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This clear and pedagogical text delivers a concise overview of classical and quantum statistical physics. Essential Statistical Physics shows students how to relate the macroscopic properties of physical systems to their microscopic degrees of freedom, preparing them for graduate courses in areas such as biophysics, condensed matter physics, atomic physics and statistical mechanics. Topics covered include the microcanonical, canonical, and grand canonical ensembles, Liouville's Theorem, Kinetic Theory, non-interacting Fermi and Bose systems and phase transitions, and the Ising model. Detailed steps are given in mathematical derivations, allowing students to quickly develop a deep understanding of statistical techniques. End-of-chapter problems reinforce key concepts and introduce more advanced applications, and appendices provide a detailed review of thermodynamics and related mathematical results. This succinct book offers a fresh and intuitive approach to one of the most challenging topics in the core physics curriculum and provides students with a solid foundation for tackling advanced topics in statistical mechanics.
The mineral ‘oboyerite’, first described in 1979 from the Grand Central mine, Tombstone, Cochise County, Arizona, USA, has been re-examined. The type specimen from the Natural History Museum, London and a specimen from the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County (traceable to S. A Williams, who first described ‘oboyerite’) were analysed in this study. The discreditation of ‘oboyerite’ as a valid mineral species has been approved by the Commission on New Minerals, Nomenclature and Classification of the International Mineralogical Association (Proposal 19-D). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction, electron probe microanalysis and scanning electron microscopy were all employed to show that ‘oboyerite’ is formed of at least two distinct phases, including the lead–tellurium oxysalt minerals ottoite and plumbotellurite. During the course of the discreditation, plumbotellurite was confirmed to be identical to the synthetic compound α-Pb2+Te4+O3. Previously, in some mineralogical literature plumbotellurite was described as orthorhombic with no known crystal structure.
Major depressive disorder is a common diagnosis associated with a high burden of disease that has proven to be highly heterogeneous and unreliable. Treatments currently available demonstrate limited efficacy and effectiveness. New drug development is urgently required but is likely to be hindered by diagnostic limitations.
Objectives: Intraindividual variability increases with age, but the relative strength of association with cognitive domains is still unclear. The objective of this study was to examine the relation between cognitive domains and the shape and spread of response time (RT) distributions as indexed by intraindividual standard deviation (ISD), and ex-Gaussian parameters (μ, σ, τ). Methods: Healthy adults (40 young [aged 18–30 years], 40 young-old [aged 65–74 years], and 41 old-old [aged 75–85 years]) completed neuropsychological testing and a touch-screen attention task from which ISD and ex-Gaussian parameters were derived. The relation between RT performance and cognitive domains (memory, processing speed, executive functioning) was examined with structural equation modeling (SEM), and the predictive power of RT distribution indices over age was investigated with linear regression. Results:ISD, μ, and τ, but not σ, showed a linear increase with age group. An SEM showed that independent of age, τ was most strongly associated with executive functioning, while μ exhibited less critical associations. Linear regression indicated that μ and τ explained a significant portion of variance in processing speed and executive ability in addition to age group. Memory was more parsimoniously predicted by age, without any significant contribution of ex-Gaussian parameters. Conclusions: The findings suggest that exceptionally slow responses convey attention lapses through wavering of cognitive control, which strongly correspond to executive functioning tests. General slowing and extremely slow responses predicted processing speed and executive performance beyond age group, indicating that RT metrics are sensitive to differences in cognitive ability. (JINS, 2018, 24, 456–465)
A novel transmission line structure has been developed to facilitate the delivery of both adrenaline and microwave energy to achieve hemostasis. A proximal end impedance transformer and radiative tip have been designed and manufactured to provide good match between the novel hollow transmission line and the microwave source and tissue, respectively. Further consideration of the challenges and problems encountered along with evidence of successful microwave energy delivery at 5.8 GHz into porcine liver model providing a controlled and focused coagulation zone of approximately 5 mm.
