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The paper describes the adaptation and psychometric evaluation of the Hungarian version of the quality of life in depression scale. The adaptation procedure involved: bilingual translation; field-testing for face and content validity; and assessment of instrument's reliability and construct validity. The new language version was shown to be well-accepted by respondents and to have excellent psychometric properties.
This study aimed to assess the psychological well-being and quality of life in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and the potential psychosocial impact of screening.
A total of 152 children (aged 3–18 years) attending a specialist paediatric hypertrophic cardiomyopathy clinic, and their parents completed the Generic Core Scales and Cardiac Module of the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) questionnaire as well as the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire; 21 patients (14%) had hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (group A); 23 children (15%) harboured hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-causing sarcomeric mutations with normal echocardiograms (group G); and 108 children (71%) had a family history of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with normal investigations and attended for clinical cardiological screening (group S).
In group A, mean PedsQLTM total scores reported by children and parents were lower than those reported by unaffected children (p<0.001). There was no significant difference between unaffected and gene-positive patients. Mean Cardiac module PedsQLTM total scores by children and parents were lower in children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy compared with unaffected patients [mean child-reported total score 86.4 in group S versus 72.3 in group A (p<0.001) and 80.2 in group G (p=0.25); mean parent-reported total score 91.6 in group S versus 71.4 in group A (p<0.001) and 87 in group G (p=0.4)]. There was no significant difference between group S and group G on any of the scales, or between the three groups of patients in the mean Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire scores.
Children with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy have a significantly reduced quality of life. Importantly, Quality-of-Life scores among unaffected children attending for screening were not different compared with scores from a normative UK population.
Anti-retroviral treatment has changed the nature of the HIV pandemic and has been a major driver of an increase in resources devoted to health care in low-income countries (Walensky and Kuritzkes 2010), but there are questions about whether treatment has been adequately expanded, and about how to maintain the gains that have been achieved (Bertozzi, Martz et al. 2009). The global pandemic of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the associated acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), emerging in 1981, was initially characterized by an exceptionally high fatality rate, where almost everyone infected would die, after a long and variable incubation period (Hendriks, Medley et al. 1993). Successful combination treatment, which uses three drugs to suppress the virus to levels where the immune system ceased to be damaged and where the virus could not easily evolve into a resistant genotype, dramatically changed the outcome of HIV infection, turning it into a manageable chronic disease (Palella, Delaney et al. 1998). However, this introduction of successful treatment in 1996 quickly highlighted the gross inequities in access to health care and treatments globally, with a declining mortality seen in North America and Western Europe that was not possible in lower income settings. A remarkable advocacy campaign led to reduced costs per person per year of anti-retroviral medication, along with increasing resources globally (UNAIDS 2009, 2010). The goal of universal access to anti-retrovirals was embraced by politicians at the Gleneagles summit in 2006, and again endorsed in June 2011 by the UN General Assembly (World Health Organization 2010). Currently there are over six million people on effective anti-retroviral treatment globally, a great tribute to the efforts of many (UNAIDS 2010). However, this is less than half of those in current “need” of treatment, and the growth in resources, which for nearly a decade was 28 percent per year, has ceased. Would more resources be a good investment to stop deaths from HIV and stop the spread of HIV? In what follows, we model the spread of HIV, the impact of anti-retroviral treatment, and show how the trade-offs necessary in decisions about who to treat and how to treat them influence the benefits derived from treatment programs.
Plague is thought to have killed millions during three catastrophic pandemics. Primary pneumonic plague, the most severe form of the disease, is transmissible from person-to-person and has the potential for propagating epidemics. Efforts to quantify its transmission potential have relied on published data from large outbreaks, an approach that artificially inflates the basic reproductive number (R0) and skews the distribution of individual infectiousness. Using data for all primary pneumonic plague cases reported in the USA from 1900 to 2009, we determined that the majority of cases will fail to transmit, even in the absence of antimicrobial treatment or prophylaxis. Nevertheless, potential for sustained outbreaks still exists due to superspreading events. These findings challenge current concepts regarding primary pneumonic plague transmission.
