To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Childhood exposure to stress can induce prolonged negative effects on health, which in turn confer risks for the next generation, but greater specificity is needed to inform intervention. A first step is to measure individual differences in emotional reactivity to stress early in life in ways that can account for heterogeneity in child exposure. The present study tested the hypothesis that mothers’ childhood exposure to stress would be differentially associated with patterns of positive and negative emotional reactivity in their offspring, suggesting transmission of stress response across generations. Participants were 268 young mothers (age 14–23 years) followed longitudinally since childhood, and their infants aged 3–9 months. Latent class analysis of infant emotions expressed before and during the still-face paradigm yielded five subgroups that varied in valence, intensity, and reactivity. After accounting for sociodemographic factors, infant temperament, and postpartum depression, multinomial regression models showed that, relative to an emotionally regulated still-face response, infants showing low negative reactivity were more likely to have mothers exposed to childhood emotional abuse, and infants showing high and increasing negative reactivity were more likely to have mothers exposed to childhood emotional neglect. Mechanisms by which early maternal stress exposure influences emotional reactivity in offspring are discussed.
HST ultra-violet and ground-based optical spectroscopy are presented for DI 1388, an early-type star in the Magellanic Bridge. These data have been supplemented with H I radio mapping of its environment. The spectroscopy shows interstellar components at LSR velocities of 0, 90 and 200 km s−1 – corresponding to the local ISM, a high velocity cloud and the Magellanic Bridge ISM, respectively. The last is the first absorption line detection of this material and shows the presence of both low (e.g., N I) and high (Si IV) ionization material. Further optical and HST UV observations of DI 1338 and another Bridge star, DGIK 975, are scheduled to investigate the chemical homogeneity and star formation history of the Bridge.
Emission lines arising from transitions in S II have been detected in a wide variety of astronomical sources, including planetary nebulae (Hyung, Keyes & Aller 1995). These transitions are used to derive information on emitting plasmas parameters (Te, Ne) through diagnostic line ratios, although to calculate these quantities reliably, accurate atomic data must be employed, especially for electron impact excitation rates.
The 2s21S0–2s2p 3P1 intercombination line at 1218.34 Å of Be-like O V has been observed in IUE spectra of gaseous nebulae such as RR Tel (Doschek & Feibelman 1993). However, the forbidden line at 1213 Å has not been detected to date in any astrophysical object, with the possible exception of the Sun, where Sandlin, Brueckner & Tousey (1977) very tentatively identify the line at 1213.90 Å in an off-limb spectrum.
We report on results from the Solar Eclipse Coronal Imaging System (SECIS), an instrument using fast CCD cameras designed to search for short-period modulations in visible-light emission from the corona during an eclipse or with a coronagraph. The instrument was successfully used during the total eclipse of 1999 August 11 from a site in Bulgaria. This paper summarizes both the instrument and preliminary results.
The definitions and general principles of the MK system given in the statement by Dr. Morgan, which Dr. McCarthy has read to you, are an expression of my views also.
It is mainly in specifying the MK domains that modifications are necessary for the cooler stars - and these for rather obvious reasons. For example, the spectral range has been extended to longer wavelengths, particularly for stars showing strong molecular bands. The lines and bands in the visual and far red regions are particularly useful in defining temperature and chemical composition, but the blue region remains important as having the features most sensitive to luminosity.
Suboptimal uptake of the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine by certain socioeconomic groups may have contributed to recent large measles outbreaks in the UK. We investigated whether socioeconomic deprivation was associated with MMR vaccine uptake over 16 years. Using immunization data for 72 351 children born between 1995 and 2012 in Liverpool, UK, we examined trends in vaccination uptake. Generalized linear models were constructed to examine the relative effect of socioeconomic deprivation and year of birth on MMR uptake. Uptake of MMR1 by age 24 months ranged between 82·5% in 2003 [95% confidence interval (CI) 81·2–83·7] and 93·4% in 2012 (95% CI 92·7–94·2). Uptake of MMR2 by age 60 months ranged between 65·3% (95% CI 64·4–67·4) in 2006 and 90·3% (95% CI 89·4–91·2) in 2012. In analysis adjusted for year of birth and sex, children in the most deprived communities were at significantly greater risk of not receiving MMR1 [risk ratio (RR) 1·70, 95% CI 1·45–1·99] and MMR2 (RR 1·36, 95% CI 1·22–1·52). Higher unemployment and lower household income were significantly associated with low uptake. Contrary to concerns about lower MMR uptake in affluent families, over 16 years, children from the most socioeconomically deprived communities have consistently had the lowest MMR uptake. Targeted catch-up campaigns and strategies to improve routine immunization uptake in deprived areas are needed to minimize the risk of future measles outbreaks.
