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Elevated lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is associated with CVD and is mainly genetically determined. Studies suggest a role of dietary fatty acids (FA) in the regulation of Lp(a); however, no studies have investigated the association between plasma Lp(a) concentration and n-6 FA. We aimed to investigate whether plasma Lp(a) concentration was associated with dietary n-6 FA intake and plasma levels of arachidonic acid (AA) in subjects with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH). We included FH subjects with (n 68) and without (n 77) elevated Lp(a) defined as ≥75 nmol/l and healthy subjects (n 14). Total FA profile was analysed by GC–flame ionisation detector analysis, and the daily intake of macronutrients (including the sum of n-6 FA: 18 : 2n-6, 20 : 2n-6, 20 : 3n-6 and 20 : 4n-6) were computed from completed FFQ. FH subjects with elevated Lp(a) had higher plasma levels of AA compared with FH subjects without elevated Lp(a) (P = 0·03). Furthermore, both FH subjects with and without elevated Lp(a) had higher plasma levels of AA compared with controls (P < 0·001). The multivariable analyses showed associations between dietary n-6 FA intake and plasma levels of AA (P = 0·02) and between plasma levels of Lp(a) and AA (P = 0·006). Our data suggest a novel link between plasma Lp(a) concentration, dietary n-6 FA and plasma AA concentration, which may explain the small diet-induced increase in Lp(a) levels associated with lifestyle changes. Although the increase may not be clinically relevant, this association may be mechanistically interesting in understanding more of the role and regulation of Lp(a).
Measurements of local plasma parameters in dusty plasma are crucial for understanding
the physics issues related to such systems. The Langmuir probe, a small electrode
immersed in the plasma, provides such measurements. However, designing of a Langmuir
probe system in a dusty plasma environment demands special consideration. First, the
probe has to be miniaturized enough so that its perturbation on the ambient dust
structure is minimal. At the same time, the probe dimensions must be such that a
well-defined theory exists for interpretation of its characteristics. The associated
instrumentation must also support the measurement of current collected by the probe
with high signal to noise ratio. The most important consideration, of course, comes
from the fact that the probes are prone to dust contamination, as the dust particles
tend to stick to the probe surface and alter the current collecting area in
unpredictable ways. This article describes the design and operation of a Langmuir
probe system that resolves these challenging issues in dusty plasma. In doing so,
first, different theories that are used to interpret the probe characteristics in
collisionless as well as in collisional regimes are discussed, with special emphasis
on application. The critical issues associated with the current–voltage
characteristics of Langmuir probe obtained in different operating regimes are
discussed. Then, an algorithm for processing these characteristics efficiently in
presence of ion-neutral collisions in the probe sheath is presented.
The Proterozoic Sushina Hill Complex is the only agpaitic complex, reported from India and is characterized by a eudialyte-rinkite-bearing nepheline syenite. The complex is considered a ‘metamorphosed agpaitic complex'. This study describes the mineral assemblages formed during successive stages of evolution from magmatic to hydrothermal stages and low-temperature subsolidus re-equilibration assemblage. The primary-late magmatic assemblage is characterized by albite, orthoclase, unaltered nepheline, zoned diopside-hedenbergite, rinkite, late magmatic eudialyte and magnesio-arfvedsonite formed at ∼700°C with maximum aSiO2 of 0.60. In contrast, a deuteric assemblage (400-348°C) is represented by aegirine-jadeite-rich clinopyroxene, post-magmatic eudialyte, sodalite, analcime and the decomposition assemblages formed after eudialyte with decreasing aSiO2 (0.52-0.48). A further low-temperature subsolidus assemblage (≤250°C) represented by late-forming natrolite could be either related to regressive stages of metamorphism or a continuum of the subsolidus processes. Considering the P/T range of the greenschist - lower-amphibolite facies of metamorphism it is evident that the incorporation of a jadeite component within pyroxene is related to a subsolidus process between ∼400°C and 348°C in a silica deficient environment. We emphasize that the deuteric fluid itself acted as an agent of metamorphism and the decomposition assemblage formed after eudialyte is retained even after metamorphism due to the convergence of subsolidus and metamorphic domains. The formation of jadeite-rich aegirine is not considered to result from metamorphism. Overall it is near-impossible to discern any bona fide metamorphic textures or mineral assemblages in these syenites which appear to preserve a relict mineralogy regardless of their occurrence in country rocks which have experienced greenschist - amphibolite facies metamorphism. The Sushina complex is very similar in this respect to the Norra Kärr complex (Sweden).
