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Despite the importance of the role of Climate Finance to comply with the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 1.5°C objective, there is no consensus on the definition of Climate Finance and the estimated assessment of its aggregated flows and effects remains challenging. Despite being a major emitter and having a significant and cost-effective mitigation potential, the livestock sector has so far only received a marginal share of Climate Finance. As demand for animal protein products continues to increase (68% between 2010 and 2050), there is a compelling case for channeling more Climate Finance investments into the sector to incentivize greenhouse gas emissions reduction at scale. Bottlenecks in linking the livestock sector to Climate Finance include the insufficient capacity to assess the cost-benefit of projects, high upfront cost and risk perception of investors, the informality of the sector, non-existence of Climate Finance instruments dedicated to the livestock sector and lack of cost-efficient Monitoring, Reporting and Verification systems. Nevertheless, recent developments provide avenues to increase the access of the animal protein sector to Climate Finance.
(1) determine which antipsychotic side effects (SE) schizophrenic patients consider the most distressing during treatment with typical antipsychotics, (2) measure the impact of actual and past SE on patients' attitude toward antipsychotics and (3) assess the influence of both on adherence.
The 213 schizophrenics, treated with conventional antipsychotics, were recruited in two psychiatric hospitals in Hamburg. Subjects were assessed about type and severity of present and past side effects and their attitude and adherence to antipsychotic treatment.
The 82 (39%) patients presented present SE while 131 (61%) did not. Sexual dysfunctions (P<0.001), extrapyramidal (P<0.05) and psychic side effects (P<0.05) were rated as significantly subjectively more distressing than sedation or vegetative side effects. Patients presenting with present SE compared with patients without present SE had a significantly more negative general attitude toward antipsychotics (P<0.05), were more doubtful about their efficacy (P<0.01) and were less likely to encourage a relative to take such a medication in case of need (P<0.001). A regression analysis indicated that nonadherence was mainly influenced by negative general and efficacy attitudes toward antipsychotics and the experience of past or present antipsychotic side effects.
All antipsychotic side effects, present or past, can have a durable negative impact on patient's attitude toward antipsychotic treatment and adherence. Non-adherence is mainly determined, among other factors, by these negative attitudes, which are partly influenced by the experience of past or present antipsychotic-induced side effects.
Influenza epidemics are monitored using influenza-like illness (ILI) data reported by health-care professionals. Timely detection of the onset of epidemics is often performed by applying a statistical method on weekly ILI incidence estimates with a large range of methods used worldwide. However, performance evaluation and comparison of these algorithms is hindered by: (1) the absence of a gold standard regarding influenza epidemic periods and (2) the absence of consensual evaluation criteria. As of now, performance evaluations metrics are based only on sensitivity, specificity and timeliness of detection, since definitions are not clear for time-repeated measurements such as weekly epidemic detection. We aimed to evaluate several epidemic detection methods by comparing their alerts to a gold standard determined by international expert consensus. We introduced new performance metrics that meet important objective of influenza surveillance in temperate countries: to detect accurately the start of the single epidemic period each year. Evaluations are presented using ILI incidence in France between 1995 and 2011. We found that the two performance metrics defined allowed discrimination between epidemic detection methods. In the context of performance detection evaluation, other metrics used commonly than the standard could better achieve the needs of real-time influenza surveillance.
