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Sheath blight caused by soil borne necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia solani [teleomorph-Thanatephorus cucumeris (Frank) Donk.] is a major disease of rice. The disease is increasing over the year in India and cause up to 69% yield loss under favourable conditions. A total of 67 accessions of Oryza nivara were screened to identify resistance against sheath blight during 2015. Out of these, 16 accessions were found moderately resistant (MR) which were further evaluated during the year 2016 and 2017. After three years of screening, 12 of them were found to have a consistent moderate resistant reaction whereas four of the O. nivara accessions namely, IRGC81941, IRGC102463C, CR100097 and CR100110A have shown moderately susceptible to susceptible reaction against sheath blight. A correlation study revealed that different disease variables measured were significantly (P < 0.05) correlated. All the genotypes and genotype × environment interaction had a significant (P < 0.001) effect on all the disease variables. Cluster analysis showed that all the accessions were clustered into four groups which showed resistant, MR, moderately susceptible and susceptible reactions. Among all the O. nivara accessions IRGC81941A showed the maximum potential against sheath blight due to a least relative lesion height of 22.80%. None of the accession had complete resistance to the disease. The identified promising accessions such as IRGC81835, IRGC81941A, CR100008 and CR100111B can be utilized in a sheath blight resistance breeding program.
Dust vortices with a void at the centre are reported in this paper. The role of the spatial variation of the plasma potential in the rotation of dust particles is studied in a parallel plate glow discharge plasma. Probe measurements reveal the existence of a local potential minimum in the region of formation of the dust vortex. The minimum in the potential well attracts positively charged ions, while it repels the negatively charged dust particles. Dust rotation is caused by the interplay of the two oppositely directed ion drag and Coulomb forces. The balance between these two forces is found to play a major role in the radial confinement of the dust particles above the cathode surface. Evolution of the dust vortex is studied by increasing the discharge current from 15 to 20 mA. The local minimum of the potential profile is found to coincide with the location of the dust vortex for both values of discharge currents. Additionally, it is found that the size of the dust vortex as well as the void at the centre increases with the discharge current.
The successful provision of middle-ear surgery requires appropriate anaesthesia. This may take the form of local or general anaesthesia; both methods have their advantages and disadvantages. Local anaesthesia is simple to administer and does not require the additional personnel required for general anaesthesia. In the low-resource setting, it can provide a very safe and effective means of allowing middle-ear surgery to be successfully completed. However, some middle-ear surgery is too complex to consider performing under local anaesthesia and here general anaesthesia will be required.
This article highlights considerations for performing middle-ear surgery in a safe manner when the available resources may be more limited than those expected in high-income settings. There are situations where local anaesthesia with sedation may prove a useful compromise of the two techniques.
A nonparaxial investigation for propagation characteristics of q-Gaussian laser beam in rippled density plasma is studied by considering the relativistic nonlinearity. The field distribution in the medium is expressed in terms of q parameter and beam width parameter f. Nonlinear parabolic partial differential equation governing the evolution of complex envelope in slowly varying approximation is solved in a modulated density profile. Analytical theory of self-focusing including higher order terms in the expansion of dielectric function up to fourth order is developed and the variation of beam width parameter f with the distance of propagation for different parameters is studied. One may note that increased value of density ripple, laser intensity and depth of modulation, increases self-focusing whereas a lower value of q shows strong self-focusing. A comparative study between paraxial and nonparaxial study has also conducted. This study is useful for research in high energy density physics.