Enormous progress has been made in the selection of animals, including cattle, for specific traits using traditional quantitative genetics approaches. Nevertheless, considerable variation in phenotypes remains unexplained, and therefore represents potential additional gain for animal production. In addition, the paradigm shift in new disciplines now being applied to animal breeding represents a powerful opportunity to prise open the ‘black box’ underlying the response to selection and fully understand the genetic architecture controlling the traits of interest. A move away from traditional approaches of animal breeding toward systems approaches using integrative analysis of data from the ‘omic’ disciplines represents a multitude of exciting opportunities for animal breeding going forward as well as providing alternatives for overcoming some of the limitations of traditional approaches such as the expressed phenotype being an imperfect predictor of the individual’s true genetic merit, or the phenotype being only expressed in one gender or late in the lifetime of an animal. This review aims to discuss these opportunities from the perspective of their potential application and contribution to cattle breeding. Harnessing the potential of this paradigm shift also poses some new challenges for animal scientists – and they will also be discussed.
In Wisniewski et al. (2010), paper I, we analyzed 15 years of spectroscopic and spectropolarimetric data from the Ritter and Pine Bluff Observatories of 2 Be stars, 60 Cygni and π Aquarii, when a transition from Be to B star occurred. Here we analyze the intrinsic polarization, where we observe loop-like structures caused by the rise and fall of the polarization Balmer Jump and continuum V-band polarization being mismatched temporaly with polarimetric outbursts. We also see polarization angle deviations from the mean, reported in paper I, which may be indicative of warps in the disk, blobs injected at an inclined orbit, or spiral density waves. We show our ongoing efforts to model time dependent behavior of the disk to constrain the phenomena, using 3D Monte Carlo radiative transfer codes.
Developmental adaptations to violent environments involve a multitude of cascading effects spanning many levels of analysis from genes to behavior. In this review, we (a) examine the potentiating effects of violence on genetic vulnerabilities and the functioning of neurotransmitter systems in producing both internalizing and externalizing psychopathology; (b) describe implications of violence exposure for brain development, particularly within the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex; and (c) consider the effects of violence on developing human stress and startle responses. This review integrates literatures on the developmental effects of violence among rodents, nonhuman primates, and humans. Many neurobiological changes that are adaptive for survival in violent contexts become maladaptive in other environments, conferring life-long risk for psychopathology.
Early results from the SAGE-SMC (Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution in the tidally-disrupted, low-metallicity Small Magellanic Cloud) Spitzer legacy program are presented. These early results concentrate on the SAGE-SMC MIPS observations of the SMC Tail region. This region is the high H i column density portion of the Magellanic Bridge adjacent to the SMC Wing. We detect infrared dust emission and measure the gas-to-dust ratio in the SMC Tail and find it similar to that of the SMC Body. In addition, we find two embedded cluster regions that are resolved into multiple sources at all MIPS wavelengths.
We investigated an outbreak of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) infections linked to raw mung bean sprouts in 2000 with two case-control studies and reviewed six similar outbreaks that occurred in 2000–2002. All outbreaks were due to unusual phage types (PT) of SE and occurred in the United States (PT 33, 1, and 913), Canada (PT 11b and 913), and The Netherlands (PT 4b). PT 33 was in the spent irrigation water and a drain from one sprout grower. None of the growers disinfected seeds at recommended concentrations. Only two growers tested spent irrigation water; neither discarded the implicated seed lots after receiving a report of Salmonella contamination. We found no difference in the growth of SE and Salmonella Newport on mung beans. Mung bean sprout growers should disinfect seeds, test spent irrigation water, and discontinue the use of implicated seed lots when pathogens are found. Laboratories should report confirmed positive Salmonella results from sprout growers to public health authorities.