Five stars, including ζ Cyg, which had been classified as G6 II to G8 II bright giants, were found by O. C. Wilson to have K-line luminosities close to those of class III giants. These stars show enhancement of the lines of Ba II and other heavy-metal ions also. To eliminate the serious effect of this abundance anomaly on the spectroscopic luminosities new luminosity criteria involving only intercomparisons of lines of elements of the fourth period (Ti, Fe, etc.) were applied on 9 Å mm−1 Coudé spectrograms taken by O. C. Wilson. This Coudé classification gave luminosity classes near IIIa for these stars, implying absolute magnitudes considerably below those of bright giants but somewhat above Wilson's MK values.
Another advantage of Coudé classification is the possibility of estimating luminosities for individual barium stars. From Wilson's plate of HD 205011 a luminosity class of III-IIIa is derived. This is consistent with the mean value of Mv = −0.4 derived from statistical parallaxes by MacConnell, Frye and Upgren (Astron. J. 77, (1972), 384) for the barium stars.
The detailed account of this investigation will be published elsewhere.
Uptake rates for the combined measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine have been below the required 95% in the UK since a retracted and discredited article linking the MMR vaccine with autism and inflammatory bowel disease was released in 1998. This study undertook semi-structured telephone interviews among parents or carers of 47 unvaccinated measles cases who were aged between 13 months and 9 years, during a large measles outbreak in Merseyside. Results showed that concerns over the specific links with autism remain an important cause of refusal to vaccinate, with over half of respondents stating this as a reason. A quarter stated child illness during scheduled vaccination time, while other reasons included general safety concerns and access issues. Over half of respondents felt that more information or a discussion with a health professional would help the decision-making process, while a third stated improved access. There was clear support for vaccination among respondents when asked about current opinions regarding MMR vaccine. The findings support the hypothesis that safety concerns remain a major barrier to MMR vaccination, and also support previous evidence that experience of measles is an important determinant in the decision to vaccinate.
Recently, Fernández-Menchero et al. (2014) reported effective collision strengths ϒ for transitions among 238 fine-structure levels, belonging to the n ≤ 7 configurations of C III. They adopted the (semi-relativistic) R-matrix code (ICFT), resolved resonances in a fine energy mesh, averaged Ω over a Maxwellian distribution, and reported results over a wide range of electron temperature up to 1.8×107 K.
In the Egyptian millennium covered by this volume two major languages were spoken and written. Egyptian was the larger in terms of number of speakers, while Greek, certainly spoken in Egypt during much of the first millennium bc, became in the Ptolemaic period the dominant language of administration and the language of law. The Egyptian language is represented in its two last phases by two different scripts. The first, which developed in the Delta during the seventh century bc and spread through Egypt by the fifth century bc, is known as Demotic, characterized by a highly cursive script that developed out of the cursive Hieroglyphic writing known as Hieratic. The second phase, Coptic, began to be written around ad 300 and came to be used in legal documents by the sixth century ad, though it did not become a dominant contractual language until after the Arab conquest (3.4). This last stage of the Egyptian language deployed a Greek alphabet to which were added several signs left over from Demotic that preserved phonemes in Egyptian not found in Greek.
Thus during the three traditional phases of Egyptian political history documented in this volume (Ptolemaic, Roman, Byzantine) Egypt was a serially bilingual society. Of course, the Romans through their conquest introduced Latin as a language prominent in certain military and legal contexts (3.3, 4.3). This notwithstanding, Greek remained for Egypt, whether ruled from Rome or Constantinople, the chief administrative and legal language. It continued as such past the Arab conquest into the early eighth century ad (3.4).