Bovine calf scours reported to be caused by multiple aetiologies resulting in heavy mortality in unweaned calves and huge economic loss to the dairy farmers. Among these, cryptosporidiosis is an emerging waterborne zoonoses and one of the important causes of neonatal calf diarrhoea. Poor immune response coupled with primary cryptosporidial infections predispose neonatal calves to multiple secondary infections resulting in their deaths. In the present study, faecal samples from 100 diarrhoeic calves randomly picked up out of 17 outbreaks of bovine calf diarrhoea in periurban Ludhiana, Punjab in Northern India were subjected to conventional (microscopy, modified Zeihl–Neelsen (mZN) staining) and immunological and molecular techniques (faecal antigen capture ELISA and PCR) for detection of primary Cryptosporidium parvum infection as well as other frequently reported concurrent pathogens, viz. rotavirus and coronavirus, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens and Eimeria spp. The faecal antigen capture ELISA and PCR revealed 35% prevalence of C. parvum in contrast to 25% by mZN staining with a relatively higher prevalence (66·7%) in younger (8–14-day-old) calves. The detection rate of the other enteropathogens associated with C. parvum was 45·71% for C. perfringens followed by Salmonella spp (40·0%), rotavirus (36·0%), coronavirus (16·0%), E. coli (12·0%) and Eimeria spp (4·0%) The sensitivity for detection of C. parvum by ELISA and mZN staining in comparison to PCR was 97·14% and 72·72%, respectively. An important finding of the study was that C. parvum alone was found in only 10% of the diarrhoeic faecal samples, whereas, majority of the samples (90%) showed mixed infections ranging from a combination of two to five agents. This is the first documentary proof of C. parvum and associated pathogens responsible for severe periurban outbreaks of bovine calf diarrhoea culminating in heavy mortality from Northern India.
A s-polarized short-pulse laser impinged obliquely on an overdense plasma slab is shown to produce very significant second harmonic in the direction of specular reflection and transmission. The laser induces a non-linear current on electrons, which is curl free. However, with sharp plasma boundary, it gives rise to electromagnetic radiation at the second harmonic. Our formalism includes multiple reflections of the incident and second-harmonic waves from both the front and rear surfaces. The present work includes finiteness of the slab. The normalized second-harmonic amplitude acquires a sharp peak at some specific angle of incidence for a particular set of parameters dependent on thickness of the slab and plasma density.
Measurements of local plasma parameters in dusty plasma are crucial for understanding
the physics issues related to such systems. The Langmuir probe, a small electrode
immersed in the plasma, provides such measurements. However, designing of a Langmuir
probe system in a dusty plasma environment demands special consideration. First, the
probe has to be miniaturized enough so that its perturbation on the ambient dust
structure is minimal. At the same time, the probe dimensions must be such that a
well-defined theory exists for interpretation of its characteristics. The associated
instrumentation must also support the measurement of current collected by the probe
with high signal to noise ratio. The most important consideration, of course, comes
from the fact that the probes are prone to dust contamination, as the dust particles
tend to stick to the probe surface and alter the current collecting area in
unpredictable ways. This article describes the design and operation of a Langmuir
probe system that resolves these challenging issues in dusty plasma. In doing so,
first, different theories that are used to interpret the probe characteristics in
collisionless as well as in collisional regimes are discussed, with special emphasis
on application. The critical issues associated with the current–voltage
characteristics of Langmuir probe obtained in different operating regimes are
discussed. Then, an algorithm for processing these characteristics efficiently in
presence of ion-neutral collisions in the probe sheath is presented.
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has adverse effects on metabolic health and early life, whereas physical activity is protective against later development of metabolic disease. Relationships between birth weight and physical activity in humans, and effects of IUGR on voluntary activity in rodents, are mixed and few studies have measured physical activity in a free-ranging environment. We hypothesized that induced restriction of placental growth and function (PR) in sheep would decrease spontaneous ambulatory activity (SAA) in free-ranging adolescent and young adult progeny from multi-fetal pregnancies. To test this hypothesis, we used Global Positioning System watches to continuously record SAA between 1800 and 1200 h the following day, twice during a 16-day recording period, in progeny of control (CON, n=5 males, 9 females) and PR pregnancies (n=9 males, 10 females) as adolescents (30 weeks) and as young adults (43 weeks). PR reduced size at birth overall, but not in survivors included in SAA studies. In adolescents, SAA did not differ between treatments and females were more active than males overall and during the day (each P<0.001). In adults, daytime SAA was greater in PR than CON females (P=0.020), with a similar trend in males (P=0.053) and was greater in females than males (P=0.016). Adult SAA was negatively correlated with birth weight in females only. Contrary to our hypothesis, restricted placental function and small size at birth did not reduce progeny SAA. The mechanisms for increased daytime SAA in adult female PR and low birth weight sheep require further investigation.