This study investigated comparatively the pathogenicity of experimental infection of mice and guinea pigs, with Angiostrongylus mackerrasae and the closely related species A. cantonensis. Time course analyses showed that A. mackerrasae causes eosinophilic meningitis in these hosts, which suggests that the species has the potential to cause meningitis in humans and domestic animals. Both A. mackerrasae and the genetically similar A. cantonensis caused eosinophilic meningitis in mice at two time points of 14 and 21 days post infection (dpi). The brain lesions in mice infected with A. mackerrasae were more granulomatous in nature and the parasites were more likely to appear degenerate compared with lesions caused by A. cantonensis. This may indicate that the mouse immune system eliminates A. mackerrasae infection more effectively. The immunologic responses of mice infected with the two Angiostrongylus species was compared by assessing ex vivo stimulated spleen derived T cells and cytokines including interferon-gamma, interleukin 4 and interleukin 17 on 14 and 21 dpi. The results were similar for mice infected with A. cantonensis and A. mackerrasae. Serum from the infected animals with either A. cantonensis or A. mackerrasae recognized total soluble antigen of A. cantonensis female worms on Western blot.
Archival data from a cross-sectional survey of two cohorts of community-residing New Zealand adults (n = 157; n = 141) was analysed to examine social attitudes towards people with mental illness in a historical period associated with the establishment of a community mental health facility. Participants completed the Opinions about Mental Illness (OMI; Cohen & Struening, 1959), and the Comfort in Interaction Scale (CI, Beckwith & Mathews, 1994); the latter a measure of level of prior contact with people with mental illness. Across cohorts, the OMI Mental Hygiene subscale and the CI scale had significant variability. Older participants endorsed more Authoritarian, Social Restrictiveness and Interpersonal Ideology attitudes in their perception of people with mental illness than younger participants. Data supported the hypothesis that attitudes towards people with mental illness were influenced by social attitudes, and by opportunities to interact with people with mental illness in work settings.
The Australian continent is large and therefore exhibits a range of very different climatic zones. Broadly, the continent is characterised by arid climatic regimes: four-fifths of the landmass receiving an annual rainfall of less than 600 mm (Figure 12.1) and one-half of the continent receiving less than 300 mm. These arid and semi-arid regions form the greatest proportion of inland Australia, and are fringed by narrow, wet and temperate climatic zones along the southwestern, southern and eastern coastal zones (Figure 12.1). Tropical monsoonal rainfall characterises the northern coastal zones. Compared to other continents on Earth, Australia has by far the lowest average rainfall. This low precipitation rate is coupled with a high evaporation rate meaning that surface water availability is also anomalously low compared to global averages. Average annual temperature also shows significant variation (Figure 12.1) and in most areas there is also a high diurnal variation in temperature.
It is well known, however, that the currently arid areas of inland Australia were significantly wetter in the geological past, from the early Cenozoic (a period of geological time from c. 65 Ma until the present day; Gradstein et al. 2004) until at least the early Miocene (c. 23 Ma) (e.g. Kershaw et al. 1994; Martin 2006). Much of our current knowledge of climate change from the early Cenozoic to the present is deduced from observed variations in the isotopic signature of marine sediments (e.g. deMenocal 1995; Lisiecki and Raymo 2005; Raymo et al. 2006) as well as the distribution, chemistry and palynological assemblages of terrestrial and marine sediments and sedimentary rocks.
Affective states have become a central topic of interest in research on
organizational behavior. Recently, scholars have been paying more attention to
the proposals of the Circumplex Model (Russell, 1980) in order to gain a finer grained understanding of
job-related affect. However, the limited availability of well-validated measures
to test this model in work settings, particularly in non English-speaking
populations, is still a major drawback. Using three samples of English-speaking
and Spanish-speaking workers, this article offers the cross-validation of the
Multi-Affect Indicator (Warr, 2007)
between the original English version and its corresponding translation into
Spanish. Multi-group Structural Equation Modeling supported the
instrument’s structure and its invariance between the two languages
(English: χ2 = 65.56, df
= 48, p = .05; RMSEA = .06;
CFI = .97; Spanish: χ2 = 68.68,
df = 48, p = .03;
RMSEA = .05; CFI = .97). Furthermore, Circular Stochastic
Modeling supported the theoretically proposed circumplex representation
(χ2 = 139.85, df
= 51, p < .01;
χ2/df = 2.74, RMSEA
= .06). Thus, this study offers an instrument that provides a more
accurate approximation to affect at work, both in English and in another of the
major language communities in the world, the Spanish-speaking population.
