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The use of radio frequency (RF) waves in fusion plasmas for heating, for non-inductive current generation, for profile control and for diagnostics has been well established. The RF waves, excited by antenna structures placed near the wall of a fusion device, have to propagate through density fluctuations at the plasma edge. These fluctuations can modify the properties of the RF waves that propagate towards the core of the plasma. A full-wave electromagnetic computational code ScaRF based on the finite difference frequency domain (FDFD) method has been developed to study the effect of density turbulence on RF waves. The anisotropic plasma permittivity used in the scattering studies is that for a magnetized, cold plasma. The code is used to study the propagation of an RF plane wave through a modulated, spatially periodic density interface. Such an interface could arise in the edge region due to magnetohydrodynamic instability or drift waves. The frequency of the plane wave is taken to be in the range of the electron cyclotron frequency. The scattering analysis is applicable to ITER-like plasmas, as well as to plasmas in medium sized tokamaks such as TCV, ASDEX-U and DIII-D. The effect of different density contrasts across the interface and of different spatial modulations are discussed. While ScaRF is used to study a periodic density fluctuation, the code is general enough to include different varieties of density fluctuations in the edge region – such as blobs and filaments, and spatially random fluctuations.
In this article we adopt the view that emotion dysregulation is characterized by emotion regulation dynamics that are defined as dysfunctional based on contextual criteria. We regard the construct of emotion regulation as valuable because it permits the integration of the classic view of emotions as interfering with human functioning and contemporary views of emotion as adaptive and beneficial. To define patterns that reflect emotion dysregulation, we explain our views of emotion as a dynamic process, and emotion regulation as the bidirectional interplay between emotions and actions/thoughts (extrinsic factors) and the contextual factors that constitute the criteria for that interplay reflecting dysregulation. This conceptualization of emotion regulation and dysregulation leads to methods for studying the intrinsic dynamics of emotion, extrinsic factors that change the intrinsic dynamics of emotion, and how emotion regulation changes over time at multiple time scales. We then apply this thinking to several emotion dysregulation patterns. Emotion regulation is a complex construct, embracing emotion as regulator and as regulated, as self- and other-regulated, and as incorporating both top-down and bottom-up regulatory processes. We highlight an emerging line of research on the development of emotion regulation in early childhood and indicate how this work can inform understanding of emotion dysregulation and the emergence of psychopathology.
Radio frequency (RF) waves are routinely used in tokamak fusion plasmas for plasma heating, current control, as well as in diagnostics. These waves are excited by antenna structures placed near the tokamak’s wall and they have to propagate through a turbulent layer known as the scrape-off layer, before reaching the core plasma (which is their target). This layer exhibits coherent density fluctuations in the form of filaments and blobs. The scattering processes of RF plane waves by a single filament is studied with the assumption that the filament has a cylindrical shape and infinite length. Furthermore, besides the major toroidal component of the externally imposed magnetic field, there is also a small poloidal magnetic field component. Considering also that the cylindrical filament’s axis is not necessarily aligned with the toroidal direction, the total magnetic field is in general neither aligned with the axis of the cylinder nor with the toroidal direction. The investigation concerns the case of electron cyclotron (EC) waves (of frequency
) for tokamak applications. The study covers a variety of density contrasts between the filament and the ambient plasma, different magnetic field inclinations with respect to the cylinder axis (for the same magnitude of magnetic induction
) and a wide range of filament radii.
