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To aid in preparation of military medic trainers for a possible new curriculum in teaching junctional tourniquet use, the investigators studied the time to control hemorrhage and blood volume lost in order to provide evidence for ease of use.
Models of junctional tourniquet could perform differentially by blood loss, time to hemostasis, and user preference.
In a laboratory experiment, 30 users controlled simulated hemorrhage from a manikin (Combat Ready Clamp [CRoC] Trainer) with three iterations each of three junctional tourniquets. There were 270 tests which included hemorrhage control (yes/no), time to hemostasis, and blood volume lost. Users also subjectively ranked tourniquet performance. Models included CRoC, Junctional Emergency Treatment Tool (JETT), and SAM Junctional Tourniquet (SJT). Time to hemostasis and total blood loss were log-transformed and analyzed using a mixed model analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the users represented as random effects and the tourniquet model used as the treatment effect. Preference scores were analyzed with ANOVA, and Tukey’s honest significant difference test was used for all post-hoc pairwise comparisons.
All tourniquet uses were 100% effective for hemorrhage control. For blood loss, CRoC and SJT performed best with least blood loss and were significantly better than JETT; in pairwise comparison, CRoC-JETT (P < .0001) and SJT-JETT (P = .0085) were statistically significant in their mean difference, while CRoC-SJT (P = .35) was not. For time to hemostasis in pairwise comparison, the CRoC had a significantly shorter time compared to JETT and SJT (P < .0001, both comparisons); SJT-JETT was also significant (P = .0087). In responding to the directive, “Rank the performance of the models from best to worst,” users did not prefer junctional tourniquet models differently (P > .5, all models).
The CRoC and SJT performed best in having least blood loss, CRoC performed best in having least time to hemostasis, and users did not differ in preference of model. Models of junctional tourniquet performed differentially by blood loss and time to hemostasis.
KraghJFJr, LunatiMP, KharodCU, CunninghamCW, BaileyJA, StockingerZT, CapAP, ChenJ, AdenJK3d, CancioLC. Assessment of Groin Application of Junctional Tourniquets in a Manikin Model. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(4):358–363.
Findings from family and twin studies support a genetic contribution to the development of sexual orientation in men. However, previous studies have yielded conflicting evidence for linkage to chromosome Xq28.
We conducted a genome-wide linkage scan on 409 independent pairs of homosexual brothers (908 analyzed individuals in 384 families), by far the largest study of its kind to date.
We identified two regions of linkage: the pericentromeric region on chromosome 8 (maximum two-point LOD = 4.08, maximum multipoint LOD = 2.59), which overlaps with the second strongest region from a previous separate linkage scan of 155 brother pairs; and Xq28 (maximum two-point LOD = 2.99, maximum multipoint LOD = 2.76), which was also implicated in prior research.
Results, especially in the context of past studies, support the existence of genes on pericentromeric chromosome 8 and chromosome Xq28 influencing development of male sexual orientation.
We utilized the new high-order (250-378 mode) Magellan Adaptive Optics system (MagAO) to obtain very high-resolution science in the visible with MagAO's VisAO CCD camera. In the good-median seeing conditions of Magellan (0.5–0.7″) we find MagAO delivers individual short exposure images as good as 19 mas optical resolution. Due to telescope vibrations, long exposure (60s) r' (0.63μm) images are slightly coarser at FWHM = 23-29 mas (Strehl ~ 28%) with bright (R < 9 mag) guide stars. These are the highest resolution filled-aperture images published to date. Images of the young (~ 1 Myr) Orion Trapezium θ1 Ori A, B, and C cluster members were obtained with VisAO. In particular, the 32 mas binary θ1 Ori C1C2 was easily resolved in non-interferometric images for the first time. Relative positions of the bright trapezium binary stars were measured with ~ 0.6–5 mas accuracy. In the second commissioning run we were able to correct 378 modes and achieved good contrasts (Strehl>20% on young transition disks at Hα). We discuss the contrasts achieved at Hα and the possibility of detecting low mass (~ 1–5 Mjup) planets (past 5AU) with our new SAPPHIRES survey with MagAO at Hα.
