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Eating out has been linked to the current obesity epidemic, but the evaluation of the extent to which out of home (OH) dietary intakes are different from those at home (AH) is limited. Data collected among 8849 men and 14 277 women aged 35–64 years from the general population of eleven European countries through 24-h dietary recalls or food diaries were analysed to: (1) compare food consumption OH to those AH; (2) describe the characteristics of substantial OH eaters, defined as those who consumed 25 % or more of their total daily energy intake at OH locations. Logistic regression models were fit to identify personal characteristics associated with eating out. In both sexes, beverages, sugar, desserts, sweet and savoury bakery products were consumed more OH than AH. In some countries, men reported higher intakes of fish OH than AH. Overall, substantial OH eating was more common among men, the younger and the more educated participants, but was weakly associated with total energy intake. The substantial OH eaters reported similar dietary intakes OH and AH. Individuals who were not identified as substantial OH eaters reported consuming proportionally higher quantities of sweet and savoury bakery products, soft drinks, juices and other non-alcoholic beverages OH than AH. The OH intakes were different from the AH ones, only among individuals who reported a relatively small contribution of OH eating to their daily intakes and this may partly explain the inconsistent findings relating eating out to the current obesity epidemic.
Spatiopora Ulrich, 1882 is a trepostome bryozoan that is found encrusting living orthoconic nautiloids in the Upper Ordovician (Katian) of North America, as do several other bryozoans. These epizoozoan bryozoans are characterized by possessing thin unilaminate zoaria with rows of elongate maculae, which may be monticulate and aligned coaxially to the host growth axis. These develop a distinctive linear shape in response to growing on a conical host, rather than as a response to channelized water flow along the host. Monticules increase in size and spacing adorally until a maximum inter-macular area is reached that results in a decline in surface water flow efficiency, and a new monticular line is inserted. Orthocones normally swam forward at lower velocities that enabled lophophore eversion and feeding, which would have been impossible at the higher speeds reached when the host jetted backwards during escape. Monticules reduced drag and turbulence acting on the orthocones which allowed for more efficient venting of bryozoan macular excurrents. Characteristic elliptical monticule growth continued even after death of the motile host. A Trypanites-bryozoan-orthoconic nautiloid association shows a complex biological and taphonomic relationship between these organisms.
Commensal epizoozoans and episkeletozoans are rarely preserved attached to the external exoskeleton of the Late Ordovician trilobite Flexicalymene. Of nearly 15,000 Flexicalymene specimens examined, 0.1% show epizoozoans or episkeletozoans. Factors limiting Flexicalymene fouling include a shallow burrowing life style, frequent molting of the host, larval preference for other substrates, observational bias caused by overlooking small fouling organisms, and the loss of the non-calcified, outermost cuticle prior to fossilization or as the trilobite weathers from the encasing sediment. Trepostome bryozoans, articulate and inarticulate brachiopods, cornulitids, and a tube-dwelling/boring nonbiomineralized organism represent the preserved members of the Late Ordovician marine hard substrate community fouling Flexicalymene. This assemblage of organisms is less diverse than the hard substrate community fouling Late Ordovician sessile epibenthic organisms. Fouling is not restricted to only large Flexicalymene specimens as observed in previous studies but occurs in medium to large individuals interpreted as early to late holaspid specimens.
Epizoozoans fouling the carcasses or molt ensembles of 16 Flexicalymene specimens provide insight into the life habits of the host and these fouling organisms. Trepostome bryozoans, articulate and inarticulate brachiopods, and cornulitids preferentially attached to elevated portions of the dorsal exoskeleton, and preferentially aligned in either the direct line or lee side of currents generated by Flexicalymene walking on the sea floor or swimming through the water column.
We report the establishment of two representatives of a new ecological functional group on the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia - pollinating insects - in the form of the hoverfly Eristalis croceimaculata Jacobs (Diptera, Syrphidae) and the blowfly Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera, Calliphoridae). The floricolous adults of these two species provide a new ecological role, pollination, in the ecosystems of this island. The activity of their respectively saprophogous or necrophagous larvae will also augment that of the native insect and microarthropod soil fauna. We discuss the potential new synergy between this functional group and that of a number of established non-native plants, reliant on insect pollinators for successful seed-set and hence dispersal, that are currently of persistent status with very limited local distributions.
There is a great potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to livestock production. For achieving this potential will require new initiatives at national and international levels that include promoting research and development on new mitigation technologies; deploying, diffusing and transferring technologies to mitigate emissions; and enhancing capacities to monitor, report and verify emissions from livestock production. This study describes the sources of livestock-related GHG emissions and reviews available mitigation technologies and practices. We assess the main policy instruments available to curb emissions and promote carbon sinks, and discuss the relative merits of alternative approaches. We discuss recent experiences in countries that have enacted mitigation strategies for the livestock sector to illustrate some of the key issues and constraints in policy implementation. Finally, we explore the main issues and challenges surrounding international efforts to mitigate GHG emissions and discuss some possible ways to address these challenges in future climate agreements.