Objectives: Excessive adipose tissue, especially in the abdominal area, is associated with increased risk of dementia in older adults. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are poorly understood. As increased adiposity is also associated with lower circulating levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a key molecule modulating brain plasticity and neuronal regeneration, we hypothesized that the changes in cognition that occur as a result of excessive abdominal adiposity would be driven by lower levels of circulating BDNF. Methods: Fasting blood samples were obtained from 60 participants aged 40–60 years (mean±SD=52.3±5.6) and BDNF levels were assessed with an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Abdominal adiposity was measured using a ratio of waist circumference to hip circumference (WHR). Participants also completed a neuropsychological assessment battery to assess executive function. Statistical mediation was assessed using traditional causal steps and nonparametric bootstrapping. Results: Higher WHR was significantly associated with poorer performance on the Controlled Oral Word Association (COWA) letter fluency test (β=−0.489; p=.003) and lower levels of circulating BDNF (β=−0.345; p=.006). Linear regression and bootstrapping methods indicated that BDNF fully mediated the relationship between WHR and performance on the COWA (β=0.60; 95% confidence interval [−3.79, −0.26]). Conclusions: The relationship between higher WHR and verbal fluency was fully statistically mediated by circulating BDNF levels. The BDNF pathway is thus a useful probable mechanism through which executive function decline occurs in individuals with high abdominal adiposity. BDNF enhancing interventions (physical exercise and dietary restriction) could thus be used to improve executive function in these individuals. (JINS, 2016, 22, 1–8)
Addition of antibiotics to artificial diets of insects is a key component in the rearing of insects in the laboratory. In the present study an antimicrobial agent, streptomycin sulphate was tested for its influence on survival and fitness of Spodoptera litura (Fabricus) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) as well as its gut microbial diversity. The antibiotic did not adversely affect the survival of S. litura. Faster growth of larvae was recorded on diet amended with different concentrations of streptomycin sulphate (0.03, 0.07 and 0.15%) as compared to diet without streptomycin sulphate. The overall activity of various digestives enzymes increased on S+ diet while the activity of detoxifying enzymes significantly decreased. In addition, alteration in microbial diversity was found in the gut of S. litura larvae fed on diet supplemented with antibiotic (S+) and without antibiotic (S−).
A 32-year-old, fit and healthy, Caucasian male presented with a less than 24-hour history of palpitations with the onset following participation in helicopter underwater escape training (HUET). He reported no chest pain, shortness of breath, syncope, or pre-syncope symptoms. On examination, an irregularly irregular pulse was noted at a rate of 120 beats per minute with a blood pressure of 132/84. There was no evidence of congestive cardiac failure. The electrocardiogram (ECG) demonstrated atrial fibrillation at 97 beats per minute with a normal axis, normal QRS complexes, and a QTc of 399 ms. Bloods were all within normal limits and a chest x-ray showed no abnormality. The patient was loaded with amiodarone and reverted to sinus rhythm with a normal post-reversion ECG. Five years on, following further HUET, the patient presented with an identical presentation. His ECG showed fast atrial fibrillation at a rate of 115 beats per minute. On this occasion, he was sedated and Direct Current cardioverted with reversal to sinus rhythm after one shock. It was felt that the precipitating factor for this patient’s atrial fibrillation, in both cases, was HUET. The case discussed describes a previously fit and well subject who developed a sustained arrhythmia secondary to cold water submersion. Evidence suggests water submersion can provoke cardiac arrhythmias via the suggested theory of “autonomic conflict.” It has been proposed that a number of unexplained deaths related to water submersion may be secondary to arrhythmogenic syncope.
KaurPP, DrummondSE, FurykJ. Arrhythmia Secondary to Cold Water Submersion during Helicopter Underwater Escape Training. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(1):108–110.
