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A sense of competency and confidence in disaster management is linked to response willingness and efficacy. This study assessed current health-care student disaster competency curricula and resultant confidence.
A survey was sent to students and administrators in nurse practitioner (NP), master of public health (MPH), and medical/osteopathic schools (MD/DO), assessing curriculum coverage of 15 disaster management competencies (1-4, total 15-60), and confidence in performing 15 related behaviors (1-7, total 15-105). One-way analysis of variance with Tukey’s post-hoc and Mann-Whitney U-tests were used to examine group differences.
A total of 729 students and 72 administrators completed the survey. Low coverage of all topics was reported by both students and administrators (mean 24.4; SD 9.6). Among students, NP students (21.66 ± 8.56) scored significantly lower than MD/DO (23.32 ± 8.19; P < 0.001) and MPH students (26.58 ± 9.06; P < 0.001) on curriculum coverage. Both administrators and students expressed low confidence in competence, with students significantly lower (P < 0.001). NP students scored higher (63.12 ± 20.69; P < 0.001) than both MPH (54.85 ± 17.82) and MD/DO (51.17 ± 19.71; P < 0.001) students.
Health-care students report low coverage of topics considered to be necessary disaster response competencies, as well as their confidence to execute functions. This may negatively impact willingness and ability of these professionals to respond effectively in a disaster.
We present the KMOS (K-band Multi-Object Spectrograph) Cluster and VIRIAL (VLT IRIFU Absorption Line) Guaranteed Time Observation (GTO) programs. KMOS provides 24 arms each feeding an integral field unit (14×14 spaxels of 0.2″ pixels) for IZ, YJ, H and K band near infrared (NIR) medium resolution spectroscopy (R ∼ 3500). Targets are selected from a 7.2′ diameter patrol field. Ultra-deep spectroscopy of ∼ 80 early-type cluster galaxies (∼ 20hr on source) and ∼ 200 (∼ 10hr on source) early-type field galaxies at 1 < z < 2 will dramatically improve the situation at z > 1 for which measurements of stellar velocity dispersions and absorption indices are limited to a few, often relatively young passively evolving galaxies (e.g. Bezanson 2013). In ESO Periods P92 and P93, 15 nights worth of data has been collected for KMOS-Clusters and 6 nights for VIRIAL: this will be supplemented with more data in upcoming semesters. All galaxies have multiband HST imaging including existing or upcoming WFC3 IR imaging, providing stellar mass maps and sizes. Combined with our dispersion measurements, this will allow us to examine the fundamental plane and the dynamical mass of a large sample of z > 1 galaxies for the first time, for both cluster and field galaxies.
We have obtained high spectral resolution (R ≈ 9000), integral field observations of the three spiral galaxies NGC 3521, NGC 7217 and NGC 7331 using the new fiber-based Integral Field Unit instrument VIRUS-W at the 2.7 m telescope of the McDonald Observatory in Texas. Our data allow us to revisit previous claims of counter rotation in these objects. A detailed kinematic decomposition of NGC 7217 shows that no counter rotating stellar component is present. We find that NGC 7217 hosts a low dispersion, rotating disk that is embedded in a high velocity dispersion stellar halo or bulge that is co-rotating with the disk. Due to the very different velocity dispersions (≈ 20 km s−1 vs. 150 km s−1) , we are further able to perform a Lick index analysis on both components separately which indicates that the two stellar populations are clearly separated in (Mgb,〈Fe〉) space. The velocities and dispersions of the faster component are very similar to those of the interstellar gas as measured from the [O iii] emission. Morphological evidence of active star formation in this component further suggests that NGC 7217 may be in the process of (re)growing a disk inside a more massive and higher dispersion stellar halo.
A history of exposure to harsh physical discipline has been linked to
negative outcomes for children, ranging from conduct disorder to
depression and low self-esteem. The present study extends this work into
adolescence, and examines the relationship of lifetime histories of harsh
discipline to adolescents' internalizing and externalizing symptoms
and to their developing capacities for establishing autonomy and
relatedness in family interactions. Adolescent and parent reports of harsh
discipline, independently coded observations of conflictual interactions,
and adolescent reports of symptoms were obtained for 141 adolescents at
age 16. Both parents' use of harsh discipline was related to greater
adolescent depression and externalizing behavior, even when these effects
were examined over and above the effects of other parenting measures known
to account for these symptoms. Adolescents exposed to harsh discipline
from mothers were also less likely to appear warm and engaged during an
interaction task with their mothers. It is suggested that a history of
harsh discipline is associated not only with social and emotional
functioning, but also with the developmental task of autonomy and
relatedness.This study and its write-up
were supported by grants from the National Institute of Mental Health
(R01-MH44934 and R01-MH58066).
At present, new high-k dielectric materials are being intensively investigated to replace the silicon dioxide as gate dielectric for the next generation of electronic devices. Several candidate materials (such as ZrO2, HfO2, Al2O3) and deposition processes are currently under investigation. Because the layer thickness which is required in the next generations of devices is of the order of few nanometers, a precise determination and control of layer thickness will be mandatory. Although spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) is well established non-contact, non-destructive and precise technique for determining thickness and optical properties of thin films, it becomes more difficult to obtain this information unambiguously and simultaneously for ultra-thin films with traditional SE alone because of possible high correlations between film structure and optical properties. The grazing x-ray reflectometry (XRR) is a complementary nondestructive optical technique and can be used to unambiguously determine ultra thin film thickness accurately. Combined with ellipsometry technique together, it will provide a promising way to characterize high-k gate dielectrics including thickness, roughness, interfacial layers and material composition information etc. In this paper, the principles for both SE and XRR will be briefly reviewed and limitation of each technique will be discussed. Following the high-k gate dielectric exploration and development, examples of using the combined SE/XRR techniques will be presented.
