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The long-term cholesterol-lowering effect of replacing intake of SFA with PUFA is well established, but has not been fully explained mechanistically. We examined the postprandial response of meals with different fat quality on expression of lipid genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in subjects with and without familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). Thirteen subjects with FH (who had discontinued lipid-lowering treatment ≥4 weeks prior to both test days) and fourteen normolipidaemic controls were included in a randomised controlled double-blind crossover study with two meals, each with 60 g of fat either mainly SFA (about 40% energy) or n-6 PUFA (about 40% energy). PBMC were isolated in fasting, and 4 and 6 h postprandial blood samples. Expression of thirty-three lipid genes was analysed by reverse transcription quantitative PCR. A linear mixed model was used to assess postprandial effects between meals and groups. There was a significant interaction between meal and group for MSR1 (P = 0·03), where intake of SFA compared with n-6 PUFA induced a larger reduction in gene expression in controls only (P = 0·01). Intake of SFA compared with n-6 PUFA induced larger reductions in gene expression levels of LDLR and FADS1/2, smaller increases of INSIG1 and FASN, and larger increases of ABCA1 and ABCG1 (P = 0·01 for all, no group interaction). Intake of SFA compared with n-6 PUFA induced changes in gene expression of cholesterol influx and efflux mediators in PBMC including lower LDLR and higher ABCA1/G1, potentially explaining the long-term cholesterol-raising effect of a high SFA intake.
Postprandial hypertriacylglycerolaemia is associated with an increased risk of developing CVD. How fat quality influences postprandial lipid response is scarcely explored in subjects with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). The aim of this study was to investigate the postprandial response of TAG and lipid sub-classes after consumption of high-fat meals with different fat quality in subjects with FH compared with normolipidaemic controls. A randomised controlled double-blind cross-over study with two meals and two groups was performed. A total of thirteen hypercholesterolaemic subjects with FH who discontinued lipid-lowering treatment 4 weeks before and during the study, and fourteen normolipidaemic controls, were included. Subjects were aged 18–30 years and had a BMI of 18·5–30·0 kg/m2. Each meal consisted of a muffin containing 60 g (70 E%) of fat, either mainly SFA (40 E%) or PUFA (40 E%), eaten in a random order with a wash-out period of 3–5 weeks between the meals. Blood samples were collected at baseline (fasting) and 2, 4 and 6 h after intake of the meals. In both FH and control subjects, the level of TAG and the largest VLDL sub-classes peaked at 2 h after intake of PUFA and at 4 h after intake of SFA. No significant differences were found in TAG levels between meals or between groups (0·25≤P≤0·72). The distinct TAG peaks may reflect differences in the postprandial lipid metabolism after intake of fatty acids with different chain lengths and degrees of saturation. The clinical impact of these findings remains to be determined.
Long baseline optical interferometry has been successfully employed to measure the diameters of stars. In this technique, bandwidth smearing can affect the measurement accuracy. These bandwidth smearing effects can be, to some extent, eliminated by dividing the whole observing spectral band into sub-bands and calculating the star's diameter based on the visibilities and spatial frequencies at the corresponding sub-bands. In the visible range, dividing the whole spectral band can be implemented by introducing a spectrograph, while in the IR domain, this operation can be performed efficiently with the technique of double Fourier interferometry (DFI) without losing the advantage of multiplexing. In particular, the use of IR single-mode fiber optics for DFI will make the interferometer extremely compact, light, insensitive to surrounding conditions, etc. We established an IR single-mode fiber optic double Fourier interferometer in the laboratory, in which the optical path difference modulations are generated by stretching fiber arms and the beam combination is carried out with a fiber optic directional coupler. In this paper, we report on experiments and experimental results from measurements of the diameter of an artificial star with the technique of fiber optic DFI.
Lithium sulfur (Li–S) batteries have the potential to provide higher energy storage density at lower cost than conventional lithium ion batteries. A key challenge for Li–S batteries is the loss of sulfur to the electrolyte during cycling. This loss can be mitigated by sequestering the sulfur in nanostructured carbon–sulfur composites. The nanoscale characterization of the sulfur distribution within these complex nanostructured electrodes is normally performed by electron microscopy, but sulfur sublimates and redistributes in the high-vacuum conditions of conventional electron microscopes. The resulting sublimation artifacts render characterization of sulfur in conventional electron microscopes problematic and unreliable. Here, we demonstrate two techniques, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and scanning electron microscopy in air (airSEM), that enable the reliable characterization of sulfur across multiple length scales by suppressing sulfur sublimation. We use cryo-TEM and airSEM to examine carbon–sulfur composites synthesized for use as Li–S battery cathodes, noting several cases where the commonly employed sulfur melt infusion method is highly inefficient at infiltrating sulfur into porous carbon hosts.
