Reference Systems include the reference frames and their relationships, time arguments, ephemerides, and the standard constants and algorithms.
The extragalactic, or radio, reference frame will be the basic frame. Achieving milli to microarcsecond accuracies at optical wavelengths will reduce the disparity between optical, radar, and radio reference frame determinations. Thus, the relationships and identifications of common sources should be much more accurate. Another significant change should be the ability to determine distances, and thus space motions on a three-dimensional basis, rather than the current two-dimensional basis of proper motions.
Improvements in ephemerides provide the opportunity to investigate the difference between atomic and dynamical time, the relationship between the dynamical and extragalactic reference frame and the values of precession and nutation.
Also, the relationships between the bright and faint optical catalogs, the infrared, and extragalactic reference frames should be better determined. Reference frames at other wavelengths will become determinable.