 0·50); the ‘traditional’ dietary pattern increased the odds of diabetes per 1 sd by 54 % (95 % CI 1·35, 1·81). In conclusion, two diverse dietary patterns were identified and associated with type 2 diabetes in urban Ghana. The determinants of pattern adherence require further investigation.
An experimental analysis of the morphology changes of hexagonally close packed polystyrene sphere monolayers induced by annealing in air is presented. The triangular interstices between each triple of spheres, which are frequently used as nanoscale mask openings in colloidal lithography, are observed to gradually shrink in size and change in shape upon annealing. Top view scanning electron microscopy images reveal that different stages are involved in the closure of monolayer interstices at annealing temperatures in the range between 110°C and 120°C. In the early stages shrinkage of the triangular interstices is dominated by material transport to and thus shortening of their corners, in the late stages interstice area reduction via displacement of the triangle edges becomes significant. At intermediate annealing times the rate of interstice area reduction displays a maximum before a stabilized state characterized by a rounded isosceles triangular shape forms.
From the early start in history man employed “contrast media” to measure flow: Hero of Alexandria proposed for example in 62 AD the use of debris in combination with a sundial to calculate the velocity of the water in Egyptian rivers. Leonardo da Vinci improved this method by using a pig's bladder attached to a stick with a stone on the other side. Early implementations to measure cerebral blood flow similarly introduced a tracer upstream from the brain, such as nitrous oxide or xenon gas. Even before these early blood flow measurements, functional brain experiments were introduced by monitoring changes in brain volume upon functional activity as an indicator and proof of vasodilatation . It is therefore not surprising that when contrast agents for MRI based on gadolinium chelates were introduced, blood flow measurements were among the first applications. Interestingly, in 1990, for the first time the possibility of localization of neuronal activation was shown using repeated injections of a bolus of contrast agent , two years before the BOLD (blood oxygenation level-dependent) effect emerged as the prime tool for functional MRI (fMRI) .
Gas-turbine engines used in transportation, energy, and defense sectors rely on high-temperature thermal-barrier coatings (TBCs) for improved efficiencies and power. The promise of still higher efficiencies and other benefits is driving TBCs research and development worldwide. An introduction to TBCs—complex, multi-layer evolving systems—is presented, where these fascinating systems touch on several known phenomena in materials science and engineering. Critical elements identified as being important to the development of future TBCs form the basis for the five articles in this issue of MRS Bulletin. These articles are introduced, together with a discussion of the major challenges to improved coating development and the rich opportunities for materials research they provide.