It can be considered as very satisfactory and a sign of good health that, as early as 1961, and since then, the question of the role of our Commission was discussed and in particular the overlapping activities with those of COSPAR and of other IAU Commissions were put into focus. It is the opinion of some members of our Commission that an analysis of whether a partial merging of Commission 44 with COSPAR Working Group 3 should be considered. Such an organizational scheme might offer the advantage of a greater flexibility and of a closer cooperation between IAU and COSPAR in space astronomy with the guarantee that duplication is prevented. Similar schemes do exist in other ICSU organizations.
Observations of the F-corona have been made in the 10 µ region of the infrared during the eclipse of June 30, 1973. Use of the supersonic aircraft “Concorde 001” permitted 74 min of observation during totality and greatly reduced problems due to sky noise. The plane of the ecliptic was scanned over heliocentric distances of from 3 to 19 solar radii off the east limb. Bright features previously observed at shorter wavelengths, notably emission at 4 solar radii are evident on the 10 µ scans, strongly indicating that the radiation is due to thermal emission by dust. The specific intensity in the 4 R⊙ feature is 5 µ W cm−2 sterad−1 µ−1; higher than the intensity 22 arcmin above the ecliptic. Spectra were taken at one region in the ecliptic and tentatively attributed to silicate-type material. Complete details may be found in Astron. & Astrophys. 37, 75-79 and 81-86, 1974.
Optical interferometry for astronomy was conceived as early as 1868, succeeded in measuring a stellar diameter in 1920 and was only reborn in 1974. Soon after, several remarkable prototype instruments were built, demonstrating the potential power of this technique for stellar studies at visible and near infrared wavelengths. Meanwhile, the physics of the Earth atmosphere, which seriously impacts image quality on ground-based observatories, progressed with the emergence of adaptive optics systems. Then, during the years 1990–2005, ambitious interferometric observatories entered into service, in Europe (VLTI) and in United States (Keck, NPOI, LBT). Today, their results and promises deeply impact stellar studies by providing images of the surface and immediate surrounding of stars, stellar objects and even galactic nuclei.
Eating out has been linked to the current obesity epidemic, but the evaluation of the extent to which out of home (OH) dietary intakes are different from those at home (AH) is limited. Data collected among 8849 men and 14 277 women aged 35–64 years from the general population of eleven European countries through 24-h dietary recalls or food diaries were analysed to: (1) compare food consumption OH to those AH; (2) describe the characteristics of substantial OH eaters, defined as those who consumed 25 % or more of their total daily energy intake at OH locations. Logistic regression models were fit to identify personal characteristics associated with eating out. In both sexes, beverages, sugar, desserts, sweet and savoury bakery products were consumed more OH than AH. In some countries, men reported higher intakes of fish OH than AH. Overall, substantial OH eating was more common among men, the younger and the more educated participants, but was weakly associated with total energy intake. The substantial OH eaters reported similar dietary intakes OH and AH. Individuals who were not identified as substantial OH eaters reported consuming proportionally higher quantities of sweet and savoury bakery products, soft drinks, juices and other non-alcoholic beverages OH than AH. The OH intakes were different from the AH ones, only among individuals who reported a relatively small contribution of OH eating to their daily intakes and this may partly explain the inconsistent findings relating eating out to the current obesity epidemic.
Person-centeredness has had substantial uptake in the academic literature on care of older people and people with dementia. However, challenges exist in interpreting and synthesizing the evidence on effects of providing person-centered care, as the person-centered components of some intervention studies are unclear – targeting very different and highly specific aspects of person-centeredness, as well as not providing empirical data to indicate the extent to which care practice was actually perceived to become more person-centered post-intervention.
The study employed a quasi-experimental, one-group pre-test–post-test design with a 12-month follow-up to explore intervention effects on person-centeredness of care and the environment (primary endpoints), and on staff strain and stress of conscience (secondary endpoints).
The intervention resulted in significantly higher scores on person-centeredness of care at follow-up, and the facility was rated as being significantly more hospitable at follow-up. A significant reduction of staff stress of conscience was also found at follow-up, which suggests that, to a larger extent, staff could provide the care and activities they wanted to provide after the intervention.
The results indicated that an interactive and step-wise action-research intervention consisting of knowledge translation, generation, and dissemination, based on national guidelines for care of people with dementia, increased the staff self-reported person-centeredness of care practice, perceived hospitality of the setting, and reduced staff stress of conscience by enabling staff to provide the care and activities they want to provide.
We constrain the history of the Greenland Ice Sheet margin during the Holocene at Upernavik Isstrøm, a major ice stream in northwestern Greenland. Radiocarbon-dated sediment sequences from proglacial-threshold lakes adjacent to the present ice margin constrain deglaciation of the sites to older than 9.6 ± 0.1 ka. This age of deglaciation is confirmed with 10Be ages of 9.9 ± 0.1 ka from an island adjacent to the historical ice position. The lake sediment sequences also constrain the ice margin to have been less extensive than it is today for the remainder of the Holocene until ~ 1100 to ~ 700 yr ago, when it advanced into two lake catchments. The ice margin retreated back out of these lake catchments in the last decade. The early Holocene deglaciation in Melville Bugt, one of few locations around Greenland where a vast stretch of the current ice margin is marine-based, preceded deglaciation in most other parts of Greenland. Earlier deglaciation in this ice-sheet sector may have been caused by additional ablation mechanisms that apply to marine-based ice margins. Furthermore, despite ice-sheet models depicting this sector of Greenland as relatively stable throughout the Holocene, our data indicate a > 20 km advance-retreat cycle within the last millennium.