To monitor risk factors for illness, we conducted a case-control study of sporadic Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 (STEC O157) infections in 1999–2000. Laboratory-confirmed cases of STEC O157 infection were identified through active laboratory surveillance in all or part of seven states. Patients and age-matched controls were interviewed by telephone using a standard questionnaire. Information was collected on demographics, clinical illness, and exposures to food, water, and animals in the 7 days before the patient's illness onset. During the 12-month study, 283 patients and 534 controls were enrolled. STEC O157 infection was associated with eating pink hamburgers, drinking untreated surface water, and contact with cattle. Eating produce was inversely associated with infection. Direct or indirect contact with cattle waste continues to be a leading identified source of sporadic STEC O157 infections.
We are performing a uniform and unbiased imaging survey of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), using the IRAC and MIPS instruments on board the Spitzer Space Telescope (Spitzer). Meixner et al. (2006) provides an overview of the project and initial results and their Table 1 (repeated here) outlines the survey's salient characteristics. In this project, we are surveying the agents of a galaxys evolution (SAGE), i.e. the interstellar medium (ISM) and stars, and their interaction on the galaxy wide scale of the LMC. Spitzer IRAC and MIPS images provide key insights into the life cycle of matter in a galaxy because the infrared emission from dust grains is an effective tracer of the ISM, star formation, and stellar mass-loss. Three key science goals determined the coverage and depth of the survey. The detection of diffuse ISM with column densities > 1.2×1021 H cm−2 permits detailed studies of dust processes in the ISM. SAGE's point source sensitivity enables a complete census of newly formed stars with masses >3 M⊙ that will determine the current star formation rate in the LMC. SAGE's detection of evolved stars with mass loss rates > 10−8 M⊙ yr−1 will quantify the rate at which evolved stars inject mass into the ISM of the LMC (Blum et al. 2006). The SAGE data are nonproprietary. The preliminary SAGE catalog of epoch 1 photometry, prepared by the SAGE Team and released to the public on January 3, 2006, contains over 4 million IRAC sources, band merged with 2MASS photometry and over 60,000 MIPS 24 micron sources. Preliminary estimates indicate that foreground Milky Way stars and background galaxies may comprise as much as 18% and 12%, respectively, of these catalogs. To learn more about the SAGE project: http://sage.stsci.edu/.
We used molecular subtyping to investigate an outbreak of listeriosis involving residents of 24 US states. We defined a case as infection with Listeria monocytogenes serotype 4b yielding one of several closely related patterns when subtyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Patients infected with strains yielding different patterns were used as controls. A total of 108 cases were identified with 14 associated deaths and four miscarriages or stillbirths. A case-control study implicated meat frankfurters as the likely source of infection (OR 17·3, 95% CI 2·4–160). The outbreak ended abruptly following a manufacturer-issued recall, and the outbreak strain was later detected in low levels in the recalled product. A second strain was recovered at higher levels but was not associated with human illness. Our findings suggest that L. monocytogenes strains vary widely in virulence and confirm that large outbreaks can occur even when only low levels of contamination are detected in sampled food. Standardized molecular subtyping and coordinated, multi-jurisdiction investigations can greatly facilitate detection and control of listeriosis outbreaks.
Salmonella Javiana is a Salmonella serotype that is restricted geographically in the United States to the Southeast. During the summer of 2001, the number of reported S. Javiana infections in Mississippi increased sevenfold. To identify sources of infection, we conducted a case-control study, defining a case as an infection with S. Javiana between August and September in a Mississippi resident. We enrolled 55 cases and 109 controls. Thirty (55%) case patients reported exposure to amphibians, defined as owning, touching, or seeing an amphibian on one's property, compared with 30 (29%) controls (matched odds ratio 2·8, P=0·006). Contact with amphibians and their environments may be a risk factor for human infection with S. Javiana. The geographic pattern of S. Javiana infections in the United States mimics the distribution of certain amphibian species in the Southeast. Public health officials should consider amphibians as potential sources of salmonellosis, and promote hand washing after contact with amphibians.
