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A history of childhood adversity is associated with psychotic disorder, with an increase in risk according to the number of exposures. However, it is not known why only some exposed individuals go on to develop psychosis. One possibility is pre-existing polygenic vulnerability. Here, we investigated, in the largest sample of first-episode psychosis (FEP) cases to date, whether childhood adversity and high polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia (SZ-PRS) combine synergistically to increase the risk of psychosis, over and above the effect of each alone.
We assigned a schizophrenia-polygenic risk score (SZ-PRS), calculated from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC2), to all participants in a sample of 384 FEP patients and 690 controls from the case–control component of the EU-GEI study. Only participants of European ancestry were included in the study. A history of childhood adversity was collected using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Synergistic effects were estimated using the interaction contrast ratio (ICR) [odds ratio (OR)exposure and PRS − ORexposure − ORPRS + 1] with adjustment for potential confounders.
There was some evidence that the combined effect of childhood adversities and polygenic risk was greater than the sum of each alone, as indicated by an ICR greater than zero [i.e. ICR 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) −1.29 to 3.85]. Examining subtypes of childhood adversities, the strongest synergetic effect was observed for physical abuse (ICR 6.25, 95% CI −6.25 to 20.88).
Our findings suggest possible synergistic effects of genetic liability and childhood adversity experiences in the onset of FEP, but larger samples are needed to increase precision of estimates.
A mechanical theory is described for a phenomenon in the surgical procedure of resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA). In this procedure a balloon is pushed into the aorta by a catheter and then inflated in order to stop haemorrhage. One of the hazards of this procedure is the tendency for the balloon to migrate away from its intended position. This work examines the mechanics of balloon anchoring and migration by analysing the effects of pressure waves, the sheet flow and solid friction in the thin gap between the walls of the aorta and balloon. A viscoelastic model is adopted for the aorta wall for pressure waves between the left ventricle and the balloon. The lubrication approximation is used for blood flow in the thin gap between the walls of the balloon and aorta. Samples of quantitative predictions are discussed on how the inflation pressure and balloon characteristics affect the balloon anchoring and migration. The crucial roles of solid friction and balloon placement are pointed out, which should help in guiding the manufacturing of balloons and their usage in the field.
This work determines the optimal palygorskite (Plg) content (maximum surfactant adsorption point) to achieve organophilization using the cationic surfactant cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) at various concentrations. Adsorption assays were carried out in a finite bath after varying the content of Plg and CTAB in solution. In those assays, the effects of time, temperature, pH and thermodynamic characteristics were studied. The results were analysed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin–Radushkevich and Tempkin adsorption models. The increase in clay content in the dispersion leads to a decrease in adsorption of surfactant on the clay. It was possible to obtain the optimal Plg content to achieve organophilization at various concentrations of CTAB surfactant. The experimental data fitted well to the Freundlich model. The Dubinin–Radushkevich and Tempkin isotherms confirmed the chemical adsorption of CTAB on Plg clay.
Studying phenotypic and genetic characteristics of age at onset (AAO) and polarity at onset (PAO) in bipolar disorder can provide new insights into disease pathology and facilitate the development of screening tools.
To examine the genetic architecture of AAO and PAO and their association with bipolar disorder disease characteristics.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and polygenic score (PGS) analyses of AAO (n = 12 977) and PAO (n = 6773) were conducted in patients with bipolar disorder from 34 cohorts and a replication sample (n = 2237). The association of onset with disease characteristics was investigated in two of these cohorts.
Earlier AAO was associated with a higher probability of psychotic symptoms, suicidality, lower educational attainment, not living together and fewer episodes. Depressive onset correlated with suicidality and manic onset correlated with delusions and manic episodes. Systematic differences in AAO between cohorts and continents of origin were observed. This was also reflected in single-nucleotide variant-based heritability estimates, with higher heritabilities for stricter onset definitions. Increased PGS for autism spectrum disorder (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), major depression (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), schizophrenia (β = −0.39 years, s.e. = 0.08), and educational attainment (β = −0.31 years, s.e. = 0.08) were associated with an earlier AAO. The AAO GWAS identified one significant locus, but this finding did not replicate. Neither GWAS nor PGS analyses yielded significant associations with PAO.
AAO and PAO are associated with indicators of bipolar disorder severity. Individuals with an earlier onset show an increased polygenic liability for a broad spectrum of psychiatric traits. Systematic differences in AAO across cohorts, continents and phenotype definitions introduce significant heterogeneity, affecting analyses.
Repeated antigen testing of 12 SARS-CoV-2–positive nursing home residents using Abbott BinaxNOW™ identified 9/9 (100%) culture-positive specimens up to 6 days after initial positive test. Antigen positivity lasted 2–24 days. Antigen positivity might last beyond the infectious period, but was reliable in residents with evidence of early infection.
The aim of the current study was to explore the effect of gender, age at onset, and duration on the long-term course of schizophrenia.
Twenty-nine centers from 25 countries representing all continents participated in the study that included 2358 patients aged 37.21 ± 11.87 years with a DSM-IV or DSM-5 diagnosis of schizophrenia; the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale as well as relevant clinicodemographic data were gathered. Analysis of variance and analysis of covariance were used, and the methodology corrected for the presence of potentially confounding effects.
There was a 3-year later age at onset for females (P < .001) and lower rates of negative symptoms (P < .01) and higher depression/anxiety measures (P < .05) at some stages. The age at onset manifested a distribution with a single peak for both genders with a tendency of patients with younger onset having slower advancement through illness stages (P = .001). No significant effects were found concerning duration of illness.
Our results confirmed a later onset and a possibly more benign course and outcome in females. Age at onset manifested a single peak in both genders, and surprisingly, earlier onset was related to a slower progression of the illness. No effect of duration has been detected. These results are partially in accord with the literature, but they also differ as a consequence of the different starting point of our methodology (a novel staging model), which in our opinion precluded the impact of confounding effects. Future research should focus on the therapeutic policy and implications of these results in more representative samples.
Performance characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid detection assays are understudied within contexts of low pre-test probability, including screening asymptomatic persons without epidemiological links to confirmed cases, or asymptomatic surveillance testing. SARS-CoV-2 detection without symptoms may represent presymptomatic or asymptomatic infection, resolved infection with persistent RNA shedding, or a false positive test. This study assessed positive predictive value of SARS-CoV-2 real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assays by retesting positive specimens from five pre-test probability groups ranging from high to low with an alternate assay.
A total of 122 rRT-PCR positive specimens collected from unique patients between March and July 2020 were retested using a laboratory-developed nested RT-PCR assay targeting the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene followed by Sanger sequencing.
Significantly fewer (15.6%) positive results in the lowest pre-test probability group (facilities with institution-wide screening having ≤ 3 positive asymptomatic cases) were reproduced with the nested RdRp gene RT-PCR assay than in each of the four groups with higher pre-test probability (individual group range 50·0% to 85·0%).
Large-scale SARS-CoV-2 screening testing initiatives among low pre-test probability populations should be evaluated thoroughly prior to implementation given the risk of false positives and consequent potential for harm at the individual and population level.
Sleep disturbance is common in gestational parents during pregnancy and postpartum periods. This study evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of a scalable cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) sleep intervention tailored for these periods.
This is a two-arm, parallel-group, single-blind, superiority randomised controlled trial. Nulliparous females without severe medical/psychiatric conditions were randomised 1:1 to CBT or attention- and time-matched control. All participants received a 1 h telephone session and automated multimedia emails from the third trimester until 6 months postpartum. Outcomes were assessed with validated instruments at gestation weeks 30 (baseline) and 35 (pregnancy endpoint), and postpartum months 1.5, 3, 6 (postpartum endpoint), 12 and 24.
In total, 163 eligible participants (age M ± s.d. = 33.35 ± 3.42) were randomised. The CBT intervention was well accepted, with no reported adverse effect. Intention-to-treat analyses showed that compared to control, receiving CBT was associated with lower insomnia severity and sleep disturbance (two primary outcomes), and lower sleep-related impairment at the pregnancy endpoint (p values ⩽ 0.001), as well as at 24 months postpartum (p ranges 0.012–0.052). Group differences across the first postpartum year were non-significant. Participants with elevated insomnia symptoms at baseline benefitted substantially more from CBT (v. control), including having significantly lower insomnia symptoms throughout the first postpartum year. Group differences in symptoms of depression or anxiety were non-significant.
A scalable CBT sleep intervention is efficacious in buffering against sleep disturbance during pregnancy and benefitted sleep at 2-year postpartum, especially for individuals with insomnia symptoms during pregnancy. The intervention holds promise for implementation into routine perinatal care.
Online grocery shopping could improve access to healthy food, but it may not be equally accessible to all populations – especially those at higher risk for food insecurity. The current study aimed to compare the socio-demographic characteristics of families who ordered groceries online v. those who only shopped in-store.
We analysed enrollment survey and 44 weeks of individually linked grocery transaction data. We used univariate χ2 and t-tests and logistic regression to assess differences in socio-demographic characteristics between households that only shopped in-store and those that shopped online with curbside pickup (online only or online and in-store).
Two Maine supermarkets.
863 parents or caregivers of children under 18 years old enrolled in two fruit and vegetable incentive trials.
Participants had a total of 32 757 transactions. In univariate assessments, online shoppers had higher incomes (P < 0 0001), were less likely to participate in Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children or Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP; P < 0 0001) and were more likely to be female (P = 0·04). Most online shoppers were 30–39 years old, and few were 50 years or older (P = 0·003). After controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, number of children, number of adults, income and SNAP participation, female primary shoppers (OR = 2·75, P = 0·003), number of children (OR = 1·27, P = 0·04) and income (OR = 3·91 for 186–300 % federal poverty line (FPL) and OR = 6·92 for >300 % FPL, P < 0·0001) were significantly associated with likelihood of shopping online.
In the current study of Maine families, low-income shoppers were significantly less likely to utilise online grocery ordering with curbside pickup. Future studies could focus on elucidating barriers and developing strategies to improve access.
Circadian rhythms, metabolic processes and dietary intake are inextricably linked. Timing of food intake is a modifiable temporal cue for the circadian system and may be influenced by numerous factors, including individual chronotype – an indicator of an individual’s circadian rhythm in relation to the light–dark cycle. This scoping review examines temporal patterns of eating across chronotypes and assesses tools that have been used to collect data on temporal patterns of eating and chronotype. A systematic search identified thirty-six studies in which aspects of temporal patterns of eating, including meal timings; meal skipping; energy distribution across the day; meal frequency; time interval between meals, or meals and wake/sleep times; midpoint of food/energy intake; meal regularity; and duration of eating window, were presented in relation to chronotype. Findings indicate that, compared with morning chronotypes, evening chronotypes tend to skip meals more frequently, have later mealtimes, and distribute greater energy intake towards later times of the day. More studies should explore the difference in meal regularity and duration of eating window amongst chronotypes. Currently, tools used in collecting data on chronotype and temporal patterns of eating are varied, limiting the direct comparison of findings between studies. Development of a standardised assessment tool will allow future studies to confidently compare findings to inform the development and assessment of guidelines that provide recommendations on temporal patterns of eating for optimal health.
An open-label extension study (NCT02873208) evaluated the long-term tolerability, safety, and efficacy of combination olanzapine/samidorphan (OLZ/SAM) treatment in patients with schizophrenia. This qualitative sub study explored perceptions of benefit, burden, and satisfaction with previous medications and OLZ/SAM.
Semi-structured interviews (60 minutes; audio-recorded) were conducted. Interviewer sensitivity training, senior interviewer oversight, and a list of common medications to aid recall supported data collection. Interview transcripts were content coded and analyzed (NVivo v11.0).
All 41 patients reported a lifetime burden with schizophrenia adversely impacting employment, relationships, emotional health, social activities, and daily tasks. Hospitalization for schizophrenia management was another reported aspect of disease burden. Although most (n=32) patients reported previous medication benefits, side effects affecting physical, emotional/behavioral, and cognitive functioning were reported by all (n=41). Following OLZ/SAM treatment, 39/41 patients (95%) reported improvements in symptoms including hallucinations, paranoia, depression, sleep, and concentration. Furthermore, patients described improvements in self-esteem, social activities, relationships, and daily activities. Twenty-three patients (56%) reported side effects attributed to OLZ/SAM; lack of energy (n=12 [29%]) and dry mouth (n= 5 [12%]) were most common. Twenty-four (59%) patients were “very satisfied” with OLZ/SAM; most (n=35 [85%]) preferred to continue OLZ/SAM vs switching to another medication. As most substudy patients (n=40; 98%) completed the extension study, satisfied patients may be overrepresented in this analysis.
This qualitative interview approach provided valuable insight into patients’ experiences with previous medications and OLZ/SAM. Overall, most patients reported treatment satisfaction and improvements in symptoms, function, and health-related quality of life with OLZ/SAM.
The aim of this study was to provide insights learned from disaster research response (DR2) efforts following Hurricane Harvey in 2017 to launch DR2 activities following the Intercontinental Terminals Company (ITC) fire in Deer Park, Texas, in 2019.
A multidisciplinary group of academic, community, and government partners launched a myriad of DR2 activities.
The DR2 response to Hurricane Harvey focused on enhancing environmental health literacy around clean-up efforts, measuring environmental contaminants in soil and water in impacted neighborhoods, and launching studies to evaluate the health impact of the disaster. The lessons learned after Harvey enabled rapid DR2 activities following the ITC fire, including air monitoring and administering surveys and in-depth interviews with affected residents.
Embedding DR2 activities at academic institutions can enable rapid deployment of lessons learned from one disaster to enhance the response to subsequent disasters, even when those disasters are different. Our experience demonstrates the importance of academic institutions working with governmental and community partners to support timely disaster response efforts. Efforts enabled by such experience include providing health and safety training and consistent and reliable messaging, collecting time-sensitive and critical data in the wake of the event, and launching research to understand health impacts and improve resiliency.
Colleges and universities around the world engaged diverse strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic. Baylor University, a community of ˜22,700 individuals, was 1 of the institutions which resumed and sustained operations. The key strategy was establishment of multidisciplinary teams to develop mitigation strategies and priority areas for action. This population-based team approach along with implementation of a “Swiss Cheese” risk mitigation model allowed small clusters to be rapidly addressed through testing, surveillance, tracing, isolation, and quarantine. These efforts were supported by health protocols including face coverings, social distancing, and compliance monitoring. As a result, activities were sustained from August 1 to December 8, 2020. There were 62,970 COVID-19 tests conducted with 1435 people testing positive for a positivity rate of 2.28%. A total of 1670 COVID-19 cases were identified with 235 self-reports. The mean number of tests per week was 3500 with approximately 80 of these positive (11/d). More than 60 student tracers were trained with over 120 personnel available to contact trace, at a ratio of 1 per 400 university members. The successes and lessons learned provide a framework and pathway for similar institutions to mitigate the ongoing impacts of COVID-19 and sustain operations during a global pandemic.