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Ferroelectrics and related materials (e.g., non-traditional ferroelectrics such as relaxors) have long been used in a range of applications, but with the advent of new ways of modeling, synthesizing, and characterizing these materials, continued access to astonishing breakthroughs in our fundamental understanding come each year. While we still rely on these materials in a range of applications, we continue to re-write what is possible to be done with them. In turn, assumptions that have underpinned the use and design of certain materials are progressively being revisited. This perspective aims to provide an overview of the field of ferroelectric/relaxor/polar-oxide thin films in recent years, with an emphasis on emergent structure and function enabled by advanced synthesis, processing, and computational modeling.
Cold winter temperatures significantly affect the biological control effort against water hyacinth, Pontederia ( = Eichhornia) crassipes Mart. (Pontederiaceae), in more temperate regions around the world. The population dynamics of the planthopper Megamelus scutellaris Berg. (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), a newly released biological control agent of water hyacinth, were recorded on the Kubusi River in the Eastern Cape Province (South Africa) over 15 months to determine the population recovery post-winter. Megamelus scutellaris incurred a severe population decline at the onset of winter when the water hyacinth plants became frost damaged. The combined effect of a population bottleneck and low minimum winter temperatures (6.12°C) below the agent's lower developmental threshold (11.46°C) caused a post-winter lag in agent density increase. Subsequently, the maximum agent population density was only reached at the end of the following summer growing season which allowed the water hyacinth population to recover in the absence of any significant biological control immediately post-winter. Supplementary releases of agents from mass-reared cultures at the beginning of the growing season (spring) is suggested as a potential method of reducing the lag-period in field populations in colder areas where natural population recovery of agents is slower.
Radiocarbon (14C) ages cannot provide absolutely dated chronologies for archaeological or paleoenvironmental studies directly but must be converted to calendar age equivalents using a calibration curve compensating for fluctuations in atmospheric 14C concentration. Although calibration curves are constructed from independently dated archives, they invariably require revision as new data become available and our understanding of the Earth system improves. In this volume the international 14C calibration curves for both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, as well as for the ocean surface layer, have been updated to include a wealth of new data and extended to 55,000 cal BP. Based on tree rings, IntCal20 now extends as a fully atmospheric record to ca. 13,900 cal BP. For the older part of the timescale, IntCal20 comprises statistically integrated evidence from floating tree-ring chronologies, lacustrine and marine sediments, speleothems, and corals. We utilized improved evaluation of the timescales and location variable 14C offsets from the atmosphere (reservoir age, dead carbon fraction) for each dataset. New statistical methods have refined the structure of the calibration curves while maintaining a robust treatment of uncertainties in the 14C ages, the calendar ages and other corrections. The inclusion of modeled marine reservoir ages derived from a three-dimensional ocean circulation model has allowed us to apply more appropriate reservoir corrections to the marine 14C data rather than the previous use of constant regional offsets from the atmosphere. Here we provide an overview of the new and revised datasets and the associated methods used for the construction of the IntCal20 curve and explore potential regional offsets for tree-ring data. We discuss the main differences with respect to the previous calibration curve, IntCal13, and some of the implications for archaeology and geosciences ranging from the recent past to the time of the extinction of the Neanderthals.
Accurate negation identification is one of the most important tasks in the context of sentiment analysis. In order to correctly interpret the sentiment value of a particular expression, we need to identify whether it is in the scope of negation. While much of the work on negation detection has focused on English, we have seen recent developments that provide accurate identification of negation in other languages. In this paper, we provide an overview of negation detection systems and describe an implementation of a Spanish system for negation cue detection and scope identification. We apply this system to the sentiment analysis task, confirming also for Spanish that improvements can be gained from accurate negation detection. The paper contributes an implementation of negation detection for sentiment analysis in Spanish and a detailed error analysis. This is the first work in Spanish in which a machine learning negation processing system is applied to the sentiment analysis task. Existing methods have used negation rules that have not been assessed, perhaps because the first Spanish corpus annotated with negation for sentiment analysis has only recently become available.