Aims: Problem or pathological gambling is associated with significant disruption to the individual, family and community with a range of adverse outcomes, including legal, financial and mental health impairment. It occurs more frequently in younger populations, and comorbid conditions are common. Cognitive–behaviour therapy (CBT) is the most empirically established class of treatments for problematic gambling. This article reports on a systematic review and evaluation of randomised clinical trials (RCTs) concerning two core techniques of CBT: cognitive and behavioural (exposure-based) therapies. Methods: PsycINFO, MEDLINE and the Cochrane library were searched from database inception to December 2012. The CONsolidated Standards Of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) for non-pharmacological treatments was used to evaluate each study. Results: The initial search identified 104 references. After two screening phases, seven RCTs evaluating either cognitive (n = 3), exposure (n = 3) or both (n = 1) interventions remained. The studies were published between 1983 and 2003 and conducted across Australia, Canada, and Spain. On average, approximately 31% of CONSORT items were rated as ‘absent’ for each study and more than 52% rated as ‘present with some limitations’. For all studies, 70.83% of items rated as ‘absent’ were in the methods section. Conclusions: The findings from this review of randomised clinical trials involving cognitive and exposure-based treatments for gambling disorders show that the current evidence base is limited. Trials with low risk of bias are needed to be reported before recommendations are given on their effectiveness and clinicians can appraise their potential utility with confidence.
Populations of many frogs have declined alarmingly in recent years, placing nearly one third of the > 6,000 species under threat of extinction. Declines have been attributed largely to habitat loss, environmental degradation and/or infectious diseases such as chytridiomycosis. Many frogs undergo dramatic natural population fluctuations such that long-term data are required to determine population trends without undue influence of stochastic factors. We present long-term quantitative data (individuals encountered per person hour of searching) for four monotypic frog genera endemic to an Afromontane region of exceptional importance but growing conservation concern: one endemic to the Ethiopian highlands (Spinophrynoides osgoodi) and three endemic to the Bale Mountains (Altiphrynoides malcolmi, Balebreviceps hillmani, Ericabatrachus baleensis), collected during 15 field trips to the Bale Mountains between 1971 and 2009. Only a single confirmed sighting of S. osgoodi has been made since 1995. The other three species have also declined, at least locally. E. baleensis appears to have been extirpated at its type locality and at the same site B. hillmani has declined. These declines are in association with substantial habitat degradation caused by a growing human population. Chytrid fungus has been found on several frog species in Bale, although no dead or moribund frogs have been encountered. These results expose an urgent need for more amphibian surveys in the Bale Mountains. Additionally, we argue that detrimental human exploitation must be halted immediately in at least some parts of the Harenna Forest if a conservation crisis is to be averted.
High-protein (HP) diets for weight loss remain popular despite questions surrounding overall safety. In a recent study using the pig model, we showed that long-term intakes from whole proteins at 35 % energy (en %) cause moderate renal histological damage. To examine whether this observation may be species specific or more generalisable, the effect of this diet in rats was examined. Using plant and animal whole proteins, 70-d-old female Sprague–Dawley rats were randomised to either a normal-protein (NP; 15 en %) or a HP (35 en %) diet for 4, 8, 12 and 17 months. Renal function was assessed by creatinine clearance and urinary protein levels, and pathology was assessed by examination of glomerular hypertrophy, glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Rats consuming the HP diet had 17 % higher kidney weights (P < 0·0001), three times higher proteinuria (P < 0·0001) and 27 % higher creatinine clearance (P = 0·0012) compared with those consuming the NP diet. Consistent with this, HP-fed rats had larger glomeruli (P < 0·0001) and more glomerulosclerosis (P = 0·0003) compared with NP-fed rats. The HP diet also resulted in altered levels of free monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (P < 0·0001). The histological changes are consistent with those observed in the pig model. In contrast to the pig model, the elevated proteinuria and creatinine clearance observed in the rat model are also usually observed with HP consumption in human subjects. These results indicate that the rat is a useful model for HP effects on the kidney and, along with previous results using the pig model, suggest that long-term intake of high levels of protein may be detrimental to renal health.
Brief meetings were held to confirm the elections of the incoming Division President, Francoise Genova and Vice President, Ray Norris along with the Organizing Committee which will consist of the incoming Presidents of the 7 Commissions (5,6,14,41,46,50 and 55) plus additional nominated members. The incoming Organizing Committee will thus consist of: