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The present study, conducted in collaboration between the Departments of Psychiatry in Swiss Universities and the World Health Organization, had two main goals: to develop assessment methods which could subsequently be used in the Swiss centres in a standard manner; and to make arrangements for continuing collaboration between the centres in Switzerland and the acquisition of new knowledge about the distinctions between depression and cognitive impairment. For this aim, three different groups of elderly patients of either sex were selected during the period of November 1989 to July 1991 for inclusion in the study. The first two groups included the first ten patients of either sex over 60 years of age consecutively contacting the participating institutions and showing depression with or without clinically significant symptoms of cognitive impairment; the control group included patients showing no depression or clinically significant symptoms of cognitive impairment. A total of 125 patients were included in the initial evaluation, 69 of which were reassessed at a seven-month follow up (on average). Each patient was administered a number of clinician-rated or self-report instruments for the assessment of depression, cognitive impairment, disabilities, physical status and onset of disorders. The study has shown that a variety of instruments can be used for the reliable assessment of depression or cognitive impairment in the elderly; but the instruments for the assessment of depression differentiate only poorly between patients with or without cognitive impairment. Because of the importance of identifying both depressed and cognitively impaired patients among the elderly, different assessment instruments targeted at the different symptom clusters need to be administered simultaneously.
There is some evidence of ferropenia correlating with neuroleptic malignant syndrome and catatonic symptoms. The aim of this prospective and naturalistic study was to investigate the implications of ferremia in patients undergoing an intramuscular injection treatment of Zuclopenthixol-acetate in Visceolo. We recruited 59 catatonic patients (33 females). Age, sex, psychiatric and somatic diagnoses, body mass index (BMI), dosage and duration of Zuclopenthixol-acetate medication and the timing of the changeover from intramuscular to oral prescription, the single dosage of Clopenthixol if initially coadministered, incidence, onset and duration of transient benign hyperthermia, iron, ferritin, transferrin and saturation values, and white and red blood cell counts as well as liver function and electrolytes were registered. A transient and benign hyperthermic reaction (mean degrees: 37.5 + 0.3 °C) lasting for an average of 3.0 + 1.9 d was shown by 72.9% patients (N = 43, 22 females), during a mean treatment period of 5.8 + 3.1 d. These patients were medicated with significant different mean doses of Zuclopenthixol-acetate and compared to the patients with normal body temperature (ANOVA P < 0.01). The duration of Zuclopenthixol-acetate application did not vary between these patients groups. Furthermore, significant differences of iron (59.5 + 30.6 μmol/dl vs. 87.8 + 40.8 μmol/dl; ANOVA P < 0.006) and transferrin saturation values (18.3 + 10.4% vs. 27.2 + 17.0%; ANOVA P < 0.02) were found. Ferritin and transferrin were not implicated in the episode of hyperthermia. Diagnoses, sex, white and red blood cell counts also did not vary between these groups. Our findings indicate a possible involvement of ferropenia in catatonic patients, regardless of the diagnoses, and in the development of benign transient hyperthermia, also known as drug fever.
Korea has the highest suicide rate of developed countries, two times higher than the USA. Suicide trends among Koreans Americans living in the USA during the same period have not yet been described. We report suicide mortality rates and trends for four groups: (1) Korean Americans, (2) non-Hispanic White (NHW) Americans, (3) selected Asian American subgroups and (4) Koreans living in the Republic of Korea.
We used US national (n = 18 113 585) and World Health Organization (WHO) (n = 232 919 253) mortality records for Korea from 2003 to 2012 to calculate suicide rates, all expressed per 100 000 persons. We assessed temporal trends and differences in age, gender and race/ethnicity using binomial regression.
Suicide rates are highest in Koreans living in the Republic of Korea (32.4 for men and 14.8 for women). Suicide rates in Korean Americans (13.9 for men and 6.5 for women) have nearly doubled from 2003 to 2012 and exceed rates for all other Asian American subgroups (5.4–10.7 for men and 1.6–4.2 for women). Suicide rates among NHWs (21.0 for men and 5.6 for women) remain high. Among elders, suicide in Korean Americans (32.9 for men and 15.4 for women) is the highest of all examined racial/ethnic groups in the USA.
Suicide in Korean Americans is higher than for other Asian Americans and follows temporal patterns more similar to Korea than the USA. Interventions to prevent suicide in Korean American populations, particularly among the elderly, are needed.
A nationwide population-based cohort was used to examine the severity of liver cirrhosis and risk of mortality from oral cancer.
The cohort consisted of 3583 patients with oral cancer treated by surgery between 2008 and 2011 in Taiwan. They were grouped on the basis of normal liver function (n = 3471), cirrhosis without decompensation (n = 72) and cirrhosis with decompensation (n = 40). The primary endpoint was mortality. Hazard ratios of death were also determined.
