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Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction patterns has been used to provide microstructural information complementary to conventional X-ray residual stress measurements through a carburized layer containing a maximum vol. 25 % of retained austenite. Layers in a simple specimen were removed incrementally by electropolishing and, at each depth in addition to conventional residual stress measurements in both the martensite and retained austenite, data were collected at ѱ = 0 for Rietveld refinement. The refinements provide accurate values for the lattice parameters in the respective phases that can be related to carbon content and micro-structure. Besides to providing qualitative information concerning the microstructure and possible surface decarburization, the c/a ratio of the martensite potentially offers an independent technique for determining carbon content profiles
Two choice preference testing is used in animals to determine food preference or taste response (Nicol, 1997). This relies upon selection from a theoretical mean of 0.5, if no preference is shown. The aims of this study were two fold: to measure the incidence of side preference in the horse when given the choice of two identical feeds; and to assess the influence of age on side preference.
18 TB x horses were used in this study. Six horses were allocated to each of the age groups; young (2-4 years), middle (8-14 years) and old (over 16 years). All horses were housed in stables of identical design. 1.5kg DM of basal feed was offered in two containers, positioned left and right, for a ten–minute period over nine days. All spillages were collected and recorded. Intake was calculated as the (amount of feed offered – amount of feed remaining – 0.5x the Spillage).
Quantifying the biogeochemical cycling of carbon in glacial ecosystems is of great significance for regional, and potentially global, carbon flow estimations. The concentration and quality of organic carbon (OC) is an important indicator of biogeochemical and physical processes that prevail in an ice-sheet ecosystem. Here we determine the content and quality of OC in debris from the surface of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) using microscopic, chromatographic, spectrophotometric and high-temperature combustion techniques. The total OC content in the debris increased with distance from the edge of the ice sheet, from virtually zero to >6% dry weight at 50 km inland, and there was a peak in the carbohydrate proportion and the microbial abundance at ∼6km inland. The highest (galactose + mannose)/(arabinose + xylose) ratios, indicating maximum autochthonous microbial production, were found at >10km inland. We propose that three key processes influence the carbon cycling on the GrIS: aeolian input of microbial inoculum and nutrients, in situ biological C transformation and the wash-away of supraglacial debris by meltwaters. We show that all these processes have significant spatial variability. While the total OC content of the debris on the ice sheet is probably controlled by the physical processes of wind transport and wash-away by meltwater, the microbial abundance and the quantity of the labile cell-contained OC within the debris is likely to be driven by the balance between the wash-away and the microbial productivity.
Although stellar interferometers are capable of measuring the angular diameters of stars, with longer baselines they may also be used to measure brightness variations across a star's surface and to provide constraints on models of stellar envelopes. In this paper we will look at the interpretation of visibility data and some of the more exciting prospects within the reach of current interferometers.
Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) due to Staphylococcus aureus have become increasingly common in the outpatient setting; however, risk factors for differentiating methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) SSTIs are needed to better inform antibiotic treatment decisions. We performed a case-case-control study within 14 primary-care clinics in South Texas from 2007 to 2015. Overall, 325 patients [S. aureus SSTI cases (case group 1, n = 175); MRSA SSTI cases (case group 2, n = 115); MSSA SSTI cases (case group 3, n = 60); uninfected control group (control, n = 150)] were evaluated. Each case group was compared to the control group, and then qualitatively contrasted to identify unique risk factors associated with S. aureus, MRSA, and MSSA SSTIs. Overall, prior SSTIs [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 7·60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3·31–17·45], male gender (aOR 1·74, 95% CI 1·06–2·85), and absence of healthcare occupation status (aOR 0·14, 95% CI 0·03–0·68) were independently associated with S. aureus SSTIs. The only unique risk factor for community-associated (CA)-MRSA SSTIs was a high body weight (⩾110 kg) (aOR 2·03, 95% CI 1·01–4·09).