In the aftermath of the major earthquake that hit Pakistan in 2005, there appeared to be a paucity of psychometric tools validated in Urdu. It was decided to translate the Impact of Event Scale - Revised (IES-R) so as to obtain an internationally validated and recognised psychometric tool for use in research into post-traumatic stress disorder. The resulting Urdu and English versions of the IES-R were compared for linguistic, conceptual and scale equivalence. The Urdu version of the IES-R (UIES-R) can be used for clinical, psychological trauma populations in Pakistan with evidence of good reliability and satisfactory validity. In trauma research in Pakistan the UIES-R will be an extremely useful psychometric tool.
The effects of post implantation annealing on the properties of buried oxide silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates in the temperature range of 1150°C to 1300°C have been studied. Microstructural analyses showed that the crystallinity of the top silicon layer was improved at higher annealing temperature. Lower thermal donor generation at 450°C was observed in SOI annealed at higher temperature. The improvement in microstructure and lower thermal donor generation were correlated to the lower oxygen concentration in the top silicon film.
Buried nitride silicon-on-insulator (SOI) structures have been fabricated using the technique of nitrogen ion implantation. The crystallinity of the top silicon film was found to be exceptionally good. The minimum channeling yield, Xmin' was better than 3%. This is comparable to the value observed for single crystal silicon. The buried insulator formed during the anneals has been identified as polycrystalline α-Si3 N4 with numerous silicon inclusions. This nitride, however, has been found to remain amorphous in regions at the center of the implant where the nitrogen concentration exceeds the stoichiometric level of Si3N4. Nitrogen donor formation in the top silicon layer has also been observed.
Thin film interaction in the material systems of titanium and tantalum-layered Al- 1% Si films has been studied using advanced material characterization techniques. Compound phase formation was analyzed based on results from X-ray diffraction analysis. Al3Ti was identified in the titanium-layered film after 450° C sintering. TaSi2 and unreacted Ta. however, were identified after the sintering. Silicon participated in the phase formation process by incorporating itself as a solute in the Al3Ti while transforming Ta into its silicide. This behavior is to be interpreted based on available ternary phase diagrams. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy results indicate that well defined layered films and columnar grains of aluminum were obtained which are believed to be the primary reasons for the observed electromigration improvement over the base metal.
Tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) films are candidates for application as storage capacitors in high density memory cells and as gate insulators in MOS devices because of their large dielectric constant. Thin Ta2O5 films deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering of a pure Ta target using an argon/oxygen mixture have been characterized using TEM, glancing angle X-ray diffraction and RBS. The films are amorphous in the as-deposited condition but crystallize after high temperature (> 600 °C) annealing. Numerous pores and significant grain boundary grooving were observed in the crystallized film. A high level (∼2 at. %) of argon was detected in both as-deposited and annealed films formed by Ar/O2 sputtering. The effects of sputtering and annealing conditions on the structure of the films were investigated.
A new method for automated coronal loop tracking, in both spatial and temporal domains, is presented. The reliability of this technique was tested with TRACE 171 Å observations. The application of this technique to a flare-induced kink-mode oscillation, revealed a 3500 km spatial periodicity which occur along the loop edge. We establish a reduction in oscillatory power, for these spatial periodicities, of 45% over a 322 s interval. We relate the reduction in oscillatory power to the physical damping of these loop-top oscillations.
High frequency acoustic waves have been suggested as a source of mechanical heating in the quiet solar chromosphere. To investigate this, we have observed intensity oscillations of several lines in the frequency interval 1.64-70mHz using data from the VTT Tenerife and the Dunn Solar Telescope at the National Solar Observatory. Our analysis of Fe i 543.45 nm, Fe i 543.29 nm and the G-band, indicate that the majority of oscillations are connected with the magnetic fields and do not provide sufficient mechanical flux for the heating of the chromosphere. This correlation is also observed in quiet Sun areas.