Introduction: Appropriate pain management relies on the use of valid, reliable and age-appropriate tools that are validated in the setting in which they are intended to be used. The aim of the study was to assess the psychometric properties of pain scales commonly used in children presenting to the pediatric emergency department (PED) with an acute musculoskeletal injury. Methods: Convergent validity was assessed by determining the Spearman’s correlations and the agreement using the Bland-Altman method between the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R) and Color Analogue Scale (CAS). Responsiveness to change was determined by performing the Wilcoxon signed-rank test between the pre-post analgesia mean scores. Reliability of the scales was estimated using relative (Spearman’s correlation, Intraclass Correlation Coefficient) and absolute indices (Coefficient of Reliability). Results: A total of 495 participants was included in the analyses. Mean age was 11.9 ±2.7 years and participants were mainly boys (55.3%). Correlation between each pair of scales was 0.79 (VAS/FPS-R), 0.92 (VAS/CAS) and 0.81 (CAS/FPS-R). Limits of agreement (80%CI) were -2.71 to 1.27 (VAS/FPS-R), -1.13 to 1.15 (VAS/CAS) and -1.45 to 2.61 (CAS/FPS-R). Responsiveness to change was demonstrated by significant differences in mean pain scores, among the three scales, between pre- and post-medication administration (p<0.0001). ICC and CR estimates suggested acceptable reliability for the three scales at 0.79 and ±1.49 for VAS, 0.82 and ±1.35 for CAS, and 0.76 and ±1.84 for FPS-R. Conclusion: The scales demonstrated good psychometric properties with a large sample of children with acute pain in the PED. The VAS and CAS showed a stronger convergent validity, while FPS-R was not in agreement with the other scales. Clinically, VAS and CAS scales can be used interchangeably to assess pain intensity of children with acute pain.
From 14 November to 12 December 1986 a five-man team surveyed Ile des Pingouins, an islandin the lies Crozet archipelago only once previously visited by scientists. Supported by Terres Australes et Antarctiques Francaises (TAAF), the team investigated the geology, climate, botany, invertebrate zoology and ornithology of the island.
The 17th c. Flemish painting on panel, The Armorer's Shop, has long been attributed to David Teniers the Younger (1610-1690). The painting depicts an opulent pile of parade armor at the bottom left foreground, a seated armorer at the bottom right foreground, and a forge surrounded by workers in the middle ground. The Teniers attribution is derived from his signature at the bottom right as well as figural groups and other visual elements that are commonly associated with him and executed in his style. During dendrochronological examination of the painting, a portion of the oak plank comprising the overall structure was found to have been carved out so that a smaller plank (containing the parade armor) could be inserted into the resulting depression. This unusual construction, combined with the identification of several paintings by Jan Brueghel the Younger (1601-1678) depicting the same parade armor, raised questions about the attribution and chronology of construction of the painting. Art historical research suggests that the smaller plank with the armor was painted by Brueghel and that the remainder of the panel with the workers and forge was painted by his brother-in-law Teniers. While Brueghel writes of collaborating with Teniers in his journal, this appears to be the only identified collaboration of the two artists. Conventional microanalysis methods did not resolve the painting's construction chronology. However, confocal x-ray fluorescence microscopy (CXRF) revealed the composition and location of buried paint layers at the panel interfaces by combining depth scans at a number of adjacent lateral positions to produce virtual cross-sections over 20 mm in length. The relationship of the paint layers at the panel interfaces provided evidence for the armor panel having been painted separately and prior to the rest of the composition. This data, along with dendrochronological and IRR data, provided a chronology of construction for the painting that provided additional evidence for a Brueghel attribution. An overview of the CXRF technique will be provided along with a discussion of how CXRF data relates to data collected using SEM-EDS, FTIR, Raman, conventional XRF, x-radiography, IRR, and dendrochronology.
The mechanical properties of early artist's acrylic paints were investigated under controlled aqueous additive leaching for the purpose of identifying changes caused by cleaning paintings with water. Strength and stiffness values were obtained using a tensiometer to collect stress-strain curves of paint films. The results were compared to those from similar experiments in which paint films were tested under various age, temperature, and relative humidity (RH) values. Strength and stiffness both increased with decreased temperature, decreased RH, increased age, and increased additive removal. The most significant impact on mechanical properties was caused by lowering temperature to the Tg region around 5°C. Dramatic changes in properties were caused by RH fluctuations; however, the magnitudes were negligible in comparison to those induced by low temperature. Removal of water-soluble additives produced a uniform increase in tensile strength and secant modulus at all RH values. The films were equally responsive to fluctuations in RH before and after additive leaching. In comparing the material properties across a wide range of conditions it is evident that the acrylic paints in this study were not significantly altered by the amount of water exposure involved in cleaning paintings.
