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CdSe nanoparticles were grown using a colloidal method, in which the pH was the main parameter that was varied (from 8 to 12) with the objective of knowing the morphological and structural effects after the synthesis process. The samples were characterized with X-ray diffraction and High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope to know their crystalline structure. We identified the formation of two crystalline phases in a single sample, as well as the different crystal direction of the material, the crystallites size was calculated from the X-ray diffraction pattern using the Debye- Scherrer equation. The distance between planes was also calculated using the Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT). The results and analysis of the experimental work are reported.
The regrowth of a C3 forage Stylosanthes capitata in a rain-fed field provided the weekly data collection in the southeast of Brazil during a heat event in autumn. A system named Trop-T-FACE simulated the free-air carbon dioxide enrichment and the enhanced temperature in four climatic regimes: current atmospheric conditions (Control), CO2 enrichment (600 ppm, eC), warming (2 °C above ambient canopy temperature, eT), and a combination of eC + eT. The area and biomass of foliage per shoot decreased, and the number of flowers per shoot and flowered ramification increased under single eC treatment besides the increment in palisade parenchyma of leaves. Increased investment in flowering in eC occurred notably when the soil water content was higher than 0.30 m3 m–3. Single eT treatment also impaired the area or biomass of foliage production per shoot, raised the shoot mortality, and promoted the increment of the spongy leaf parenchyma. There was some mitigation of the adverse effects of foliage production of eT or eC in eC + eT, but under this combined treatment, the shoot mortality also increased. Changes in leaf tissues under eC or eT or some mitigation of adverse effects in eC + eT did not offset the constraints on leaf growth per shoot. The harmful impact on foliage production by eC, eT, or eC + eT under rain-fed conditions indicated no advantages for feeding the livestock with the C3 forage S. capitata in expected climate change under field conditions.
Progesterone (P4) plays a key role in pregnancy establishment and maintenance; during early pregnancy, P4 stimulates the production and release of uterine secretions necessary for conceptus growth prior to implantation; therefore, exogenous P4 supplementation may improve embryo development. This study evaluated the effects of supplementation during early pregnancy with long-acting injectable progesterone or altrenogest on embryonic characteristics of sows and gilts. Thus, a total of 32 sows and 16 gilts were used. On day 6 of pregnancy sows and gilts were allocated to one of the following groups: non-supplemented; supplemented with 20 mg of altrenogest, orally, from days 6 to 12 of pregnancy; supplemented with 2.15 mg/kg of long-acting injectable progesterone on day 6 of pregnancy. Animals were killed on day 28 of pregnancy, and ovulation rate, embryo survival, embryo weight, crown-to-rump length, uterine glandular epithelium and endometrial vascularization were assessed. Treatments had no effect on pregnancy rate, embryo survival or endometrial vascular density (P > 0.05). Non-supplemented gilts presented larger and heavier embryos compared to gilts from supplemented groups (P < 0.05). Sows in the altrenogest group presented larger and heavier embryos compared to non-supplemented sows and sows supplemented with long-acting injectable progesterone. In conclusion, supplementation of sows and gilts with progestagen from day 6 of pregnancy can be used as a means to improve embryo survival without deleterious effects.
The present study investigated the adsorption of fluorides in natural zeolites clinoptilolite-type, sourced in Sonora, Mexico, and modified with Fe. Characterization of the material was carried out along with determination of kinetic parameters varying time and concentration of reagents to calculate maximum adsorption capacity. To determine thermodynamic parameters temperature was varied for accurate characterization of the adsorption process. It was found that the zeolite fixed Fe in its structure without model significant modification, likewise when put in contact with a fluoride solution (F-), it was capable of taking up these ions through adsorption due to the interaction between the sorbato and the pollutant. The kinetics best fit Pseudo-second-order model with Qmax=0.91 mgg-1, therefore it indicates that the process is reversible, spontaneous and endothermic what can favor the reuse of the material.