There has been a growing interest, over the past few years, on understanding the effect on radio frequency waves due to turbulence in the scrape-off layer of tokamak plasmas. While the far scrape-off layer density width is of the order of centimetres in contemporary tokamaks, in ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), and in future fusion reactors, the corresponding width will be of the order of tens of centimetres. As such, this could impact the spectral properties of the waves and, consequently, the transport of wave energy and momentum to the core plasma. The turbulence in the scrape-off layer spans a broad range of spatial scales and includes blobs and filaments that are elongated along the magnetic field lines. The propagation of radio frequency waves through this tenuous plasma is given by Maxwell’s equations. The characteristic properties of the plasma appear as a permittivity tensor in the expression for the current in Ampere’s equation. This paper develops a formalism for expressing the permittivity of a turbulent plasma using the homogenization technique. This technique has been extensively used to express the dielectric properties of composite materials that are spatially inhomogeneous, for example, due to the presence of micro-structures. In a similar vein, the turbulent plasma in the scrape-off layer is spatially inhomogeneous and can be considered as a composite material in which the micro-structures are filaments and blobs. The classical homogenization technique is not appropriate for the magnetized plasma in the scrape-off layer, as the radio frequency waves span a broad range of wavelengths and frequencies – from tens of megahertz to hundreds of gigahertz. The formalism in this paper makes use of the Fourier space components of the electric and magnetic fields of the radio frequency waves for the scattered fields and fields inside the filaments and blobs. These are the eigenvectors of the dispersion matrix which, using the Green’s function approach, lead to a homogenized dielectric tensor.
In the present study, poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nanostructures were obtained by oxidative polymerization of monomer ‘3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene’ in the presence of poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) in FeCl3 as an oxidizing agent. The PEDOT nanostructures were characterized using the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) techniques respectively. The morphology of PEDOT nanostructures revealed flowerlike-shape agglomerates with an increase in the concentrations of PAA. The SEM, TEM and FTIR studies revealed that the presence of PAA could only induce a change in morphology during polymerization, but could not influence the molecular structure of the PEDOT nanostructures. The synthesized PEDOT nanostructures were used as electrode material for supercapacitor. The electrochemical capacitive properties of the PEDOT nanostructures were investigated with the Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge–discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques in the three-electrode cell system. The capacitance of the PEDOT electrode was measured in 0.1M LiClO4 and 2M H2SO4 electrolytes. The highest specific capacitance value of 215F/g for a PEDOT nanostructured electrode was calculated in 1 M H2SO4 electrolyte.
The present paper reports the utilization of a boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond film (BDD) in electrochemical oxidization (ECO) process of organic phenol compound in 0.1 M H2SO4 water solution. The nano BDD films were synthesized by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MWPCVD), and then characterized by Raman spectroscopy and SEM before and after the electrochemical oxidation treatment. For the ECO treatment performed to the test sample solution, an observation of the first and the last voltammetric plots exhibited a qualitatively differences between the two plots where the first one represent the initial concentration and the last one the signal produced by the organic solution after treatment. UV-Vis analysis through the application of a standard calibration curve, quantitatively confirmed the composition of phenol remaining in the sample solution subdued to the ECO treatment.
The cultivar Ajaya (IET 8585) exhibits durable broad-spectrum resistance to bacterial blight (BB) disease of rice and is widely used as a resistance donor. The present study was carried out to decipher the genetics of BB resistance in Ajaya and map the gene(s) conferring resistance. Genetic analysis in the F2 indicated a quantitative/additive nature of resistance governed by two loci with equal effects. Linked marker analysis and allelic tests revealed that one of the resistance genes is xa5. Sequence analysis of a 244 bp region of the second exon of the gene-encoding Transcription factor IIAγ (the candidate gene for xa5) confirmed the presence of xa5. Bulked-segregant analysis (BSA) revealed the putative location of the two quantitative trait loci (QTLs)/genes associated with resistance on chromosomes 5 and 8. Composite interval mapping located the first locus on Chr. 5S exactly in the genomic region spanned by xa5 and the second locus (qtl BBR 8.1) on Chr. 8L. Owing to its differential disease reaction with a set of seven hyper-virulent isolates of Xanthomonas oryzae, a map location on Chr. 8L, which was distinct from xa13 and data from allelism tests, the second resistance locus in Ajaya was determined to be novel and was designated as xaAj. A contig map spanning xaAj was constructed in silico and the genomic region was delimited to a 13·5 kb physical interval. In silico analysis of the genomic region spanning xaAj identified four putatively expressed candidate genes, one of which could be involved in imparting BB resistance in Ajaya along with xa5.