We evaluated the differences between the supplementation of urea in rumen and/or abomasum on forage digestion, N metabolism and urea kinetics in cattle fed a low-quality tropical forage. Five Nellore heifers were fitted with rumen and abomasum fistulas and assigned to a Latin square design. The treatments were control, continuous infusion of urea in the abomasum (AC), continuous infusion of urea in the rumen, a pulse dose of urea in the rumen every 12 h (PR) and a combination of PR and AC. The control exhibited the lowest (P < 0·10) faecal and urinary N losses, which were, overall, increased by supplementation. The highest urinary N losses (P < 0·10) were observed when urea was either totally or partially supplied as a ruminal pulse dose. The rumen N balance was negative for the control and when urea was totally supplied in the abomasum. The greatest microbial N production (P < 0·10) was obtained when urea was partially or totally supplied in the abomasum. Urea supplementation increased (P < 0·10) the amount of urea recycled to the gastrointestinal tract and the amount of urea-N returned to the ornithine cycle. The greatest (P < 0·10) amounts of urea-N used for anabolism were observed when urea was totally and continuously infused in the abomasum. The continuous abomasal infusion also resulted in the highest (P < 0·10) assimilation of microbial N from recycling. The continuous releasing of urea throughout day either in the rumen or abomasum is able to improve N accretion in the animal body, despite mechanism responsible for that being different.
Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, an enzyme potentially involved in the major depressive episodes (MDE), could be indirectly measured by the L-Citrulline/L-Arginine ratio (L-Cit/L-Arg). The aim of this study was: (1) to compare the NOS activity of patients with a MDE to that of healthy controls (HC); (2) to assess its change after antidepressant treatment.
A total of 460 patients with a current MDE in a context of major depressive disorder (MDD) were compared to 895 HC for NOS activity (L-Cit/L-Arg plasma ratio). L-Arg and L-Cit plasma levels were measured using a MS-based liquid chromatography method. Depressed patients were assessed at baseline, and after 3 and 6 months of antidepressant treatment for depression severity and clinical response.
Depressed patients had a lower NOS activity than HC at baseline [0.31 ± 0.09 v. 0.38 ± 0.12; 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.084 to −0.062, p < 0.0001]. Lower NOS activity at baseline predicted a higher response rate [odds ratio (OR) = 29.20; 95% CI 1.58–536.37; p = 0.023]. NOS activity in depressed patients increased significantly up to 0.34 ± 0.08 after antidepressant treatment (Est = 0.0034; 95% CI 0.0002–0.0067; p = 0.03).
Depressed patients have a decreased NOS activity that improves after antidepressant treatment and predicts drug response. NOS activity may be a promising biomarker for MDE in a context of MDD.
Vomiting is common in children after minor head injury. In previous research, isolated vomiting was not a significant predictor of intracranial injury after minor head injury; however, the significance of recurrent vomiting is unclear. This study aimed to determine the value of recurrent vomiting in predicting intracranial injury after pediatric minor head injury.
This secondary analysis of the CATCH2 prospective multicenter cohort study included participants (0–16 years) who presented to a pediatric emergency department (ED) within 24 hours of a minor head injury. ED physicians completed standardized clinical assessments. Recurrent vomiting was defined as ≥ four episodes. Intracranial injury was defined as acute intracranial injury on computed tomography scan. Predictors were examined using chi-squared tests and logistic regression models.
A total of 855 (21.1%) of the 4,054 CATCH2 participants had recurrent vomiting, 197 (4.9%) had intracranial injury, and 23 (0.6%) required neurosurgical intervention. Children with recurrent vomiting were significantly more likely to have intracranial injury (odds ratio [OR], 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7–3.1), and require neurosurgical intervention (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.5–7.9). Recurrent vomiting remained a significant predictor of intracranial injury (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.9–3.9) when controlling for other CATCH2 criteria. The probability of intracranial injury increased with number of vomiting episodes, especially when accompanied by other high-risk factors, including signs of a skull fracture, or irritability and Glasgow Coma Scale score < 15 at 2 hours postinjury. Timing of first vomiting episode, and age were not significant predictors.
Recurrent vomiting (≥ four episodes) was a significant risk factor for intracranial injury in children after minor head injury. The probability of intracranial injury increased with the number of vomiting episodes and if accompanied by other high-risk factors, such as signs of a skull fracture or altered level of consciousness.