In a quasineutral plasma, electrons undergo collective oscillations, known as plasma oscillations, when perturbed locally. The oscillations propagate due to finite temperature effects. However, the wave can lose the phase coherence between constituting oscillators in an inhomogeneous plasma (phase mixing) because of the dependence of plasma oscillation frequency on plasma density. The longitudinal electric field associated with the wave may be used to accelerate electrons to high energies by exciting large amplitude wave. However when the maximum amplitude of the wave is reached that plasma can sustain, the wave breaks. The phenomena of wave breaking and phase mixing have applications in plasma heating and particle acceleration. For detailed experimental investigation of these phenomena a new device, inverse mirror plasma experimental device (IMPED), has been designed and fabricated. The detailed considerations taken before designing the device, so that different aspects of these phenomena can be studied in a controlled manner, are described. Specifications of different components of the IMPED machine and their flexibility aspects in upgrading, if necessary, are discussed. Initial results meeting the prerequisite condition of the plasma for such study, such as a quiescent, collisionless and uniform plasma, are presented. The machine produces δnnoise/n ⩽ 1%, Luniform ~ 120 cm at argon filling pressure of ~10−4 mbar and axial magnetic field of B = 1090 G.
The present article reviews the historical and popular uses of garlic, its antioxidant, haematological, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective and antineoplastic properties and its potential toxicity (from sulfoxide). Garlic has been suggested to affect several cardiovascular risk factors. It has also been shown that garlic and its organic allyl sulfur components are effective inhibitors of the cancer process. Since garlic and its constituents can suppress carcinogen formation, bioactivation and tumour proliferation, it is imperative that biomarkers be established to identify which individuals might benefit most. Garlic powder, aged garlic and garlic oil have demonstrated antiplatelet and anticoagulant effects by interfering with cyclo-oxygenase-mediated thromboxane synthesis. Garlic has also been found to have synergistic effects against Helicobacter pylori with a proton pump inhibitor. The active compound allicin may affect atherosclerosis not only by acting as an antioxidant, but also by other mechanisms, such as lipoprotein modification and inhibition of LDL uptake and degradation by macrophages. Freshly prepared garlic homogenate protects against isoniazid+rifampicin-induced liver injury in experimental animal models. Several mechanisms are likely to account for this protection.
We report a study of the electrical and optical properties of thin films of tetraanilinobenzene (TAB) and polyaniline (PANI) deposited using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB), layer-by-layer selfassembly and vacuum-evaporation techniques. The paper will mainly concentrate on TAB LB films, but also results for other films are presented for comparison. The optical studies of undoped TAB LB films indicate H-aggregates. Upon doping new polaronic absorption bands appear and the photoluminescence of TAB becomes quenched. Doped LB and self-assembled films can reach conductivities up to about 10−4/cm for TAB and a few S/cm for PANT. The conductivity has a temperature dependence logσ α T−1/2, suggesting variable-range hopping in a quasi-gap, possibly due to the Coulomb interactions between localized carriers.
Highly transparent films with tailorable sheet resistivity were prepared by ion-beam sputtering of indium tin oxide (ITO) with MgF2 or SiO2 in the presence of high-purity air. Sheet resistivities of 103−101 ohms/square (ω/–) and visible transmittances as high as 92% (not corrected for substrate absorption) were obtained in films ∼30 nm thick. Resistivity increased by as much as two orders of magnitude in the first year after preparation; however, thicker films (e.g. 80 nm) were much more stable but somewhat less transparent. Preliminary data from exposure of film samples to atomic oxygen in a plasma asher indicate minimal degradation in optical properties. Heat-treating pure ITO in air produced transparent, slightly conductive films but with poorer stability of sheet resistivity in air than co-deposited ITO with either SiO2, or MgF2. Electrical transport measurements yielded new information on the electronic properties of ITO and related materials. These films show promise as low-absorption static bleedoff coatings for space photovoltaic arrays as well as CRT faceplates and other commercial applications.
Over a 2-year period, 25 families comprising of 181 individuals of all ages were longitudinally observed for the excretion of Campylobacter species. Faecal samples were taken from all persons with diarrhoea. Specimens were also taken from apparently healthy individuals and from domestic animals living within the confines of the study families at monthly intervals.
The overall diarrhoea attack rate was 19 episodes per 100 person-years with peak incidence in the 1- to 4-year-old age group (76/100 person-years). Eight (11·5%) of the total episodes were campylobacter-associated and the overall rate of campylobacter positive diarrhoeal episodes were 2·2 per 100 person-years. Of the 1002 stool samples from healthy individuals 32 (3·2/100 samples) were positive for campylobacter. The organism was most frequently isolated from children under 1 year of age both during diarrhoeal episodes (11·5 per 100 person-years) and non-diarrhoeal (11·1 per 100 samples). Multiple infections in a family were rare. In 19·4% of the occasions one or more animals were campylobacter positive. However, only in 7·7% of these occasions was a human infection recorded within 1 month after the animal was found to be positive.
The study showed that the epidemiology of campylobacteriosis in this community was distinct compared to that observed in developed countries.
We investigated two sequential outbreaks of severe diarrhoea in two neighbouring villages of Orissa, in 2005. We conducted descriptive and matched case-control studies. The attack rates were 5·6% (n=62) and 5·2% (n=51), respectively, in the first and second villages. One death was reported in the second village (case fatality 2%). We identified that consumption of milk products prepared in the household of the index case [matched odds ratio (mOR) 5·7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·7–30] in the first village, and drinking well water in the second village were associated with the illness (mOR 4·7, 95% CI 1·6–19). We isolated Vibrio cholerae El Tor O1 Ogawa from stool samples from both the villages. Mishandling of milk products led to a cholera outbreak in the first village, which led to sewerage contamination of a well and another outbreak in the second village. Environmental contamination should be expected and prevented during cholera outbreaks.