The importance of nanodiamond in biological and technological applications has been recognized, and applied in drug delivery, biochip, sensors and biosensors. Nanodiamond (ND) and nitrogen doped nanodiamond (NND) films were deposited on n-type silicon films, and later functionalized with enzyme glucose oxidase (GOX). Functionalized electrode has been characterized using different techniques; i.e.fourier transform spectroscopy (FTIR) -, Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electrochemical techniques, respectively. Under this work, the ND/GOX and NND/GOX electrodes have demonstrated providing sensitive glucose concentration response. Besides, the cytotoxic effects of the NDs have been studied in vitro. Human Embryonic Kidney 293 (HEK293) cells are cultured in the presence of the films then toxicity has been detected using MTT-based cytotoxicity assays utilizing 3-(4, 5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2, 5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT). The final results for MTT assays are quantified by spectrophotometry using a plate reader at 570 nm As-prepared nanodiamond has been found to be stable , biocompatible and useful for biosensing applications. A linear response of the enzyme based electrode to glucose concentration is also observed from 1-8 x mM before saturation condition close to 10mM has been observed.
Dilute Magnetic Semiconductors (DMS) are a rare group of promising materials that utilize both the electronic charge - a characteristic of semiconductor materials - and the electronic spin - a characteristic of magnetic materials. Oxide based DMS show promise of ferromagnetism (FM) at room temperature. It has been found that doping metal oxides such as ZnO, TiO2, and In2O3 with magnetic ions such as Fe, Co, Mn, and Cr produces DMS, which exhibit FM above room temperature. In2O3, a transparent opto-electronic material, is an interesting prospect for spintronics due to a unique combination of magnetic, electrical, and optical properties. High quality thin films of rare earth magnetic gadolinium (Gd) doped oxide-based DMS materials have been grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique on various substrates such as single crystal of sapphire (001) and quartz under suitable growth conditions of substrate temperature and oxygen pressure in the PLD chamber. The effect of rare earth magnetic doping on the structural and electro - magnetic properties of these films has been studied using Raman Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and Magneto - Transport. An X- ray diffraction study reveals that these films are single phase and highly oriented. Characteristic Raman peaks typical of indium oxide are observed at 496 and 627 cm−1. We have observed high magnetoresistance (∼18 %) at a relatively small field of 1.3 Tesla for the films with 10 % gadolinium. A detailed study of temperature and magnetic field dependent resistivity, magnetoresistance, and Hall Effect will be presented.
Al/PS junctions are non-rectifying and quasi-linear whereas Al/PS/c-Si junctions are weakly rectifying. The rectifying behavior is due to PS/c-Si heterojunction. The diode ideality factor (n) is about 8 for bias ≤0.5 V (about 50 for bias ≤5 V) at forward bias and nearly 1 for ≤0.5 V at reverse bias. As the temperature decreases, n at both forward and reverse biases increases. Different current transport mechanisms are found to be operating across the PS/c-Si junctions under forward and reverse biases. The barrier height measured from I-V data for ≤0.5 V is higher for forward bias than that for reverse bias. For high reverse biases (>5 V), the reverse current increases slowly following In(I)∝ V1/2 law. I-V results on PS/c-Si junctions are explained by a multi tunneling-recombination model for forward bias while carrier generation-recombination and barrier lowering effects for reverse bias.
The dark conductivity (σd) has been measured from 300 to 440K on undoped hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) films having different thicknesses. The carrier transport is found to be thermally activated with single activation energy (Ea) in all the samples. The Ea increases as the film thickness decreases. At the same time logarithmic of dark conductivity prefactor (σo) is found to follow a linear relation with activation energy, known as the Meyer-Neldel rule (MNR). Results are explained in terms of increased degree of disorder in thinner samples. Thus change in Ea with the film thickness is directly related to the density of localized states at the Fermi level in grain boundary (GB). Therefore varying the film thickness and, hence, the exponential density of states induces a statistical shift of Fermi level which gives rise to the observed MNR.