We analyze optimal budget allocations to acquire protected areas for carbon storage while balancing risk and return from protection under economic growth uncertainty in a local community. Our study is the first to explore how risk of uncertain economic growth affects cost of protected area acquisition using real estate values at the parcel level, enabling us to estimate the site-specific opportunity cost of carbon storage. The Pareto optimal trade-off frontier between the expected carbon storage benefit and its variance provides a continuum of risk-return combinations. The pattern of the trade-off relationship implies that risk mitigation is less costly in terms of foregone expected benefit when risk is higher than when it is lower. Our results also find that the difference in cluster-specific budget allocations between the strong economic growth scenario and the weak economic growth scenario subsequently decreases between the point of expected benefit maximization and the point of variance minimization. Our findings of optimal hectares of land for protected area acquisition for carbon storage and corresponding benefits and costs serve as an empirically informed knowledge base to help a local community prioritize acquisition of potential protected areas for carbon storage under economic growth uncertainty.
We aimed to assess the validity of maternal recall of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) at 3 months obtained 12 months after childbirth.
A population-based birth cohort study. The gold standard is maternal report of EBF at the age of 3 months (yes or no) and age of introduction of other foods in the infant’s diet. EBF was considered when the mother reported that no liquid, semi-solid or solid food was introduced up to that moment. The variable to be validated was obtained at 12 months after childbirth when the mother was asked about the age of food introduction. The prevalence of EBF at 3 months, and sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV), and accuracy of 12-month recall with 95 % CI were calculated.
3700 mothers of participants of the Pelotas 2004 Birth Cohort.
The prevalence of EBF at 3 months was 27·8 % (95 % CI 26·4, 29·3) and 49·0 % (95 % CI 47·4, 50·6) according to gold standard and maternal recall, respectively. The sensitivity of maternal recall at 12 months was 98·3 % (95 % CI 97·4, 99·0), specificity 70·0 % (95 % CI 68·2, 71·7), PPV 55·8 % (95 % CI 53·4, 58·1), NPV 99·1 % (95 % CI 98·6, 99·5) and accuracy 77·9 % (95 % CI 76·6, 79·2). When the analyses were stratified by maternal and infant characteristics, the sensitivity remained around 98 %, and the specificity ranged from 64·4 to 81·8 %.
EBF recalled at the end of the first year of infant’s life is a valid measure to be used in epidemiological investigations.
This paper proposes a differential sensor based on a pair of open split ring resonators (OSRR) operating in reflection. The output signal is thus the differential reflection coefficient of both resonators, intimately related to their dielectric loading. Thus, for identical loads in both sensing resonators, the individual reflection coefficients are equal, thereby providing an ideally null output signal. By contrast, when unequal dielectric loads truncate the symmetry, the reflection coefficients are different, resulting in a differential output signal related to the level of asymmetry. In order to ease the measurement of the output signal, a rat-race hybrid coupler is used. The OSRR sensing loads are connected to the coupled ports of the hybrid coupler, whereas the input signal is injected to the Δ-port, and the output signal is collected at the isolated port (Σ-port). By this means, the output signal, i.e. the differential reflection coefficient between both sensing loads, is obtained from the transmission coefficient of a simple two-port structure. For experimental validation purposes, the sensor is applied to the measurement of isopropanol content in aqueous solutions, and for that purpose, the sensitive regions are equipped with microfluidic channels.
To aid emergency response, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) researchers monitor unplanned school closures (USCs) by conducting online systematic searches (OSS) to identify relevant publicly available reports. We examined the added utility of analyzing Twitter data to improve USC monitoring.
Georgia public school data were obtained from the National Center for Education Statistics. We identified school and district Twitter accounts with 1 or more tweets ever posted (“active”), and their USC-related tweets in the 2015-16 and 2016-17 school years. CDC researchers provided OSS-identified USC reports. Descriptive statistics, univariate, and multivariable logistic regression were computed.
A majority (1,864/2,299) of Georgia public schools had, or were in a district with, active Twitter accounts in 2017. Among these schools, 638 were identified with USCs in 2015-16 (Twitter only, 222; OSS only, 2015; both, 201) and 981 in 2016-17 (Twitter only, 178; OSS only, 107; both, 696). The marginal benefit of adding Twitter as a data source was an increase in the number of schools identified with USCs by 53% (222/416) in 2015-16 and 22% (178/803) in 2016-17.