Nowadays there has been a growing consciousness among the tea industry to reduce
the use of the chemical pesticides for pest control. Predators are beneficial insects that feed on
harmful insects and mites, which incur considerable loss of production of tea. In this paper we
have considered a tritrophic model consisting of tea plant, pest and predator to analyze different
field observations. The effect of discrete time-delay on the tritrophic model is studied critically.
The dynamical behaviours are studied both analytically and numerically by computer simulation.
Our results suggest some theoretical measures which may be implemented for successful biological
An epidemiological study was carried out to find out the aetiological agent for diarrhoeal disorders in the cyclone and flood affected areas of Orissa, India. Rectal swabs collected from 107 hospitalized diarrhoea patients were bacteriologically analysed to isolate and identify the various enteropathogens. Detection of toxic genes among E. coli and V. cholerae was carried out by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Of the 107 rectal swabs analysed, 72·3% were positive for V. cholerae O1 Ogawa, 7·2% for V. cholerae O139, 1·2% for E. coli (EAggEC) and 1·2% for Shigella flexneri type 6. Using multiplex PCR assay it was found that all V. cholerae isolates were ctxA positive and El Tor biotype. Strains of V. cholerae O1 were observed to be resistant to nalidixic acid, furazolidone, streptomycin, co-trimoxazole and ampicillin. Except for nalidixic acid, the resistance pattern for O139 was identical to that of O1 strains. Representative strains of V. cholerae were further characterized by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis and ribotyping. Both O1 and O139 V. cholerae strains exhibited the R3 pattern of ribotype and belonged to a similar pattern of RAPD compared with that of Calcutta strains. Early bacteriological and epidemiological investigations have revealed the dominance of V. cholerae O1 among the hospitalized patients in cyclone affected areas of Orissa. Drinking water scarcity and poor sanitation were thought to be responsible for these diarrhoeal outbreaks. Timely reporting and implementation of appropriate control measures could contain a vital epidemic in this area.
Knowledge of the orientation of facet joints in the cervical and upper thoracic region is important for
understanding the biomechanical properties and clinical conditions relevant to the neck. The study was
undertaken on dry macerated bones from 30 adult male human vertebral columns. The orientation of the
superior articular facets in relation to their inclination with the sagittal and transverse planes was examined
between C3 and T3 vertebrae in each column. The linear dimensions of the superior articular facets and the
width/height ratio were also calculated. The results show that all vertebrae at C3 level and 73% at C4 level
displayed posteromedially facing superior articular facets. Similarly at T1 level (C7/T1 joint) and below, all
columns showed posterolaterally facing superior articular facets. The level of change in orientation, from
posteromedial to posterolateral facing superior facets, was not constant and occurred anywhere between C4
(C3/C4 joint) and T1 (C7/T1 joint). The change in orientation followed 2 different patterns, i.e. sudden or
gradual. The C6 vertebra (C5/C6 joint) was the most frequent site to show the transition. The shape of the
superior articular facets was circular to oval at C3, C4 and C5 levels and gradually changed to a
transversely elongated surface at C7 and T1. These findings correlate well with various cervical movements
and associated clinical conditions.
There are two different views regarding the genesis of gibbsite in tropical acid soils: (1) direct weathering of primary Al-silicate minerals; and (2) transformation through clay mineral intermediates. We investigated the genesis of gibbsite in two representative Ultisols from northeastern India. Gibbsite in these Ultisols appears to be the remnant of earlier weathering products of aluminosilicate minerals formed in a neutral to alkaline pedochemical environment. The mere presence of gibbsite in these soils, therefore, does not indicate their advanced stage of weathering. The formation of typically rod-shaped and well-crystallized gibbsite in both the coarse and fine soil fractions in the presence of large amounts of 2:1 minerals indicates that the anti-gibbsite hypothesis may not be tenable in these tropical acid soils. A schematic model for the formation of gibbsite and kaolin in Ultisols is proposed.
Semiconducting Bi1−xPbxBaO3−δ (or BPB) glasses with x = 0 to 0.8 have been prepared by fast quenching from the melt. Interesting anomalies in the temperature-dependent polaronic conductivity and dielectric constant have been observed in all these glass compositions at temperatures, Tp, varying from 310 to 330 K (depending on Pb concentration). This nonlinear behavior is considered to be associated with the local ordering or the displacements of the BiO3 type pyramidal structural units present in the glass matrix (observed from the infrared spectra of these glasses). This type of ordering/displacement gives rise to a local instability in the glass network structure which is also supported by the observed heat capacity anomaly around the same temperatures Tp.
The uredinial stage of Skierka agallocha was detected
leaves of Excoecaria agallocha, collected for the first time from
the Sundarbans during 1992. This communication deals with light microscope
and scanning electron microscope characters of this mangrove rust.
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