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Capillary collimators have found a number of uses in fluorescence, diffraction and other x-ray fields. Most of these applications are realized with single, straight glass capillaries. Focussing of synchrotron x-radiation beams has been shown with tapered capillaries. In addition, numerous straight and bent capillaries, bundled into lens-like optics, offer experimenters many other possibilities for better use of the x-radiation from tubes, synchrotron radiation, and plasma sources or the x-ray intensity collected from samples.
Supplemental fat is often used to increase the energy density of diets for dairy cows, with the aim of improving tissue energy balance (TEB), milk production and herd fertility. In this study, the effects of supplemental calcium salts of palm fatty acids (CSFA) on production parameters, dry matter intake (DMI) and TEB were assessed in highly productive, early-lactation cows offered typical UK diets.
The Northern Ireland beef herd currently incorporates a very diverse range of genotypes which produces a very varied product in terms of carcass weight, fatness and conformation (Kirkland et al., 2004). However, factors other than genotype may also influence the expression of maternal traits and progeny carcass characteristics. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of dam conformation, irrespective of genotype, on dystocia and progeny carcass traits.
The suckler beef industry in Northern Ireland comprises many differing dam breeds and breed crosses. However, there is a paucity of data on the influence of dam breed on parameters such as carcass weight, fatness and conformation, and on factors affecting management of the herd (e.g. dystocia and fertility). The latter are particularly important in view of the increasing number of part time beef farmers in Northern Ireland. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of dam breed on production characteristics of the suckler herd in Northern Ireland.
Bungowannah virus was discovered following an outbreak of stillbirths and sudden death in young pigs. Affected animals consistently showed a myocardopathy with signs of cardiac failure. After virus isolation and PCR investigations were unsuccessful, direct fetal inoculation was undertaken. Nucleic acid purified from serum from infected fetuses was subjected to sequence-independent single-primer amplification and nucleic acid sequencing. Sequences consistent with a pestivirus were obtained. The entire genome was identified but was genetically remote from the recognized pestivirus species. This virus was not recognized by pan-pestivirus reactive monoclonal antibodies but was subsequently detected in cell cultures by immunoperoxidase staining using convalescent sow serum. Experimental infections of sows at different stages of gestation reproduced the myocarditis syndrome. Pre-weaning losses of 70 and 29% were observed following infection at days 35 and 90, respectively. Piglets infected at day 35 were shown to be persistently infected, while chronic infections were observed after fetal infection at day 55. Chronically infected piglets showed growth retardation and were viremic for up to 7 months. Myocarditis was associated with infection in late gestation (day 90). Non-pregnant sheep and cattle have been experimentally infected but with no evidence of disease. Infection of pregnant cattle in early gestation resulted in both maternal and fetal infection, but all infected fetuses mounted an antibody response to the virus. Analysis of the nucleic acid sequence confirmed that Bungowannah has a number of changes not observed in other pestiviruses. Genes encoding some of the structural proteins remain fully functional when inserted into a bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) backbone. Cell culture-based studies have shown that Bungowannah virus will grow in cells extending from humans to bats as well as farm animals.
Simple NMR techniques can provide an absolute quantification of the quality of the orientational order of discotic columnar phases, provided the anisotropic local magnetic interactions are thoroughly characterized. For the prototypical discotic liquid crystal hexapentoxy-triphenylene, we measure the 13C chemical shift anisotropy of the triphenylene carbons, and use this result to analyze the orientational order, that occurs through a first order phase transition from the high temperature liquid phase, and is almost saturated (order parameter close to 0.85).
In this study, we describe X‐ray absorption measurements designed to determine the influence of subsitutents on the location of dopants, the valence of dopants, structural changes, and modifications of electronic densities of states. Several possible mechanisms are offered which may elucidate Tc suppression due to metal dopings.
Thick coatings of Y-Ba-Cu-oxide superconductors have been prepared by plasma spray processing. This paper reports a number of the important properties of coatings sprayed at two different power levels. The microstructure, porosity, and chemical composition of the coatings were studied in their as-sprayed and annealed states. Critical current and magnetic susceptibility measurements were made on the annealed coatings. X-ray diffraction was used to identify non-superconducting phases present in the coatings and to determine the superconducting phase's lattice constants.
Extended abstract of a paper presented at the Pre-Meeting Congress: Materials Research in an Aberration-Free Environment, at Microscopy and Microanalysis 2004 in Savannah, Georgia, USA, July 31 and August 1, 2004.
Firework injuries can manifest themselves in many different ways; usually as an explosive or burn injury. This case describes an unusual presentation of a firework penetrating injury resulting in a sharp coiled metal foreign body travelling through a small entry wound in the neck and subsequently lodging itself in the tracheobronchial tree. A foreign body such as this can potentially travel a considerable distance through the soft tissues and end up in an unsuspecting distant site. There must, therefore, be a high index of suspicion with the appropriate radiological investigations for appropriate management of such cases.