Eight syntheses of mortars used for restoration interventions in historic masonry were produced using the traditional materials of aerial lime and artificial pozzolanic additives. The mortars were aged over a 15-month period and then tested for properties related to chemical and mechanical stabilization using the following four analytical techniques: ultrasonic velocity propagation and the mortars' dynamic modulus of elasticity (Ed), mercury intrusion porosimetry for evaluation of microstructural characteristics (percentage open porosity, bulk density, average pore radius, total cumulative volume, and specific surface area), water capillary rise tests for the determination of total cumulative volume accessible to water and capillary rise coefficients of the mortars, and conventional mechanical tests for the determination of the mortars' flexural and compressive strength. Performance is correlated to the mortars' chemical composition, microstructural characteristics (as measure by average pore radius) and mechanical characteristics as measured by dynamic modulus of elasticity (Ed) and flexural and compressive strength (Fc).
A rare collection of cast votive images (ex-votos ) made of beeswax were found in the 1940s behind the cresting of a screen above the tomb of Bishop Edmund Lacey in the Cathedral Church of St. Peter in Exeter, England. Some of these fragmentary, aged and brittle waxes, dating to the late fifteenth to early sixteenth centuries A.D., served as the basis to further test the cleaning of dirt and accretions using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. Because of the low melting point of the wax, observations made of the effects on the wax substrate due to heat emitted from the laser were critical to establish the efficacy of the cleaning method. Preliminary optical microscopy was used to establish a typology of the waxes based on their condition, color, and nature of the weathering phenomena. Several techniques were used to characterize the waxes and the surface deposits, including gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS), in addition to simple tests of melting point and hardness that served to help understand the nature, condition and treatment of the waxes .
Reverse engineering past craft technologies involves using the basics of materials science and engineering to a new end: their preservation and continuation. Examples are presented of the glazed tile technologies of Samarkand, Bukhara and other Silk Route cities of Uzbekistan that date from the thirteenth century A.D. but that continue to the present. The UNESCO charter for the preservation of Intangible Cultural Properties has enlightened the goals and results of the research and has linked together archaeological materials research and conservation science in an exciting new partnership.
In studies of the materials of old master paintings, the characterization of thin and degraded layers often presents unusual challenges for routinely used methods of analysis. This paper discusses analyses performed as part of a study of the materials and techniques of Pontormo's “Portrait of Alessandro de’ Medici” (1534–5) carried out during a recent cleaning and restoration of the painting. Pontormo built up the portrait using a complex sequence of preparation, drawing and paint layers, the analysis of which was complicated further in some areas by the presence of degraded materials on the paint surface. The materials used for the various stages of preparation and painting were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GCMS), Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The focus of this paper will be the particular approaches taken to the characterization of the preparation layers and degraded surface materials.
A review of the applications of electrochemical methods to the conservation of metal artifacts is presented with regards to their use in treatment and research. As treatment techniques electrochemical methods have been used for cleaning, stabilization and consolidation for many years. Presently electrochemical methods are increasingly being used as a research tool, allowing the identification and quantification of products present at the surface of the artifacts as well as evaluation of the compatibility between materials. Examples of application to silver-copper alloys and stainless steels are presented.
The stiffening and embrittlement of oil paints over time has been a real concern for those responsible for the long term care and preservation of paintings. This paper examines the effects of time, pigments, relative humidity (RH), temperature and solvents on the mechanical properties of traditional oil paints. In this way it is possible to determine the role of each factor in causing the paints to become brittle. Even after 14 years the oil paints show little evidence that the long term “maturing” processes have begun to slow down. It is shown that there seems to be little correlation between the time paint requires to “dry-to-the-touch” and the longer term mechanical properties. Both low and high temperature levels can increase the stiffness of the paints though the mechanisms are quite different. Considerable hydrolysis of the paints occurs early in their history and the ones that hydrolyze most quickly are the ones that remain the most flexible.