PILOT (the Pathfinder for an International Large Optical Telescope) is a proposed 2.5-m optical/infrared telescope to be located at Dome C on the Antarctic plateau. The atmospheric conditions at Dome C deliver a high sensitivity, high photometric precision, wide-field, high spatial resolution, and high-cadence imaging capability to the PILOT telescope. These capabilities enable a unique scientific potential for PILOT, which is addressed in this series of papers. The current paper presents a series of projects dealing with the nearby Universe that have been identified as key science drivers for the PILOT facility. Several projects are proposed that examine stellar populations in nearby galaxies and stellar clusters in order to gain insight into the formation and evolution processes of galaxies and stars. A series of projects will investigate the molecular phase of the Galaxy and explore the ecology of star formation, and investigate the formation processes of stellar and planetary systems. Three projects in the field of exoplanet science are proposed: a search for free-floating low-mass planets and dwarfs, a program of follow-up observations of gravitational microlensing events, and a study of infrared light-curves for previously discovered exoplanets. Three projects are also proposed in the field of planetary and space science: optical and near-infrared studies aimed at characterising planetary atmospheres, a study of coronal mass ejections from the Sun, and a monitoring program searching for small-scale Low Earth Orbit satellite debris items.
PILOT (the Pathfinder for an International Large Optical Telescope) is a proposed 2.5-m optical/infrared telescope to be located at Dome C on the Antarctic plateau. Conditions at Dome C are known to be exceptional for astronomy. The seeing (above ∼30 m height), coherence time, and isoplanatic angle are all twice as good as at typical mid-latitude sites, while the water-vapour column, and the atmosphere and telescope thermal emission are all an order of magnitude better. These conditions enable a unique scientific capability for PILOT, which is addressed in this series of papers. The current paper presents an overview of the optical and instrumentation suite for PILOT and its expected performance, a summary of the key science goals and observational approach for the facility, a discussion of the synergies between the science goals for PILOT and other telescopes, and a discussion of the future of Antarctic astronomy. Paper II and Paper III present details of the science projects divided, respectively, between the distant Universe (i.e. studies of first light, and the assembly and evolution of structure) and the nearby Universe (i.e. studies of Local Group galaxies, the Milky Way, and the Solar System).
The cold, dry, and stable air above the summits of the Antarctic plateau provides the best ground-based observing conditions from optical to sub-millimetre wavelengths to be found on the Earth. Pathfinder for an International Large Optical Telescope (PILOT) is a proposed 2 m telescope, to be built at Dome C in Antarctica, able to exploit these conditions for conducting astronomy at optical and infrared wavelengths. While PILOT is intended as a pathfinder towards the construction of future grand-design facilities, it will also be able to undertake a range of fundamental science investigations in its own right. This paper provides the performance specifications for PILOT, including its instrumentation. It then describes the kinds of projects that it could best conduct. These range from planetary science to the search for other solar systems, from star formation within the Galaxy to the star formation history of the Universe, and from gravitational lensing caused by exo-planets to that produced by the cosmic web of dark matter. PILOT would be particularly powerful for wide-field imaging at infrared wavelengths, achieving near diffraction-limited performance with simple tip–tilt wavefront correction. PILOT would also be capable of near diffraction-limited performance in the optical wavebands, as well be able to open new wavebands for regular ground-based observation, in the mid-IR from 17 to 40 μm and in the sub-millimetre at 200 μm.
A survey of the Milky Way disk and the Magellanic System at the wavelengths of the 21-cm atomic hydrogen (H i) line and three 18-cm lines of the OH molecule will be carried out with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. The survey will study the distribution of H i emission and absorption with unprecedented angular and velocity resolution, as well as molecular line thermal emission, absorption, and maser lines. The area to be covered includes the Galactic plane (|b| < 10°) at all declinations south of δ = +40°, spanning longitudes 167° through 360°to 79° at b = 0°, plus the entire area of the Magellanic Stream and Clouds, a total of 13 020 deg2. The brightness temperature sensitivity will be very good, typically σT≃ 1 K at resolution 30 arcsec and 1 km s−1. The survey has a wide spectrum of scientific goals, from studies of galaxy evolution to star formation, with particular contributions to understanding stellar wind kinematics, the thermal phases of the interstellar medium, the interaction between gas in the disk and halo, and the dynamical and thermal states of gas at various positions along the Magellanic Stream.
Although several studies have reported that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment has demonstrable efficacy in patients with depression, the parameters needed to optimize therapeutic efficacy remain unclear. To this end we determined the efficacy of low-frequency right rTMS to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) compared to two forms of bilateral rTMS to the DLPFC: (1) sequential low-frequency right-sided followed by high-frequency left-sided rTMS and (2) sequential low-frequency rTMS to both hemispheres.
A total of 219 patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) were randomized to a 4-week course of rTMS applied with one of the three treatment conditions. Outcomes were assessed with standard rating scales.
Overall, slightly more than 50% of the patients achieved clinical response criteria. There was no substantial difference in response between the unilateral and bilateral treatment groups. Successful response to rTMS was predicted by a greater degree of baseline depression severity.
