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Destruction of tropical rainforests reduces many unprotected habitats to small fragments of remnant forests within agricultural matrices. To date, these remnant forest fragments have been largely disregarded as wildlife habitat, and little is known about mammalian use of these areas in Sumatra. Here, we conducted camera trap surveys (2285 trap-nights) within Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park and five surrounding remnant forest fragments during 2010–2013 and used species composition metrics to compare use. We found 28 mammal species in the protected forest and 21 in the fragments. The fragments harboured a subset of species found in the protected forest and several species not observed in the protected forest. Critically endangered species such as Sunda pangolin (Manis javanica) and Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) were found in the forest fragments, along with species of conservation concern such as marbled cat (Pardofelis marmorata) and Asiatic golden cat (Pardofelis temminckii). The biodiversity found within the fragments suggests that these small patches of remnant forest may have conservation value to certain mammal species and indicates the importance of further research into the role these habitats may play in landscape-level, multispecies conservation planning.
To evaluate the Orange County Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) prevention collaborative’s effect on rates of CDI in acute-care hospitals (ACHs) in Orange County, California.
Controlled interrupted time series.
We convened a CDI prevention collaborative with healthcare facilities in Orange County to reduce CDI incidence in the region. Collaborative participants received onsite infection control and antimicrobial stewardship assessments, interactive learning and discussion sessions, and an interfacility transfer communication improvement initiative during June 2015–June 2016. We used segmented regression to evaluate changes in monthly hospital-onset (HO) and community-onset (CO) CDI rates for ACHs. The baseline period comprised 17 months (January 2014–June 2015) and the follow-up period comprised 28 months (September 2015–December 2017). All 25 Orange County ACHs were included in the CO-CDI model to account for direct and indirect effects of the collaborative. For comparison, we assessed HO-CDI and CO-CDI rates among 27 ACHs in 3 San Francisco Bay Area counties.
HO-CDI rates in the 15 participating Orange County ACHs decreased 4% per month (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.96; 95% CI, 0.95–0.97; P < .0001) during the follow-up period compared with the baseline period and 3% (IRR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95–0.99; P = .002) per month compared to the San Francisco Bay Area nonparticipant ACHs. Orange County CO-CDI rates declined 2% per month (IRR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.96–1.00; P = .03) between the baseline and follow-up periods. This decline was not statistically different from the San Francisco Bay Area ACHs (IRR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95–1.00; P = .09).
Our analysis of ACHs in Orange County provides evidence that coordinated, regional multifacility initiatives can reduce CDI incidence.
I respond to the many thoughtful suggestions and concerns of my commentators on a wide variety of questions. These include whether moral norms form a unified category, whether they have a distinctive phenomenology, and/or whether moral normativity is a cultural construct; whether moral externalization is necessary for correlated interaction or human prosociality; precisely how such externalization generates correlated interactions among prosocial agents; and whether there are any convincing alternative explanations for it.
The unsteady three-dimensional flow organization of jets issued from a duct with swirl vanes at Reynolds number equal to 1000 and swirl number
ranging between 0 and 0.8 is investigated. Time-resolved tomographic particle image velocimetry returns the instantaneous flow structure and its evolution by visualization of velocity and vortical features. The most relevant coherent motions are identified and characterized with the aid of dynamic mode decomposition. The time-averaged flow topology indicates that the vanes used to impart the swirling motion have a significant impact on the azimuthal modulation of momentum, with the jet exhibiting four sectors separated by a thin cross-like wake resulting from the boundary layer developed along the vane walls. The flow field is thus characterized by inner and outer shear regions. An increase in swirl, up to moderate levels (
), causes larger jet spreading angles. Further increase of the swirl number is accompanied by the appearance of a central recirculation zone due to vortex breakdown at
which increases in size and is triggered upstream for increasing
. Although no shear layer instability development is observed at
, already at
the swirling motion promotes the growth of helical vortices appearing as Kelvin–Helmholtz waves that deform the outer axial shear layer. The downstream evolution features successive pairing, which is observed for all the considered swirl numbers. The initial development of the instability is independent for each vane, whereas a mutual interaction between the vanes occurs after the vortex pairing. The reconnection from the four sectors vortices induces a significant increase of azimuthal vorticity, which affects the dynamical behaviour of the precessing vortex core. The latter is visualized by a low-order spatio-temporal reconstruction based on few dynamical modes. At a higher swirl number (
), the axial vorticity component dominates the flow field; it interacts with the azimuthal vorticity, which penetrates inward through the meanders of the vane wakes and forces the vortex core precession and breakdown.
A range of empirical findings is first used to more precisely characterize our distinctive tendency to objectify or externalize moral demands and obligations, and it is then argued that this salient feature of our moral cognition represents a profound puzzle for evolutionary approaches to human moral psychology that existing proposals do not help resolve. It is then proposed that such externalization facilitated a broader shift to a vastly more cooperative form of social life by establishing and maintaining a connection between the extent to which an agent is herself motivated by a given moral norm and the extent to which she uses conformity to that same norm as a criterion in evaluating candidate partners in social interaction generally. This connection ensures the correlated interaction necessary to protect those prepared to adopt increasingly cooperative, altruistic, and other prosocial norms of interaction from exploitation, especially as such norms were applied in novel ways and/or to novel circumstances and as the rapid establishment of new norms allowed us to reap still greater rewards from hypercooperation. A wide range of empirical findings is then used to support this hypothesis, showing why the status we ascribe to moral demands and considerations exhibits the otherwise puzzling combination of objective and subjective elements that it does, as well as showing how the need to effectively advertise our externalization of particular moral commitments generates features of our social interaction so familiar that they rarely strike us as standing in need of any explanation in the first place.
