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Our knowledge of ontogenetic development and reproductive biology in lichen-forming fungi is rather poor. Here, we aim to advance our understanding of the reproductive biology of Parmelina carporrhizans and P. quercina for which mycobiont fungi of both species were cultured in aposymbiotic conditions from ascospores. For P. carporrhizans 48 hours were necessary for 98·6% of apothecia to eject spores, while for P. quercina 100% of apothecia ejected spores in the first 24 hours. In P. quercina, large apothecia ejected more spores than smaller ones. In both species the percentage of spores germinating seemed independent of apothecium size. The percentage germination was higher in P. carporrhizans (72·4%) than in P. quercina (14·3%). Moreover, P. carporrhizans was grown more successfully on culture media than P. quercina. These results suggest that these species have different reproductive strategies, given that P. carporrhizans expels larger spores and in greater numbers than P. quercina as well as having different nutritional requirements (since P. carporrhizans grew successfully in the selected media but P. quercina did not). These characteristics may explain the sympatric speciation of these species.
Morphological and chemical studies of Hypogymnia from the Himalayas revealed one new species, three species new to the region, and a previously unrecognized synonym. Hypogymnia crystallina, distinguished by its rimmed holes in the lobe axils, a pruinose disc, POL+ epihymenium, and distinctive chemistry (zeorin, hypoprotocetraric acid, usnic acid and atranorin) is described as new. Hypogymnia pseudohypotrypa (Asah.) A. Singh is synonymized with H. thomsoniana and a second location is reported for the recently described H. sikkimensis. Hypogymnia bitteri, H. mundata, and H. subarticulata are reported as new to India. A total of 17 species of the genus Hypogymnia are accepted for the Himalayan region of India and Nepal, with one additional species from southern India. A key is given to the species known from this region.
The cetrarioid core group has been the focus of numerous taxonomic and phylogenetic studies in recent years, yet the phylogenetic resolution and support among these clades remains unclear. Here we use four commonly employed loci to estimate if their use increases phylogenetic resolution and support. The present study largely confirms the topologies of previous studies, but with increased support. Approximately half of the genera in the cetrarioid core were not monophyletic. Melanelia sorediella was clustered within Cetrariella, and the combination Cetrariella sorediella (Lettau) V. J. Rico & A. Thell comb. nov. is made. Additionally, the genus Flavocetrariella was supported as part of Nephromopsis and is considered to be a synonym of the latter. Finally, a comparison of genetic distances shows that the maximum intrageneric genetic distance encompassed by many cetrarioid genera is lower than that of many other genera in Parmeliaceae.
The paper deals with six species of Parmotrema from India. Parmotrema awasthii Divakar & Upreti and Parmotrema upretii Divakar are described as new to science. Parmotrema defectum (Hale) Hale, P. ravum (Krog & Swinscow) Sérus., P. stuhlmannii (C.W. Dodge) Krog & Swinscow and P. tsavoense (Krog & Swinscow) Krog & Swinscow, are new records for the Indian lichen flora.
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