There is no substantial difference in efficacy between unilateral right-sided rTMS and the two forms of bilateral rTMS assessed in the study. Furthermore, our results call into question the specificity between frequency and laterality and rTMS response.
The purpose of the present study was to determine the dietary predictors of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area in overweight young adults. A total of 109 young adults (fifty males and fifty-nine females) ate ad libitum in a university cafeteria for 14 d. All food and beverages consumed in the cafeteria were measured using observer-recorded weighed plate waste. Food consumption outside the cafeteria (i.e. snacks) was assessed by multiple-pass 24 h recall procedures. VAT was determined using computed tomography. Stepwise regression demonstrated that the best predictor of visceral adiposity in women was total dietary fat (P ≤ 0·05). In men, the model for predicting visceral adiposity included Ca and total dietary fat. We concluded that total dietary fat is the best predictor of VAT area in both men and women. While this relationship was independent in women, in men there was a synergistic relationship between dietary fat consumption and Ca consumption in predicting VAT.
After the appearance of sporadic cases of enteritis due to Salmonella panama, baked ham from one supplier was implicated as the source of infection. No pathogenic organisms were isolated from the working surfaces of the factory involved or from samples of a day's bacon output, but S. panama was isolated from the factory sewers. Stool examinations of the 500 employees showed one man in the baked ham section to be excreting S. panama. He was removed from work and no further infections were reported from the district. The organism could no longer be found in the sewers.
Some weeks later, further infections were reported in the London and Southend areas, which could be traced to ham from the original source. Sewer swabs at the factory were again positive. A further examination of all the employees revealed three cases and 82 symptomless excretors. Eight of 192 family contacts were also found to be excretors. Trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole appeared to have no effect on the carrier state.
Examination of the hams in cold store showed some to be infected with S. panama, and a number of these had been consumed in the canteen.
Subsequent examination of pigs at slaughter and pig food prepared locally failed to isolate S. panama. The source of infection at the factory is unknown.
Certain health risks have been associated with recreational exposure to faecally polluted water. Canoeing in certain South African waters is considered to be a high risk activity with regard to schistosomiasis. gastroenteritis and possibly hepatitis. In a cross-sectional study, a serosurvey was conducted amongst canoeists to ascertain whether or not they had a higher seroprevalence to hepatitis A virus. Norwalk virus and Schistosoma spp. than non-canoeists. In comparisons between the two groups, a significant association could not be demonstrated between canoeing and antibody response to hepatitis A and Norwalk viruses (P-values for age-adjusted χ2 were 0·083 and 0·219 respectively), but a significant association could be demonstrated between canoeing and the antibody response to Schistosoma spp. (P > 0·001: age-adjusted).
The Nearby Supernova Factory aims at discovering and stud- ying
a large sample of nearby (0.03 < z < 0.08) thermonuclear
supernovae. Potential targets are extracted from the unbiased
Palomar-QUEST survey, and follow-up spectro-photometric observations
are performed using the dedicated Supernovae Integral-Field
Spectrograph. The current sample comprises more than 2700
flux-calibrated optical spectra (320-1000 nm) from 181 supernovæ
followed over their full life-time. Specific operation and
data-reduction issues are discussed, and first scientific results
from this unprecedented dataset are presented.
Late Tertiary-Quaternary volcanism around Calatrava, within the Hercynian massif of central Spain, is alkaline mafic-ultramafic, with ∼250 centres, mainly monogenetic cones and vents, with melilitite the most abundant eruptive. Carbonatite may be expected in association with melilitite and a clear example of magmatic carbonate emerged from a brief field reconnaissance. It is a vent filled with a mixed eruption of glassy melilitite lapilli in a carbonate matrix. Levels and profiles of trace elements are inseparable from recognized carbonatite, and totally unlike those in local sedimentary limestone and caliche. C and O isotopes are the same as those reported for carbonatite ashes in other provinces. Carbonate is present as globules in the melilitite glass, and as inclusions within large clinopyroxene and olivine grains, which are largely xenocrystic. Euhedral spinels in melilitite and carbonate matrix are chromite mantled with titano-magnetite, reported previously only from high-temperature kimberlite. Wehrlite fragments indicate direct eruption from the mantle. Phlogopite and chromian spinel are found only as inclusions in the olivine, pointing to a phlogopite-carbonate mantle source region of the type favoured for carbonatite and melilitite melt generation. Calatrava represents the most southerly and westerly expression in mainland Europe of intra-continental carbonatite-melilitite volcanism. Follow-up field visits have shown that carbonate volcanism is extensive and voluminous throughout the province, requiring a long-term research programme.