Over the last several years we have obtained photometric observations of the four suspected (W Men, HV 5637, HV 12671, HV 12842) R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Fourier analyses of the light curves has revealed some periodicity in HV 12842, where there appear to be at least two closely spaced periods of 55 and 60 d. High resolution spectra of HV 12842, obtained with the Ango-Australian Telescope (AAT), indicate that it has similar atmospheric properties to a number of warmer galactic RCB and hydrogen-deficient Carbon (HdC) stars, e.g. R CrB, RY Sgr and XX Cam.
An absorption line–splitting phenomenon, first reported by Cottrell and Lambert (1982a), has been shown to occur at about maximum light in the semi-regular pulsations of the R Coronae Borealis (RCB) star, RY Sgr (Lawson 1986). This has been interpreted as a shock wave propagating through the photospheric layers (Lawson and Cottrell 1986). We present spectroscopic observations of this star, taken to coincide with this line–splitting event. A sequence obtained during 1986 October revealed that this event extended over about 6 days (out of a period of about 40 days) and began at about the bluest B-V. This colour maximum, which corresponds to maximum photospheric temperatures and minimum radius, leads the V maximum by about 6 days.
A photometric and spectroscopic survey of many of the cool H-deficient Carbon (HdC) stars, including the R Coronae Borealis (RCB) stars, has been undertaken. For the RCB stars we have data on both the low amplitude photometric variations at maximum light and the major declines, the latter being the most distinguishing feature between the RCB and HdC stars.
The photometric data at maximum light have been analysed using the Lomb-Scargle Fourier method, which has revealed many significant periodicities. From estimates of the temperature of these stars, an observational period-temperature diagram can be compared with theoretical models. These models have also enabled us to determine the evolutionary lifetime of these stars for comparison with observational parameters, e.g., period changes.
Over the last several years we have photoelectrically covered the declines (and the recovery from some of these declines) of a number of RCB stars, from which we have been able to characterise two extreme types of decline behaviour. In addition, we have for the very first time spectroscopically recorded the initial decline phase of one (the prototype, R CrB) of these stars.
The GI2T is an optical long-baseline Michelson interferometer which analyses dispersed stellar fringes in the multi-speckle mode with a spectral resolution of one Angstrom while the spatial resolution is about one milliarcsecond. This makes the GI2T a powerful instrument able to perform MSI of extended sources like Be stars or shell stars. In order to interpret these data we have developed a latitude dependent radiative wind model for Be stars. This numerical code enables us to compare directly computed 2D maps in some Balmer lines (Hα and Hβ) with high angular resolution data of some Be stars.
Helicopters play a unique role in modern aviation providing a varied range of benefits to society and satisfying the need for fast mobility. However, environmental concerns associated with the operation of rotorcraft have increased due to envisaged growth of helicopter operations. New rotorcraft designs, innovative aero engines and all-electrical systems, which may take decades to be in service, are being developed in order to diminish rotorcraft footprint on environment. However, since there is a large number of polluting rotorcraft that are in use and will only gradually be replaced, in the near-term, improvements to minimise air quality degradation may also be possible from better use of existing rotorcraft by focusing on mission profile management. A multidisciplinary framework, intended to generate outputs for estimating rotorcraft block fuel burn and emissions, was developed. Outcomes generated with this tool were, subsequently, the basis to carry out a parametric study for assessment of light single-engine rotorcraft environmental impact, in terms of fuel burn and emissions. Single and multi-objective optimisation for minimum fuel consumption and air pollutant emissions was part of this research as well.
To examine the use of vitamin D supplements during infancy among the participants in an international infant feeding trial.
Information about vitamin D supplementation was collected through a validated FFQ at the age of 2 weeks and monthly between the ages of 1 month and 6 months.
Infants (n 2159) with a biological family member affected by type 1 diabetes and with increased human leucocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes from twelve European countries, the USA, Canada and Australia.
Daily use of vitamin D supplements was common during the first 6 months of life in Northern and Central Europe (>80 % of the infants), with somewhat lower rates observed in Southern Europe (>60 %). In Canada, vitamin D supplementation was more common among exclusively breast-fed than other infants (e.g. 71 % v. 44 % at 6 months of age). Less than 2 % of infants in the USA and Australia received any vitamin D supplementation. Higher gestational age, older maternal age and longer maternal education were study-wide associated with greater use of vitamin D supplements.