Policy-makers may wish to consider the potential value of incorporating Twitter into existing USC monitoring systems.
In this paper, a differential microfluidic sensor and comparator based on a pair of microstrip lines loaded with dumbbell-shaped defected ground structure resonators is applied to the characterization of electrolyte concentration in samples of horse urine. Since variations in the total electrolyte content in urine may be indicative of certain pathologies, the interest is to use the device as a comparator, in order to determine changes in the electrolyte concentration as compared to a reference level. To validate the approach, we have made differential measurements of a set of urine samples with different electrolyte concentrations (which have been previously obtained by means of electrochemical methods). The obtained results correlate with the nominal electrolyte concentrations of the samples, thereby pointing out the potential of the approach as a low-cost pre-screening method (or complementary diagnosis system) to detect potential pathologies or diseases in horses and other animals.
This study presents two years of characterization of a warm temperate rhodolith bed in order to analyse how certain environmental changes influence the community ecology. The biomass of rhodoliths and associated species were analysed during this period and in situ experiments were conducted to evaluate the primary production, calcification and respiration of the dominant species of rhodoliths and epiphytes. The highest total biomass of rhodoliths occurred during austral winter. Lithothamnion crispatum was the most abundant rhodolith species in austral summer. Epiphytic macroalgae occurred only in January 2015, with Padina gymnospora being the most abundant. Considering associated fauna, the biomass of Mollusca increased from February 2015 to February 2016. Population densities of key reef fish species inside and around the rhodolith beds showed significant variations in time. The densities of grouper (carnivores/piscivores) increased in time, especially from 2015 to 2016. On the other hand, grunts (macroinvertebrate feeders) had a modest decrease over time (from 2014 to 2016). Other parameters such as primary production and calcification of L. crispatum were higher under enhanced irradiance, yet decreased in the presence of P. gymnospora. Community structure and physiological responses can be explained by the interaction of abiotic and biotic factors, which are driven by environmental changes over time. Biomass changes can indicate that herbivores play a role in limiting the growth of epiphytes, and this is beneficial to the rhodoliths because it decreases competition for environmental resources with fleshy algae.
Over the last decade, there have been three major developments in perioperative blood management. Firstly, the recognition of preoperative anaemia and perioperative transfusion as risk factors for perioperative morbidity and mortality. Secondly, there is much greater involvement of haematologists in preoperative planning and perioperative care. Thirdly, there has been a widespread introduction of point-of-care testing and aggressive, protocol-driven blood component use in the management of perioperative bleeding.
5-HT2C receptors are well known to be involved in anxiety, but their implication in stress-induced changes of 5-HT transmission remained to be investigated. We thus assess the behavioral and neurochemical effects of 5-HT2C receptor activation in naïve and stressed mice, and after chronic paroxetine known to exert anxiolytic effects in humans.
Methods and results
The effects of the preferential 5-HT2C agonists m-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) and RO60-0175, the selective 5-HT2C receptor antagonist SB242,084 and restraint-stress on anxiety-like behavior in mice were assessed using the social interaction test, while the neurochemical effects of these treatments on 5-HT turnover (5-HIAA/5-HT ratio) and extracellular 5-HT were determined using HPLC and microdialysis. Both mCPP and restraint-stress increased anxiety-like behavior in the social interaction test, and these effects were blocked by pretreatment with SB242,084. Restraint-stress increased 5-HT turnover in various brain areas, and this effect could be prevented by the 5-HT2C receptor agonist RO60-0175. Acute administration of SB242,084 potentiated the stress-induced increase in 5-HT turnover and blocked the inhibitory effect of RO60-0175. Microdialysis studies in frontal cortex revealed that RO60-0175 has an inhibitory effect on the stress-induced increase in extracellular 5-HT levels, but not on basal 5-HT levels. Chronic paroxetine prevented the anxiogenic effect of mCPP and prevented the inhibitory effect of RO60-0175 on restraint-stress-induced increase in 5-HT turnover.