A confocal x-ray fluorescence microscope was built at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS) to determine the composition of buried paint layers that range from 10–80 μm thick in paintings. The microscope consists of a borosilicate monocapillary optic to focus the incident beam and a borosilicate polycapillary lens to collect the fluorescent x-rays. The overlap of the two focal regions is several tens of microns in extent, and defines the active, or confocal, volume of the microscope. The capabilities of the technique were tested using acrylic paint films with distinct layers brushed onto glass slides and a twentieth century oil painting on canvas. The position and thickness of individual layers were extracted from their fluorescence profiles by fitting to a simple, semi-empirical model.
As linseed oil ages, hydrolysis and oxidation produce acid groups on the polymer chain that may lead to ionomeric behavior. The effect of these changes is difficult to determine in old paints because of the lack of records of environmental and treatment histories that can alter the physical properties significantly. A series of paints were made that have chemical properties similar to those of aged paints and that mimic old paints. Their properties seem to show flexibility as well as coherency but low strength and a high susceptibility to solvents.
Severe decay of the stone façade of the Pyramid of Quetzalcoatl, one of the more remarkable structures in the World Heritage Site archaeological zone of Teotihuacan, Mexico, is caused by the presence of humidity and salt crystallization. The floors were analyzed to determine whether water and salts were filtering up from the ground and to find a way to reduce the penetration of water. Analyses of the lime plaster and organic matter were carried out by traditional wet chemical methods in order to discover the possible recipe that is the basis of the technology used by Pre-Columbian masons. The presence of an organic mucilage and fiber was identified. The organic components of the floors were analyzed using FTIR of extracts, while mucilage from leaves of a local cactus, Opuntia sp, that is used traditionally as a cementing material in plasters, was analyzed for comparative purposes to determine whether the mucilage was also used in pre-Columbian times. X-ray spectrometry and x- ray diffraction were also used to complement the study to identify the mineralogy of the plasters. This study shows that the Teotihuacanos used a composite material that has great durability, permitting the survival of the floors for almost 2000 years, but that also is succeptible to damage in a modern, stressed environment with high tourist traffic.
A finite element analysis was performed on panel painting structures subjected to changes in relative humidity. Measured Young's modulus values and humidity expansion coefficients were used to define the properties of materials characteristic to northern and southern European panels. Models of northern panels simulated white oak with two layers of oil paint, while models of southern panels simulated cottonwood with gesso and two oil paint layers. In both cases, the properties of the oil paints were input for lead white and Naples yellow respectively. Influence of radial/tangential grain orientation, panel thickness, and structural support were investigated through various humidity changes. Results are presented in the form of stress in the wood, gesso, and paint layers as well as curvature of the painted surfaces. Methods of reducing panel curvature with structural support are discussed, which involve applying a frictionless cradle, wood battens, or verso gesso layer. Verification of the model was performed with a derivation of general stress equations for a cradled painting with no friction between the slider-bars and the panel. A comparison of derived and parametric results confirms accurate behavior of the model.
We report on a study of ultramarine pigments via Colorimetry, resonance Raman, and 27Al, 29Si solid-state NMR spectroscopy. NMR parameters are shown to correlate well with the intensities of Raman signals corresponding to the chromophores S3−. and S2−.. Further, a correlation is established between the colorimetric parameters L* (lightness) and C* (chromaticity) and the paramagnetic shift in NMR spectra for both 27Al and 29Si. The parameter h (hue) appeared not to vary over the range of paramagnetic host concentrations studied. Preliminary results on faded pigments in both acidic and basic media show that the concentration of diamagnetic guest molecules in the sodalite lattice rises, and some of the paramagnetic species are replaced.