Europe’s roadmap to a low-carbon economy aims to cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions 80% below 1990 levels by 2050. Beef production is an important source of GHG emissions and is expected to increase as the world population grows. LIFE BEEF CARBON is a voluntary European initiative that aims to reduce GHG emissions per unit of beef (carbon footprint) by 15% over a 10-year period on 2172 farms in four large beef-producing countries. Changes in farms beef carbon footprint are normally estimated via simulation modelling, but the methods current models apply differ. Thus, our initial goal was to develop a common modelling framework to estimate beef farms carbon footprint. The framework was developed for a diverse set of Western Europe farms located in Ireland, Spain, Italy and France. Whole farm and life cycle assessment (LCA) models were selected to quantify emissions for the different production contexts and harmonized. Carbon Audit was chosen for Ireland, Bovid-CO2 for Spain and CAP’2ER for France and Italy. All models were tested using 20 case study farms, that is, 5 per country and quantified GHG emissions associated with on-farm live weight gain. The comparison showed the ranking of beef systems gross carbon footprint was consistent across the three models. Suckler to weaning or store systems generally had the highest carbon footprint followed by suckler to beef systems and fattening beef systems. When applied to the same farm, Carbon Audit’s footprint estimates were slightly lower than CAP’2ER, but marginally higher than Bovid-CO2. These differences occurred because the models were adapted to a specific region’s production circumstances, which meant their emission factors for key sources; that is, methane from enteric fermentation and GHG emissions from concentrates were less accurate when used outside their target region. Thus, for the common modelling framework, region-specific LCA models were chosen to estimate beef carbon footprints instead of a single generic model. Additionally, the Carbon Audit and Bovid-CO2 models were updated to include carbon removal by soil and other environmental metrics included in CAP’2ER, for example, acidification. This allows all models to assess the effect carbon mitigation strategies have on other potential pollutants. Several options were identified to reduce beef farms carbon footprint, for example, improving genetic merit. These options were assessed for beef systems, and a mitigation plan was created by each nation. The cumulative mitigation effect of the LIFE BEEF CARBON plan was estimated to exceed the projects reduction target (−15%).
Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) can sometimes cause severe symptoms and lead to hospitalisation, but they often go unnoticed in the Emergency Department (ED). The aim of this study was twofold: (i) to describe the profile of patients hospitalised by TBDs; and (ii) to evaluate the data collected in the medical records from the ED in order to analyse their potential clinical consequences. A total of 84 cases that included all TBD diagnoses registered in the ED records were identified and analysed. These corresponded to all the hospitalisations by TBDs in the last 10 years (2009–2019) in two tertiary hospitals in Granada, Spain. Statistical analyses were made using RStudio. Coinciding with the absence of patient's report of exposure to ticks, 64.3% of TBDs were not suspected in the ED. Intensive care unit admission was required in 8.3% of cases, and the mortality rate was 2.4%. Non-suspected cases showed longer hospital stay (P < 0.001), treatment duration (P = 0.02) and delay in the initiation of antibiotic treatment (P < 0.001). Our findings indicate that symptoms associated with TBDs are highly non-specific. In the absence of explicit information related to potential tick exposure, TBDs are not initially suspected. As a consequence, elective treatment administration is delayed and hospitalisation time is prolonged. In conclusion, our results highlight the importance of addressing potential exposure to ticks during the ED contact with patients presenting with febrile syndrome.
Here we report the results of an experimental study where we measure the hydrodynamic force acting on a plate which is lifted from a water surface, suddenly starting to move upwards with an acceleration much larger than gravity. Our work focuses on the early stage of the plate motion, when the hydrodynamic suction forces due to the liquid inertia are the most relevant ones. Besides the force, we measure as well the acceleration at the centre of the plate and the time evolution of the wetted area. The results of this study show that, at very early stages, the hydrodynamic force can be estimated by a simple extension of the linear exit theory by Korobkin (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 737, 2013, pp. 368–386), which incorporates an added mass to the body dynamics. However, at longer times, the measured acceleration decays even though the applied external force continues to increase. Moreover, high-speed recordings of the disc displacement and the radius of the wetted area reveal that the latter does not change before the disc acceleration reaches its maximum value. We show in this paper that these phenomena are caused by the elastic deflection of the disc during the initial transient stage of water exit. We present a linearised model of water exit that accounts for the elastic behaviour of the lifted body. The results obtained with this new model agree fairly well with the experimental results.
The ability to regulate stress is a critical developmental milestone of early childhood that involves a set of interconnected behavioral and physiological processes and is influenced by genetic and environmental stimuli. Prenatal exposure to traumatic stress and trauma, including intimate partner violence (IPV), increases risk for offspring biobehavioral regulation problems during childhood and adolescence. Although individual differences in susceptibility to prenatal stress have been largely unexplored, a handful of studies suggest children with specific genetic characteristics are most vulnerable to prenatal stress. We evaluated the brain-derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met gene (BDNF) as a moderator of the effect of prenatal IPV exposure on infant temperamental and cortisol regulation in response to a psychosocial challenge. Ninety-nine mother–infant dyads recruited from the community were assessed when infants (51% female) were 11 to 14 months. Maternal reports of IPV during pregnancy and infant temperament were obtained, and infant saliva was collected for genotyping and to assess cortisol reactivity (before and after the Strange Situation Task). Significant genetic moderation effects were found. Among infants with the BDNF Met allele, prenatal IPV predicted worse temperamental regulation and mobilization of the cortisol response, while controlling for infant postnatal exposure to IPV, other maternal traumatic experiences, and infant sex. However, prenatal IPV exposure was not associated with temperamental or cortisol outcomes among infant carriers of the Val/Val genotype. Findings are discussed in relation to prenatal programming and biological susceptibility to stress.