Executive functioning is widely targeted when human cognition is assessed, but there is little consensus on how it should be operationalized and measured. Recognizing the difficulties associated with establishing standard operational definitions of executive functioning, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke entered into a contract with the University of California-San Francisco to develop psychometrically robust executive measurement tools that would be accepted by the neurology clinical trials and clinical research communities. This effort, entitled Executive Abilities: Measures and Instruments for Neurobehavioral Evaluation and Research (EXAMINER), resulted in a series of tasks targeting working memory, inhibition, set shifting, fluency, insight, planning, social cognition and behavior. We describe battery conceptualization and development, data collection, scale construction based on item response theory, and lay the foundation for studying the battery's utility and validity for specific assessment and research goals. (JINS, 2013, 19, 1–9)
Along the northeast Greenland continental margin, bedrock on interfjord plateaus is highly weathered, whereas rock surfaces in fjord troughs are characterized by glacial scour. Based on the intense bedrock weathering and lack of glacial deposits from the last glaciation, interfjord plateaus have long been thought to be ice-free throughout the last glacial maximum (LGM). In recent years there is growing evidence from shelf and fjord settings that the northeast Greenland continental margin was more extensively glaciated during the LGM than previously thought. However, little is still known from interfjord settings. We present cosmogenic 10Be data from meltwater channels and weathered sandstone outcrops on Jameson Land, an interfjord highland north of Scoresby Sund. The mean exposure age of samples from channel beds (n = 3) constrains on the onset of deglaciation on interior Jameson Land to 18.5 ± 1.3–21.4 ± 1.9 ka (for erosion conditions of 0–10 mm/ka, respectively). This finding adds to growing evidence that the northeast Greenland continental margin was more heavily glaciated during the LGM than previously thought.
Thermal wave (TW) studies of ultra-shallow junctions (USJ) formed by ion implantation into a semiconductor wafer followed by rapid thermal annealing (RTP) are described. It is shown that using the TW technique allows for a simultaneous determination of the most important USJ parameters – depth and profile abruptness. Experimental results for junction depth and abruptness obtained on a set of B+-implanted, RTP-annealed USJ samples show better than 0.99 correlations to the corresponding secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) data.
Development of highly efficient mercury free fluorescent lamps and plasma display panels has been a challenging task due to the need for a combination of phosphor properties that are difficult to obtain in a single material (high efficiency, short emission lifetime and weak sensitivity to aging process under VUV excitation). Quantum cutting mechanism is a way to improve the fluorescence efficacy. Here we describe quantum cutting involving pairs of Tm3+ ions in KY3F10. Efficient excitation in the vacuum UV is initiated to the 5d state of Tm3+. This is followed by a cross relaxation energy transfer (CRET) involving the excited ion in the 5d state and nearby Tm3+ in the ground state, producing a pair of Tm3+ in excited states of the 4f13 configuration. Both ions can then emit photons. The excitation and reflection spectra are studied as a function of Tm3+ concentration and temperature. An unusual enhancement of the reflectivity at excitation wavelengths corresponding to the Tm3+ 5d absorption peaks is shown to arise from strong 5d→4f emission which is confirmed from the VUV emission spectra. The strong reduction of the integrated 5d emission intensity and shortening of its lifetime with Tm3+ concentration indicates the effective presence of the desired CRET process that is required for the first step of the quantum cutting. High Tm3+ concentrations are required for efficient quantum cutting. Whereas the CRET from the 5d state is estimated to be quite efficient, the 4f13 states of Tm3+ also undergo a strong CRET and therefore, emission from the 4f13 excited states that are created from the first step are strongly quenched at high Tm3+ concentrations. As a result, quantum yields greater than unity are not achieved.
To gain basic insight into the impact of non-biological features on cells’ behaviour, primary skin-cells, keratinocytes and fibroblasts, were cultured on amine-functionalized or carboxy-functionalized planar, nano- or microstructured surfaces. Sintered layers of silica nano- or microparticles were used to fabricate structures in the range of naturally occurring structure-sizes. Organo-chemical functionalization was achieved using organo-functional silanes. Primary human keratinocytes and fibroblasts were isolated from human foreskin and cultivated on the modified interfaces. Both cell-types displayed specific proliferation behaviour, depending on surface topography and chemical functionalization: Keratinocytes showed significantly better proliferation on amino-functionalized surfaces than on carboxy-functionalized surfaces. On amino-functional surfaces decree-topography. Fibroblasts, in contrast, tended to proliferate stronger on carboxylated surfaces. Immunohistological staining proofed that actin and vinculin, which is involved in the formation of focal adhesions, were expressed on all modified surfaces, thus revealing intact cytoskeleton and cell-substrate contacts.