We fabricated a laser diode (LD) exhibiting a lasing from strained GaInAs quantum wells (QWs) embedded in Er,O-codoped GaAs (GaAs:Er,O) by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy (OMVPE). The lasing wavelength was designed to tune to the energy separation between the second excited states 4I11/2 and the ground state 4I15/2 of Er3+ ions. The threshold current for the lasing at room temperature was six times larger than that of a GaInAs QW-LD without Er doping, reflecting ultrafast carrier capture by an Er-related trap in GaAs:Er,O. The Er intensity revealed initially steep increase with injected current density in the region for spontaneous emission from the GaInAs QWs. In the stimulated QW emission region, the intensity continued to increase with the current density.
Photocatalytic hydrogen production with gas-phase reactions in high vacuum was examined for nanocrystalline anatase-type titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films. The hydrogen generation process on platinized TiO2 specimens was investigated using a quadrupole mass spectrometer at a real-time scale under various partial pressures of gaseous methanol and water. As a result, hydrogen generation was successfully detected under ultraviolet ray (UV) illumination even in high vacuum (∼ 10−7 Torr). And the amount of produced H2 largely depends on the temperature of TiO2 samples, probably due to different surface states of TiO2. This study suggests the possibility of new high-speed H2 production system with gas-phase photocatalytic reactions.
Locally applicable information about climate and soil properties can help farmers identify opportunities and reduce risks associated with changing to new land uses. This article describes techniques for preparing high-resolution regional maps and GIS surfaces of agriculturally relevant climate parameters. Ways of combining these climate surfaces with soil data and information about the physical requirements of crops to identify areas likely to be the most suitable for new high-value crops are then outlined. Innovative features include methods for merging observations from temporary climate stations installed for one to two years in conjunction with longer-term climate station observations to improve input data for the maps, and techniques for mapping quantiles of climatic factors that may constrain agricultural operations. Examples are the expected ‘one-in-five year’ first and last frost dates, and the ‘one-in-five year’ lowest and highest seasonal rainfalls. The use of night-time satellite infrared observations to improve spatial resolution of frost hazard maps is also described. Typical standard errors of these climate mapping techniques are summarised. The benefits of ongoing consultation with local farmers and local government staff during the design and implementation of climate/soil/crop potential studies are described. These include optimising products to meet local needs, quality control of the resulting maps and GIS surfaces through local knowledge, and improved uptake of information by users. Further applications of techniques described in this paper include products useful to the energy sector, preparation of daily gridded climate data estimates for use in water quality and plant growth modelling, and development of regional climate change scenarios.
This study analysed the impact and the extent by which parental Onchocerca volvulus infection, intensity of transmission of O. volvulus infective 3rd-stage larvae (L3) and anthropometric factors may influence the acquisition, development and persistence of O. volvulus infection in offspring. A total of 15 290 individuals in 3939 families with 9640 children were surveyed for microfilariae of O. volvulus, and prevalence and level of O. volvulus infection in children aged 0 to 20 years from infected and non-infected parents were followed longitudinally for 18 years. Children from O. volvulus-infected mothers had not only a substantially higher risk to become infected; they also acquired infection earlier in life and developed higher infection levels. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that maternal O. volvulus infection and children's age are the predominant predictors for patent O. volvulus infection, while the intensity of transmission, measured by the annual transmission potential (ATP) of O. volvulus L3, was less decisive. Longitudinal follow up of children showed that during vector control activities by the Onchocerciasis Control Programme (OCP) and in low-level transmission areas, infection persisted at higher levels in children from O. volvulus-positive mothers. In summary, the dominant risk factor for children to become infected is maternal onchocerciasis, and also age-associated factors will strongly impact on the development of patent O. volvulus infection in offspring.
Studies of selective adhesion of biological molecules provide a path for understanding fundamental cellular properties. A useful technique is to use patterned substrates, where the pattern of interest has the same length scale as the molecular bonding sites of a cell, in the tens of nanometer range. We employ electrochemical methods to grow anodic alumina, which has a naturally ordered pore structure (interpore spacing of 40 to 400 nm) controlled by the anodization potential. We have also developed methods to selectively fill the alumina pores with materials with contrasting properties. Gold, for example, is electrochemically plated into the pores, and the excess material is removed by backsputter etching. The result is a patterned surface with closely separated islands of Au, surrounded by hydrophilic alumina. The pore spacing, which is determined by fabrication parameters, is hypothesized to have a direct effect on the spatial density of adhesion sites. By attaching adhesive molecules to the Au islands, we are able to observe and study cell rolling and adhesion phenomena. Through the measurements it is possible to estimate the length scale of receptor clusters on the cell surface. This information is useful in understanding mechanisms of leukocytes adhesion to endothelial cells as well as the effect of adhesion molecules adaptation on transmission of extracellular forces. The method also has applications in tissue engineering, drug and gene delivery, cell signaling and biocompatibility design.