Transparent electronics is an embryonic technology whose objective is the realization of invisible electronic circuits. We have recently reported the fabrication of a novel n-channel transparent thin-film transistor (TTFT).  This ZnO-based TTFT is highly transparent and exhibits electrical characteristics that appear to be suitable for implementation as a transparent select-transistor in each pixel of an active-matrix liquid-crystal display. Moreover, the processing technology used to fabricate this device is relatively simple and appears to be compatible with inexpensive glass substrate technology. The objective of the work reported herein is to summarize some of our recent TTFT electrical performance results. Materials, processing, and device structure details related to these devices appear in future publications.
This paper discusses metal organic chemical vapor deposited (MOCVD) HfO2 layers using tetrakis(diethylamido)hafnium (TDEAH) as precursor. We have studied the influence of the starting surface and deposition temperature on the growth kinetics and physical properties of the HfO2 layers. Important characteristics such as crystalline state, density, and organic contamination in the layers were found to be dependent on these parameters.
Typical for this deposition process is the formation of an interfacial layer underneath the high-k layer. Its composition and thickness, affecting scaling of the equivalent oxide thickness, are shown to be closely related to the HfO2 process parameters mentioned above.
Finally, we will show electrical results for HfO2/polySi gate stacks indicating the effect for deposition temperature.
Hafnium-based dielectrics are under wide consideration for high-K gate dielectric applications. Since the gate electrode typically used in CMOS integration consists of polysilicon with n- or p-type dopants, compatibility of the HfO2 layer with the polySi deposition and dopant activation steps is critical. Capacitors were fabricated with HfO2 films deposited by ALD and MOCVD, and using polysilicon gate electrodes deposited by CVD processes. These devices showed leakage failures with yields that were observed to depend on the area, dielectric thickness and annealing conditions during the process. Investigation of the root cause of these leakage failures suggested that the leakage failures may be caused by a defect-related mechanism. The implication of this is that the leakage occurs at localized ‘defect’ sites rather than broadly through the HfO2 layer. Emission microscopy analysis and physical characterization of the HfO2 film were used to corroborate the proposed model. Defect density was observed to be strongly dependent on the processing of the dielectric film. In order to make Hf-based dielectric stacks compatible with polysilicon for conventional CMOS transistor integration with acceptable yield, further postdeposition treatment may be necessary to eliminate or cure the defects.
This paper begins with the observation that half of all graphs containing no induced path of length 3 are disconnected. We generalize this in several directions. First, we give necessary and sufficient conditions (in terms of generating functions) for the probability of connectedness in a suitable class of graphs to tend to a limit strictly between zero and one. Next we give a general framework in which this and related questions can be posed, involving operations on classes of finite structures. Finally, we discuss briefly an algebra associated with such a class of structures, and give a conjecture about its structure.
The class of graphs containing no induced path of length 3 has many remarkable properties, stemming from the following well-known observation. Recall that an induced subgraph of a graph consists of a subset S of the vertex set together with all edges contained in S.
Proposition. Let G be a finite graph with more than one vertex, containing no induced path of length 3. Then G is connected if and only if its complement is disconnected.
Proof. It is trivial that the complement of a disconnected graph is connected. Moreover, since P3 is self-complementary, the property of containing no induced P3 is self-complementary. So let G be a minimal counterexample: thus, G and Ḡ are connected but, for any vertex v, either G – v or G – v is disconnected. Choose a vertex v and assume, without loss, that G - v is disconnected. Then v is joined to a vertex in each component of G – v.
This paper begins with the observation that half of all graphs containing no induced
path of length 3 are disconnected. We generalize this in several directions. First, we give
necessary and sufficient conditions (in terms of generating functions) for the probability
of connectedness in a suitable class of graphs to tend to a limit strictly between zero and
one. Next we give a general framework in which this and related questions can be posed,
involving operations on classes of finite structures. Finally, we discuss briefly an algebra
associated with such a class of structures, and give a conjecture about its structure.
An assessment of 106 long-stay psychogeriatric in-patients in an East London borough was made using the CAPE and supplementary items in order to obtain a comprehensive picture of their needs; 51 long-stay residents in the care of local authority social services provided a comparison. Patients in hospital were found to be more disturbed, more disabled and more dependent than residents in local authority care.
The lunar laser range data from the McDonald Observatory in Texas have been used so far to determine major improvements in the lunar ephemeris and librations, to provide a new test of gravitational theory, and to determine single-day UT0 values on about 200 days during the period 1970-1974. The mean uncertainty in the UT0 values is 0.5 msec, and the smallest uncertainty is 0.2 msec (Stolz et al. 1976). The changes in the angular position of the moon with time are believed to be well enough known so that their uncertainty does not substantially degrade the accuracy of the UT0 values.
It has been proposed to the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration that optical retro-reflector packages be placed on the lunar surface under either the Surveyor or Apollo Programs. Methods for measuring the range to the reflectors with an expected accuracy of 15 cm have been presented. The new technique is briefly discussed, and an analysis of the determination of geocentric longitude is given, indicating a potential uncertainty of 0·25 × 10−3s of time.
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