Pulsed laser deposition technique was used to fabricate SrBi2Ta2O9 (SBT) thin films with partial replacement of penta-valent vanadium ion. In this report, we have doped certain concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15 %) of vanadium at Ta-site of SBT thin films and study their influence on the structural and electrical characteristics. Thin films were grown on platinized silicon substrates using an excimer laser (KrF, 248 nm) with an energy density of ∼ 2.5 J/cm2. Xray diffraction studies confirmed the c-axis suppression of the films at lower processing temperature and at higher annealing temperatures. The decrease in the lattice parameter with vanadium doping was attributed to the smaller ionic radii of vanadium in comparison to Ta. Raman modes of SBT thin films shifted to higher frequencies upon vanadium incorporation at Ta-site. The extra Raman mode observed around ∼860 cm-1, was attributed due to the octahedron stretching vibration in the presence of vanadium at the center of octahedral cage. SBT thin films with 5% V doping exhibit enhanced ferroelectric properties, and the ferroelectric properties were degraded for higher vanadium concentration. The SBT thin films show dielectric constant of about ∼258 with tangential loss of 0.02 at a frequency of 100 kHz. Dielectric constant decreases with increase in V-concentration and attributed to the interdiffusion of bismuth into platinum electrode. The leakage current density of the films was also increased upon vanadium incorporation in SBT thin films.
A brief overview of the research activities at the Thermionic Energy Conversion (TEC) Center is given. The goal is to achieve direct thermal to electric energy conversion with >20% efficiency and >1W/cm2 power density at a hot side temperature of 300–650C. Thermionic emission in both vacuum and solid-state devices is investigated. In the case of solid-state devices, hot electron filtering using heterostructure barriers is used to increase the thermoelectric power factor. In order to study electron transport above the barriers and lateral momentum conservation in thermionic emission process, the current-voltage characteristic of ballistic transistor structures is investigated. Embedded ErAs nanoparticles and metal/semiconductor multilayers are used to reduce the lattice thermal conductivity. Cross-plane thermoelectric properties and the effective ZT of the thin film are analyzed using the transient Harman technique. Integrated circuit fabrication techniques are used to transfer the n- and p-type thin films on AlN substrates and make power generation modules with hundreds of thin film elements. For vacuum devices, nitrogen-doped diamond and carbon nanotubes are studied for emitters. Sb-doped highly oriented diamond and low electron affinity AlGaN are investigated for collectors. Work functions below 1.6eV and vacuum thermionic power generation at temperatures below 700C have been demonstrated.
Highly conducting and transparent Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films, which are oriented along c-axis and have wurtzite structure, were grown on quartz substrate at low temperature by pulsed laser deposition. The techniques of x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), optical transmission spectroscopy (OTS), electrical resistivity, and Hall Effect were used to study the effect of growth temperature and oxygen pressure on the structural, electrical transport, and optical properties of these films. The optical transparency in all the films is high and does not change much with oxygen pressure and growth temperature. However, electrical parameters such as resistivity, carrier concentration, and mobility strongly depend on both oxygen pressure and growth temperature. The temperature dependence resistivity measurement indicates semiconducting behavior of all the films. A detailed study indicates that the films which are highly conducting and transparent correspond to an optimum temperature of 200 °C and an oxygen pressure of 5 × 10−7 bar. Higher transmittance of the AZO films compared with pure ZnO and ITO and comparable mobility make us to suggest that Al-doped ZnO is an excellent material for optoelectronic applications.
Transparent conducting oxides (TCO) have been widely used for opto-electronic devices such as light emitting diodes, photo-detectors, touch panels, flat panel displays, and solar cells. Low resistivity, high mobility, and good transparency are the prime requirements for these devices. There is an increasing interest in TCO with high mobility to decrease their electrical resistivity without a significant decrease in the optical transparency. Highly conducting and transparent tungsten doped indium oxide thin films were deposited on quartz substrate by ablating the sintered In2O3 target containing WO3 with a KrF excimer laser (λ = 248 nm and pulsed duration of 20 ns). The effect of growth temperature and oxygen pressure on structural, optical, and electrical properties has been studied. The transparency of the films largely depends on the growth temperature. The electrical properties are found to depend strongly on the growth temperature as well as on oxygen pressure. The temperature dependence resistivity measurement shows the transition from semiconductor to metallic behavior as the growth temperature increases from room temperature to 500 °C. The high mobility (up to 358 cm2V−1s−1), low resistivity (1.1 × 10−4 Ω.cm), and relatively high transmittance of ∼90 % have been observed on the optimized film grown at 500 °C and under oxygen pressure at 1 × 10−6 bar.