The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) is an ongoing multi-centre prospective cohort study designed to investigate the relationship between nutrition and cancer, with the potential for studying other diseases as well. The study currently includes 519 978 participants (366 521 women and 153 457 men, mostly aged 35–70 years) in 23 centres located in 10 European countries, to be followed for cancer incidence and cause-specific mortality for several decades. At enrolment, which took place between 1992 and 2000 at each of the different centres, information was collected through a non-dietary questionnaire on lifestyle variables and through a dietary questionnaire addressing usual diet. Anthropometric measurements were performed and blood samples taken, from which plasma, serum, red cells and buffy coat fractions were separated and aliquoted for long-term storage, mostly in liquid nitrogen. To calibrate dietary measurements, a standardised, computer-assisted 24-hour dietary recall was implemented at each centre on stratified random samples of the participants, for a total of 36 900 subjects. EPIC represents the largest single resource available today world-wide for prospective investigations on the aetiology of cancers (and other diseases) that can integrate questionnaire data on lifestyle and diet, biomarkers of diet and of endogenous metabolism (e.g. hormones and growth factors) and genetic polymorphisms. First results of case–control studies nested within the cohort are expected early in 2003. The present paper provides a description of the EPIC study, with the aim of simplifying reference to it in future papers reporting substantive or methodological studies carried out in the EPIC cohort.
The World Ocean Circulation Experiment, carried out between 1990 and 1997, provided the most comprehensive oceanic survey of radiocarbon to date. Approximately 10,000 samples were collected in the Pacific Ocean by U.S. investigators for both conventional large volume p counting and small volume accelerator mass spectrometry analysis techniques. Results from six cruises are presented. The data quality is as good or better than previous large-scale surveys. The 14C distribution for the entire WOCE Pacific data set is graphically described using mean vertical profiles and sections, and property-property plots.
A series of experiments recently carried out at the Rutherford
Appleton Laboratory investigated various aspects of the
laser–plasma interaction in the relativistic intensity
regime. The propagation of laser pulses through preformed plasmas
was studied at intensities exceeding 1019 W/cm2.
The transmission of laser energy through long-scale underdense plasmas
showed to be inefficient unless a plasma channel is preformed ahead of
the main laser pulse. The study of the interaction with overdense plasmas
yielded indication of collimated energy transport through the plasma. The
production of fast particles during the interaction with solid density
targets was also investigated. The measurements revealed the presence of
a small-sized directional source of multi-megaelectron volt protons, which
was not observed when a plasma was preformed at the back of the solid target.
The properties of the source are promising in view of its use in radiographic
imaging of dense matter, and preliminary tests were carried out.
Filarial infections of humans are chronic diseases. Despite an ongoing immune response, adult filariae continuously produce their offspring, the microfilariae (Mf), which are able to persist in sufficient numbers to ensure transmission. In this study, host- and parasite-derived factors, which contribute to persistence of Mf, were investigated using the filariasis model of Litomosoides sigmodontis in mice. Different strains of mice were found to differ widely in their capability to eliminate circulating Mf. Studies of congenic mouse strains showed that early and rapid clearance of Mf was mediated by activation pathways relevant to innate immunity, whereas late or delayed clearance of Mf was pre-determined by MHC-related factors. Genetic knock-out of genes for the MHC class-II molecules totally abrogated resistance. Most interestingly, the presence of only 1 adult female, but not male worms, renders all mice susceptible, irrespective of the genetic background, enabling Mf to circulate for extended periods of time. Such prolonged microfilaraemia was also observed in L. sigmodontis-infected animals challenged with heterologous Mf of Acanthocheilonema viteae. The use of cytokine gene knock-out mice showed that persistence of L. sigmodontis Mf was facilitated by IL-10, but not by IL-4 or IFN-γ. In conclusion, irrespective of a resistant or susceptible host genetic background, survival of Mf of L. sigmodontis in mice is decisively regulated by the presence of adult female L. sigmodontis which will skew and exploit immune responses to facilitate the survival and persistence of their offspring in the infected host.
A model is presented which describes the aggregation of female Onchocerca volvulus in nodules and their distribution in the human population. The basic model is based on a single parameter, the formation probability q, which represents the probability with which incoming larvae form a new nodule. This parameter describes parasite behaviour which cannot easily be recognized in available data without modelling. The estimate for the average formation probability of μq = 0.39 suggests an attraction of the invading infective larvae to already existing nodules or resident worms with probability 0.61. No significant difference in μq was found between the forest and savanna parasite strains. The model can be used inversely to estimate the worm burden of persons from palpation data. The observed variance in the number of nodules per person requires the assumption of a variance-increasing mechanism which was implemented by heterogeneity within the host population (extended model with 2 parameters). Possible reasons for this heterogeneity are presented and its implications concerning the reproductive biology of the parasite are discussed.