These data strongly suggest that 5-HT2C receptor activation mediates the anxiogenic effect of stress. In addition, the anxiolytic action of long term treatment with SSRIs might be causally related to a clear-cut 5-HT2C receptor desensitization.
To study whether there are personality characteristics that discriminate between IPV women and non-abused control women, taking into account the effect of emotional state (depressive symptoms).
A total of 176 women victim of IPV and 193 non-abused control women were assessed with the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology (DAPP-BQ; Livesley, 1990), the Beck Depression Inventory -II (BDI-II; Beck, 1996), and the Index of Spouse Abuse (ISA; Hudson & McIntosh, 1981). Women victim of IPV were recruited from Domestic Violence Centers, and non-abused control women were recruited from Primary Care Centers and Mental Health Services. A two way analysis of variance (IPV * Depression) were used for detecting differences in personality traits taking into account the effect of depression (BDI ≥ 17).
After controlling for depression, IPV victims scored higher than control women in submissiveness (F=6.41; p=0.01), cognitive distortion (F=4.35; p=0.04), intimacy problems (F=27.02; p< 0.001), suspiciousness (F=5.02; p=0.03) and self-harm (F=4.93; p=0.03), and lower in rejection (F=14.66; p< 0.001).
IPV victims showed high submission, low hostility, intimacy problems, suspiciousness, tendency to depersonalization or derealization, and suicidal ideation and attempts, as a result of chronic abuse. Some of these aspects could be explained by the presence of PTSD, more than by pre-existing personality characteristics. Traumatic and chronic stress can alter functional aspects of the brain and lead to the development of dysfunctional cognitive and behavioral characteristics that may be considered in the psychotherapeutic approach.
As part of a process to improve bipolar disorders (BPD) treatment and outcome in France, AFBP developed recommendations in the management of patients with bipolar disorders for French practitioners. The recommendations aim to reflect both evidence-based practice and real-world experience. Here, we will focus on the management of BPD with comorbid addictive disorders.
A formalized method by expert consensus panel was used. 239 questions were developed and sent to a panel of 40 French experts in order to assess six domains:
1) screening and diagnosis,
2) acute phase treatment,
3) maintenance and non pharmacological treatment,
4) somatic comorbidities,
5) psychiatric comorbidities and suicide risk management and
6) special populations.
Special attention was made to situations where evidence based treatment are lacking.
The treatment of BPD and comorbid addictive disorders should be concurrent. The only exception is during an alcohol withdrawal where mood state may be reassessed for a second time. Experts recommend the use of atypical antipsychotics or anticonvulsants during a manic, mixed or depressive episode as well as in prophylaxia. During a depressive episode, the adjunction of an antidepressant may be considered. If adjunctive sedative treatment is necessary, a sedative classical antipsychotic seems to be a better choice that benzodiazepine. Substitution treatment for opioid must not be stopped. A psychotherapy focused on the addiction should be systematic in susbtance dependence and proposed in substance abuse.
The French expert panel recommends different therapeutic options for patients with dual diagnosis compared to usual BPD patients.
During the 2017 European hepatitis A (HA) outbreak we assessed HA incidence in our cohort of 2300 HIV-infected patients, implemented preventive measures and evaluated practices and knowledge on sexually transmitted diseases (STD). HA incidence was assessed between 1 January 2017 and 31 December 2017 and included all symptomatic patients with virologically confirmed HA. Preventive measures consisted in identifying at risk and not immunised patients to propose them a free HAV vaccination, and an anonymous survey related to transmission routes of STD and to sexual behaviours. Twenty HA were diagnosed. All were homosexual men recently diagnosed with HIV and another STD. None were vaccinated against hepatitis A virus (HAV). Hospitalisation was required for 52%. We identified 250 patients at risk to acquire HAV and invited them to a free immunisation program. A total of 110 (44%) were vaccinated, of whom 74 responded to our survey. A majority of them (84%) reported recent active anal and oral sexuality with multiple (52%) male partners (81%), and ChemSex consumption (14%). Internet was the meeting link for 58%. Another STD history was found in 69%. One third of these individuals had no idea about STD transmission modes. This HA outbreak pointed the insufficient vaccine coverage against HAV and knowledge on STD, which may be improved by Internet.