Improvement in multi-cut forage sorghum varieties that can perform better than SSG 59-3, a sweet Sudan grass released in 1974, has been a challenge. Efforts were made to create variability in SSG 59-3 through mutagenesis using both physical and chemical mutagens. Fifteen such mutants were evaluated for 2 years in different locations in India. Considerable variability was observed for important fodder yield and quality traits. SSG 237 flowered 10 d early than SSG 59-3. SSG 231, SSG 260, SSG 232 and SSG 237 had high protein percentage and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) values compared with SSG 59-3. Hydrocyanic acid (HCN), a major anti-nutritional factor, was low in six mutants, the lowest being in SSG 226. This variability can be used in different breeding programmes aimed at improving multi-cut forage sorghum varieties. The lines with improved fodder quality (low HCN, high protein and IVDMD) can be used in the breeding programme for the improvement in multi-cut forage sorghum varieties.
Genetic variability in carrots is a consequence of allogamy, which leads to a high level of inbreeding depression, affecting the development of new varieties. To understand the extent of genetic variability in 40 elite indigenous breeding lines of subtropical carrots, 48 DNA markers consisting of 16 inter simple sequence repeats (ISSRs), 10 universal rice primers (URPs), 16 random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and six simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used. These 48 markers amplified a total of 591 bands, of which 569 were polymorphic (0·96). Amplicon size ranged from 200 to 3500 base pairs (bp) in ISSR, RAPD and URPs markers and from 100 to 300 bp in SSR markers. The ISSR marker system was found to be most efficient with (GT)n motifs as the most abundant SSR loci in the carrot genome. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) analysis of the combined data set of all the DNA markers obtained by four marker systems classified 40 genotypes in two groups with 0·45 genetic similarity with high Mantel matrix correlation (r=0·92). The principal component analysis (PCA) of marker data also explained 0·55 of the variation by first three components. Molecular diversity was very high and non-structured in these open-pollinated genotypes. The study demonstrated for the first time that URPs can be used successfully in genetic diversity analysis of tropical carrots. In addition, an entirely a new set of microsatellite markers, derived from the expressed sequence tags (ESTs) sequences of carrots, has been developed and utilized successfully.
The metabolic fate of dietary n-3 docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) in mammals is currently unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the extent of conversion of dietary DPA to DHA and EPA in rats. Four groups of male weanling Sprague–Dawley rats (aged 5 weeks) were given 50 mg of DPA, EPA, DHA or oleic acid, daily for 7 d by gavage. At the end of the treatment period, the tissues were analysed for concentrations of long-chain PUFA. DPA supplementation led to significant increases in DPA concentration in all tissues, with largest increase being in adipose (5-fold) and smallest increase being in brain (1·1-fold). DPA supplementation significantly increased the concentration of DHA in liver and the concentration of EPA in liver, heart and skeletal muscle, presumably by the process of retroconversion. EPA supplementation significantly increased the concentration of EPA and DPA in liver, heart and skeletal muscle and the DHA concentration in liver. DHA supplementation elevated the DHA levels in all tissues and EPA levels in the liver. Adipose was the main tissue site for accumulation of DPA, EPA and DHA. These data suggest that dietary DPA can be converted to DHA in the liver, in a short-term study, and that in addition it is partly retroconverted to EPA in liver, adipose, heart and skeletal muscle. Future studies should examine the physiological effect of DPA in tissues such as liver and heart.
Kanarese buffaloes are medium built animals distributed in the South Kanara region on the west coast of South India. These buffaloes are dual purpose animals used mainly for agricultural operations in wet fields and for some milk production. They are famous for racing in water-bound fields. South Kanara buffaloes are moderate milk yielders producing about two to seven litres daily for a lactation period that ranged between 210 to 360 days. Genetic diversity analysis was performed using 10 microsatellite markers in a panel of 48 unrelated animals. The average number of alleles was estimated to be 6.30 with an average heterozygosity of 0.62 per locus. The population showed departure from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at all of the 10 loci tested. The heterozygote deficiency was estimated as 9.2% suggesting the presence of considerable inbreeding in the population. The allele frequency distribution followed the normal L-shaped form suggesting that the breed had not encountered a genetic bottleneck in the recent past.