Most of the infants received vitamin D supplements during the first 6 months of life in the European countries, whereas in Canada only half and in the USA and Australia very few were given supplementation.
Parallax measurements for 21 hydrogen-deficient carbon stars have been made by the Hipparcos satellite. These stars include most of the brighter R Coronae Borealis (RCB) variables, other cool hydrogen-deficient carbon (HdC) stars, and several higher-Teff extreme helium (eHe) stars. Most of these stars have either negative or statistically insignificant parallaxes, indicating that they lie beyond the detection capability of Hipparcos. Although the distances to the galactic hydrogen-deficient carbon stars remain unknown, at least the Hipparcos observations do confirm that these objects must have high luminosity like the LMC RCB stars, for which Mbol = −4 to −5. Based upon Hipparcos proper motions, we derive UVW velocities for the RCB and HdC stars, assuming Mbol = −3 and −5. The UW -velocity dispersion of the RCB/HdC stars is similar to that already reported for the eHe stars, further supporting the idea that these groups of stars have predominantly bulge distributions. However, UW Cen may be a second example of a halo RCB star currently seen transitting the Galactic plane.
In 1990 a stone covered pit containing a Trevisker Ware vessel was found eroding from the cliffs at Harlyn Bay and excavated. The vessel contained cremated bone from several individuals with some animal bone, quartz pebbles, and a small bronze pendant. A radiocarbon date on the cremated bone fell in the range 2120–1880 cal bc and is a valuable addition to the small number of securely-dated Early Bronze Age burials in Cornwall with metalwork associations. This early date also makes a major contribution to the debate on the sequence of Trevisker Ware as the vessel, of gabbroic clay, has a band of incised chevron decoration. Lipid residue analysis showed traces of ruminant dairy fat. This paper examines the significance of unmounded burial sites in Cornwall and also assesses the importance of Early Bronze Age burials around Harlyn Bay which have produced an unusually wide range of artefacts.
To determine the prevalence of Acinetobacter baumannii, an important healthcare-associated pathogen, among mechanically ventilated patients in Maryland.
The Maryland MDRO Prevention Collaborative performed a statewide cross-sectional active surveillance survey of mechanically ventilated patients residing in acute care and long-term care (LTC) facilities. Surveillance cultures (sputum and perianal) were obtained from all mechanically ventilated inpatients at participating facilities during a 2-week period.
All healthcare facilities in Maryland that provide care for mechanically ventilated patients were invited to participate.
Mechanically ventilated patients, known to be at high risk for colonization and infection with A. baumannii, were included.
Seventy percent (40/57) of all eligible healthcare facilities participated in the survey, representing both acute care (n = 30) and LTC (n = 10) facilities in all geographic regions of Maryland. Surveillance cultures were obtained from 92% (358/390) of eligible Patients. A. baumannii was identified in 34% of all mechanically ventilated patients in Maryland; multidrug-resistant A. baumannii was found in 27% of all Patients. A. baumannii was detected in at least 1 patient in 49% of participating facilities; 100% of LTC facilities had at least 1 patient with A. baumannii, compared with 31% of acute care facilities. A. baumannii was identified from all facilities in which 10 or more patients were sampled.
A. baumannii is common among mechanically ventilated patients in both acute care and LTC facilities throughout Maryland, with a high proportion of isolates demonstrating multidrug resistance.
An experimental and numerical study was performed on a Clark Y aerofoil with a 10% chord leading edge Kruger flap to examine its aerodynamic performance at Reynolds numbers of 0·6 × 106, 1 × 106, and 1·6 × 106, to help to identify the forces and moments acting on a basic configuration. A detailed comparison of the numerical and experimental data is presented in this paper. The leading edge flap was effective at high angles of attack with an increase in CL of up to 18% over a conventional no flap configuration and delayed separation by up to 3°. The moments around the Kruger flap rotation point were calculated from the numerical analysis as an initial stage in the design of a UAV passive flap system and they are also presented in the paper.