We summarize the results of the Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) program to study O VI in the Milky Way halo. Spectra of 100 extragalactic objects and two distant halo stars are analyzed to obtain measures of O VI absorption along paths through the Milky Way thick disk/halo and beyond. Strong O VI absorption over the velocity range from −100 to 100 km s−1 reveals a widespread but highly irregular distribution of O VI, implying the existence of substantial amounts of hot gas with T~3×105 K in the Milky Way thick disk/halo. The overall distribution of O VI can be described by a plane-parallel patchy absorbing layer with an average O VI mid-plane density of no(O VI) = 1.7×10−8 cm−3, an exponential scale height of ~2.3 kpc, and a ~0.25 dex excess of O VI in the northern Galactic polar region. Approximately 60 percent of the sky is covered by high velocity O VI with |vLSR|>100 km s−1. This high velocity O VI traces a variety of phenomena in and near the Milky Way including outflowing material from the Milky Way, tidal interactions with the Magellanic Clouds, accretion of gas onto the Milky Way, and warm/hot gas interactions in a highly extended (>70 kpc) Galactic corona or with hot intergalactic gas in the Local Group.
Escherichia coli O157 infections cause an estimated 60 deaths and 73000 illnesses annually in the United States. A marked summer peak in incidence is largely unexplained. We investigated an outbreak of E. coli O157 infections at an agricultural fair in Ohio and implicated consumption of beverages made with fairground water and sold by a geographically localized group of vendors who were all on the same branch of the fairground water distribution system. To examine county fair attendance as a risk factor for infection, we conducted two further epidemiological studies. In the first, we enhanced surveillance for E. coli O157 infections in 15 Northeast Ohio counties during the 2000 agricultural fair season and showed increased risk of E. coli O157 infection among fair attendees. In the second study, we examined Ohio Public Health Laboratory Information Service (PHLIS) data for 1999 using a time-varying covariate proportional hazards model and demonstrated an association between agricultural fairs and E. coli O157 infections, by county. Agricultural fair attendance is a risk factor for E. coli O157 infection in the United States and may contribute to the summer peak in incidence. Measures are needed to reduce transmission of enteric pathogens at agricultural fairs.
The high cost of rearing pathogen-free poultry, coupled with increases in importation from non-European countries where hygienic measures may be less stringent indicates that biological approaches to control of infection with food-borne pathogens will continue to be important. The major measures are dealt with in this review, together with the positive and negative aspects of each of these approaches. They include antibiotic therapy and prophylaxis, competitive exclusion using intestinal flora preparations, live and killed vaccines and the increasing interest in exploiting natural genetic resistance to infection and disease.
Gillian E. Mead, Department of Clinical and Surgical Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK,
Charles P. Warlow, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
This paper reports on the use of an emerging process technique for curing of polymer encapsulants as used in the electronic packaging industry. Previous work performed in the area of materials processing has demonstrated the usefulness of sweeping operating frequencies in order to achieve high levels of electric field uniformity and process control. The use of controlled variable frequency microwave energy has been evaluated as a process technique compatible with electronic packaging requirements. The heating of a series of integrated circuits (ICs) and their subsequent characterization was performed. IC integrity was investigated using X‐Ray, Acoustic Microscopy, Decapsulation and Bond Pull. Processing of liquid encapsulants, underfills and glob‐tops, used in Flip Chip and Chip On Board (COB) applications, was performed. Differential Scanning Calorimetry was used to study cure extent. Further studies show that variable frequency microwave processing leads to fast curing of encapsulants. A reduction in cycle times from 15 to 20 times over conventional curing has been observed. Also, results have showed a reduction in the stresses induced by mismatches in coefficient of thermal expansion.
The efficacy of reduced rates of fomesafen, bentazon plus acifluorfen, and chlorimuron, in combination with sethoxydim was investigated in New Jersey from 1989 to 1991. Herbicides applied at sequential 0.25x rates controlled common lambsquarters, common ragweed, and stinkgrass. Chlorimuron plus sethoxydim did not control common lambsquarters at any rate. Generally, herbicides applied at 0.5x rates were not as effective as the full or sequential 0.25x rates. Yields of plots treated with reduced rates were equal to or greater than those treated with full rates.