We performed a retrospective cohort study (n = 129) to assess whether residents of extended care facilities who were initially colonized or infected with the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain USA300 were less likely to have prolonged colonization than were residents colonized or infected with other MRSA strains. We found no difference in prolonged colonization (adjusted odds ratio, 1.1 [95% confidence interval, 0.5–2.4]).
Understanding local perceptions of disease causation could help public health officials improve strategies to prevent bloody diarrhoea. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Dhaka, Bangladesh to elicit community beliefs about the causes of and prevention strategies for bloody diarrhoea. Between March and June 2003, we interviewed 541 randomly selected respondents. Overall, 507 (93%) respondents perceived that a vaccine could prevent bloody diarrhoea. If a vaccine provided lifetime protection, 445 (83%) respondents stated that they would opt to get the vaccine and would pay a median of $0·05 (range U.S.$0·01–0·15) for it, equivalent to <1% of their median weekly income. There was almost universal perception that an effective vaccine to prevent bloody diarrhoea was highly beneficial and acceptable. While respondents valued a vaccine for prevention of bloody diarrhoea, they were only willing to pay minimally for it. Therefore, achieving a high rate of Shigella vaccine coverage may require subsidy of vaccine purchase.
Five new species of Cryptothecia: C. alboglauca, C. bengalensis, C. farinosa, C. multipunctata and C. verruculifera, and two new species of Herpothallon: H. granulosum and H. isidiatum are described from India. Herpothallon australasicum (Elix) Elix & G. Thor and H. granulare (Sipman) Aptroot & Lücking are also reported as new records.
The anterior nares are the most sensitive single site for detecting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization. Colonization patterns of USA300 MRSA colonization are unknown.
To assess whether residents of extended care facilities who are colonized with USA300 MRSA have different nares or skin colonization findings, compared with residents who are colonized with non-USA300 MRSA strains.
The study population included residents of 5 extended care units in 3 separate facilities who had a recent history of MRSA colonization. Specimens were obtained weekly for surveillance cultures from the anterior nares, perineum, axilla, and skin breakdown (if present) for 3 weeks. MRSA isolates were categorized as USA300 MRSA or non-USA300 MRSA.
Of the 193 residents who tested positive for MRSA, 165 were colonized in the anterior nares, and 119 were colonized on their skin. Eighty-four percent of USA300 MRSA-colonized residents had anterior nares colonization, compared with 86% of residents colonized with non-USA300 MRSA (P = .80). Sixty-six percent of USA300 MRSA–colonized residents were colonized on the skin, compared with 59% of residents colonized with non-USA300 MRSA (P = .30).
Colonization patterns of USA300 MRSA and non-USA300 MRSA are similar in residents of extended care facilities. Anterior nares cultures will detect most—but not all—people who are colonized with MRSA, regardless of whether it is USA300 or non-USA300 MRSA.
During 22–24 August 2004, an outbreak of Shigella sonnei infection affected air travellers who departed from Hawaii. Forty-seven passengers with culture-confirmed shigellosis and 116 probable cases who travelled on 12 flights dispersed to Japan, Australia, 22 US states, and American Samoa. All flights were served by one caterer. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of all 29 S. sonnei isolates yielded patterns that matched within one band. Food histories and menu reviews identified raw carrot served onboard as the likely vehicle of infection. Attack rates for diarrhoea on three surveyed flights with confirmed cases were 54% (110/204), 32% (20/63), and 12% (8/67). A total of 2700 meals were served on flights with confirmed cases; using attack rates observed on surveyed flights, we estimated that 300–1500 passengers were infected. This outbreak illustrates the risk of rapid, global spread of illness from a point-source at a major airline hub.