This paper highlights experimental and theoretical efforts dedicated to developing plasmonic-enhanced electrodes for the photo-electrochemical ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) at room temperature in alkaline media. However, decoupling the electrocatalytic dark response from the plasmon-enhanced improvement presents a difficult challenge. To understand the plasmonic-enhancement of the photo-electrochemical EOR, multiple Au-Fe2O3 were fabricated and evaluated in parallel with discrete dipole approximation (DDA) modeling. Different Au-Fe2O3 were synthesized with Au nanoparticles located at variable positions within and/or on the Fe2O3 layer(s). The configurations investigated include thin film, embedded, surface and sandwich layered electrodes to facilitate optimal electrode design considerations for plasmonic-enhancement. The design strategies and configurations were guided by DDA simulations to assess absorption, scattering, and near-field enhancements within or near the semiconductor band edge, as well as the solution/electrode interface. For the different Fe2O3 loadings and Au nanoparticle sizes/distributions considered, it is determined that the Au-Fe2O3 surface configurations significantly enhanced the EOR in terms of a large positive current density enhancement, an increased photo-voltage and a lower onset potential relative to the other electrode designs.
Occurrences of tephra layers in four ice cores from Antarctica are reviewed. A new tephra, informally named the Vostok tephra, is described from a depth of 100.85 m in an ice core from Vostok station. Ice associated with four tephra layers at depths between 1390 and 1450 m in the Byrd station ice core shows increased levels of sulfate and nitrate which correlate well with peaks in particle concentrations. High levels of sulfate and nitrate are also associated with the Vostok tephra.
Tephra offer great potential as stratigraphic markers and should be useful in providing time planes as well as assisting in correlation between widely spaced ice cores.
Declining availability of prey is potentially a major factor limiting snow leopard Panthera uncia populations in Tajikistan and neighbouring states. Conservation initiatives to develop community-based trophy hunting programmes for ibex Capra sibirica and argali Ovis ammon polii aim to provide financial incentives for communities to limit poaching of wild ungulates. Such programmes could help to reverse local declines in ibex and argali populations, and consequently snow leopard populations, while simultaneously improving the economic status of local people. However, in practice the desired effect may not materialize. To investigate the premise, we estimated the population density of the snow leopard, using a spatial capture–recapture model based on camera trapping in two study areas (each c. 1,000 km2) in the Tajik Pamirs: a well-managed trophy hunting concession and an otherwise similar area where grazing and poaching are unmanaged. We used distance-truncated counts to assess relative densities of wild and domestic ungulates between sites, and faecal analyses to compare the dietary habits of snow leopards. Our data were limited in scope but suggested that the density of snow leopards and the relative density of wild and domestic ungulates may have been greater in the hunting concession, where wild ungulates accounted for a greater proportion of prey items. Our results provide preliminary evidence that trophy hunting of ungulates may be a viable tool for achieving snow leopard conservation goals; however, we conclude that further investigation is necessary to adequately address the question.
Gas and dust grains are fundamental components of the interstellar medium and significantly impact many of the physical processes driving galaxy evolution, such as star-formation, and the heating, cooling, and ionization of the interstellar material. Quasar absorption systems (QASs), which trace intervening galaxies along the sightlines to luminous quasars, provide a valuable tool to directly study the properties of the interstellar gas and dust in distant, normal galaxies. We have established the presence of silicate dust grains in at least some gas-rich QASs, and find that they exist at higher optical depths than expected for diffuse gas in the Milky Way. Differences in the absorption feature shapes additionally suggest variations in the silicate dust grain properties, such as in the level of grain crystallinity, from system-to-system. We present results from a study of the gas and dust properties of QASs with adequate archival IR data to probe the silicate dust grain properties. We discuss our measurements of the strengths of the 10 and 18 μm silicate dust absorption features in the QASs, and constraints on the grain properties (e.g., composition, shape, crystallinity) based on fitted silicate profile templates. We investigate correlations between silicate dust abundance, reddening, and gas metallicity, which will yield valuable insights into the history of star formation and chemical enrichment in galaxies.
The endemic Sumatran striped rabbit Nesolagus netscheri, categorized as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List, is one of the rarest lagomorphs and little is known about its ecology, status or distribution. After nearly a decade with no published sightings, new camera-trap photos have been taken and observations made in Bukit Barisan Seletan and Kerinci Seblat National Parks, renewing interest in this rare species. We suggest that Bukit Barisan Seletan National Park is an ideal location to initiate a much needed ecological study of the species. Documentation and protection of a population in this Park would facilitate refinement of study techniques applicable to other areas in Sumatra, including Kerinci Seblat National Park, and thus facilitate an assessment of the status and distribution of the species. We believe that in light of ongoing encroachment and deforestation in many of Sumatra's protected areas it is important to implement immediate conservation initiatives in both parks to ensure the persistence of these known populations.