The mortality rates in the respective groups were 14.8 per cent, 20.8 per cent and 37.5 per cent at one year (p < 0.001). The adjusted hazard ratios of death at one year for each group compared to the normal group were 2.01 (p = 0.021) for cirrhotic patients without decompensation, 4.84 (p < 0.001) for those with decompensation and 2.65 (p < 0.001) for those receiving chemotherapy.
Liver cirrhosis can be used to predict one-year mortality in oral cancer patients. Chemotherapy should be used with caution and underlying co-morbidities should be managed in cirrhotic patients to reduce mortality risk.
Lanthana-supported Ni and Co catalysts were investigated by “operando” techniques (XAS and APPES) for methane reforming reactions. The samples were prepared by the “solid phase crystallization” method (spc), where the precursors La(Ni1-xCox)O3 contains homogeneously distributed metals (Ni, Co) in the crystal structure (perovskite), which, on further reduction, result in the formation of catalytic system Ni1-xCox/La2O3. The monometallic samples (NiLaO3, CoLaO3) have been compared with a bimetallic system of an intermediate composition Ni0.5Co0.5LaO3. This “operando” study has allowed us to obtain important conclusions about the bimetallic particles and the metal-support interactions. The data revealed the formation of bimetallic particles (NiCo); on these ones, the Ni avoids the Co oxidation during the reaction. However, this protection does not induce an improvement in the activity, which presents an intermediate behaviour between Ni/La2O3 and Co/La2O3. These bimetallic particles form a pseudo-alloy with the surface enriched in cobalt (under reduced conditions), resulting nearly in a core-shell structure (Ni@Co).
The use of three-way catalysts is an accepted method to minimize NOx and CO emissions generated by internal combustion engines. These catalysts are generally formed by the support, stabilizers, promoters metal and transition metals, the most used metals of the platinum group. The use of cerium as a promoter is usually related to its ability to store oxygen and structural aspects such as the property of increasing the dispersion of metals and slow change of phase of the stabilizing support. On the other hand, the metal copper was explored as a possible replacement for palladium and platinum in the reduction of NO by CO. In this work, fibers of cerium oxide doped with copper were obtained from an acetate solution of cerium and coppers nitrates and polyvinyl butyral (PVB). This solution went through the process of electrospinning to produce nanostructured fibers. After heat treatment, cerium oxide fibers were obtained. These fibers were characterized structurally by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), had their specific surface area determined by BET method, were subjected to thermogravimetric test to determine their thermal decomposition and were analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The catalytic activity was assessed by the amount of O2 consumed and CO and CO2 formed for the combustion of methane and air. SEM images show fibers oriented randomly in the substrate. TEM images show that the diameter of the fibers is approximately 100 nm and the size of its crystallites are around 20 nm. In the presence of the catalyst, the combustion reaction started around 500°C, with the consumption of methane and oxygen and the formation of CO and/or CO2. There was no emission of NO and NOx gases during the tests with catalysts.
The working title of this book was “Combinatorics 18.315.” In the private language of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Course 18 is Mathematics, and 18.315 is the beginning graduate course in combinatorial theory. From the 1960s to the 1990s, 18.315 was taught primarily by the three permanent faculty in combinatorics, Gian-Carlo Rota, Daniel Kleitman, and Richard Stanley. Kleitman is a problem solver, with a prior career as a theoretical physicist. His way of teaching 18.315 was intuitive and humorous. With Kleitman, mathematics is fun. The experience of a Kleitman lecture can be gleaned from the transcripts of two talks. Stanley's way is the opposite of Kleitman. His lectures are careful, methodical, and packed with information. He does not waste words. The experience of a Stanley lecture is captured in the two books Enumerative Combinatorics I and II, now universally known as EC1 and EC2. Stanley's work is a major factor in making algebraic combinatorics a respectable flourishing mainstream area.
Gian-Carlo Rota was one of the most original and colourful mathematicians of the 20th century. His work on the foundations of combinatorics focused on the algebraic structures that lie behind diverse combinatorial areas, and created a new area of algebraic combinatorics. Written by two of his former students, this book is based on notes from his influential graduate courses and on face-to-face discussions. Topics include sets and valuations, partially ordered sets, distributive lattices, partitions and entropy, matching theory, free matrices, doubly stochastic matrices, Moebius functions, chains and antichains, Sperner theory, commuting equivalence relations and linear lattices, modular and geometric lattices, valuation rings, generating functions, umbral calculus, symmetric functions, Baxter algebras, unimodality of sequences, and location of zeros of polynomials. Many exercises and research problems are included, and unexplored areas of possible research are discussed. A must-have for all students and researchers in combinatorics and related areas.