The mucosal immune system fulfils the primary function of defence against potential pathogens that may enter across vulnerable surface epithelia. However, a secondary function of the intestinal immune system is to discriminate between pathogen-associated and ‘harmless’ antigens, expressing active responses against the former and tolerance to the latter. Control of immune responses appears to be an active process, involving local generation of IgA and of regulatory and/or regulated T lymphocytes. Two important periods of maximum exposure to novel antigens occur in the young animal, immediately after birth and at weaning. In both cases the antigenic composition of the intestinal contents can shift suddenly, as a result of a novel diet and of colonisation by novel strains and species of bacteria. Changes in lifestyles of man, and husbandry of animals, have resulted in weaning becoming much more abrupt than previously in evolution, increasing the number of antigens that must be simultaneously evaluated by neonates. Thus, birth and weaning are likely to represent hazard and critical control points in the development of appropriate responses to pathogens and harmless dietary and commensal antigens. Neonates are born with relatively undeveloped mucosal immune systems. At birth this factor may prevent both expression of active immune responses and development of tolerance. However, colonisation by intestinal flora expands the mucosal immune system in antigen-specific and non-specific ways. At weaning antibody to fed proteins can be detected, indicating active immune responses to fed proteins. It is proposed that under normal conditions the ability of the mucosal immune system to mount active responses to foreign antigens develops simultaneously with the ability to control and regulate such responses. Problems arise when one or other arm of the immune system develops inappropriately, resulting in inappropriate effector responses to harmless food proteins (allergy) or inadequate responses to pathogens (disease susceptibility).
The fungus Pleospora papaveracea is a potential biocontrol agent for opium poppy. The objective of this study was to characterize the growth and production of propagules of P. papaveracea on various substrates and determine their infectivity on opium poppy. Pleospora papaveracea was grown on agar media containing wheat bran, corn cobs, soy fiber, cottonseed meal, rice flour, cornstarch, pectin, dextrin, or molasses, all with the addition of brewer's yeast (BY). Maximum radial growth of P. papaveracea occurred on molasses, soy fiber, and wheat bran media. Pleospora papaveracea produced chlamydospores on dextrin–BY and cornstarch–BY only. Pleospora papaveracea growth in liquid media with 1% (wt/v) dextrin, cornstarch, soy fiber, or wheat bran resulted in the production of greater than 106 colony-forming units (cfu) ml−1 within 3 to 5 d of incubation. Pleospora papaveracea produced less than 105 chlamydospores ml−1 after 10 d of incubation in wheat bran–BY and soy fiber–BY liquid media compared with the production of greater than 105 chlamydospores ml−1 after 5 d of incubation in dextrin–BY or cornstarch–BY liquid media. Fewer cfu were produced by P. papaveracea in 0.25% dextrin or 0.25 and 0.50% soy fiber liquid media than with 1 or 2% substrate. Greater than 107 chlamydospores g−1 dry weight and 108 cfu g−1 dry weight of P. papaveracea were produced in dextrin–BY liquid media in a commercial bench-top fermentor. After air drying biomass for 6 d, propagules of P. papaveracea remained infective on opium poppy. Mycelia and chlamydospores of P. papaveracea grew and formed appressoria during the infection process. Air-dried biomass, when rehydrated in 0.001% Tween 20, caused necrosis within 48 h after application to detached opium poppy leaves. At least 94% of the propagules from air-dried biomass that germinated and infected detached opium poppy leaves were of mycelial origin.
Greenhouse and laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the response of winter wheat, and two diclofop-methyl–sensitive (OR and KG) and four diclofop-methyl–resistant (EP, GT, RBG, and JB) Italian ryegrass biotypes to the experimental herbicide mixture AE F130060 03 (an 8.3:1.7 mixture of the experimental sulfonylurea herbicides AE F130060 00 and AE F115008 00). AE F130060 03 at 15 or 18 g ha−1 without the safener AE F107892 reduced biomass of winter wheat 10 to 14%, whereas applications made with AE F107892 did not reduce wheat biomass. AE F130060 03 at 15 or 18 g ai ha−1 was more effective than diclofop-methyl in reducing biomass of one diclofop-methyl–sensitive Italian ryegrass biotype and all four diclofop-methyl–resistant biotypes. However, differential responses to AE F130060 03 at 15 and 18 g ha−1 occurred among diclofop-methyl–resistant biotypes. AE F130060 03 at 15 or 18 g ha−1 reduced biomass of OR, KG, EP, and GT from 61 to 84% but reduced biomass of RBG and JB biotypes only 35 to 52%. Absorption, translocation, and metabolism experiments were conducted to further investigate differential response of diclofop-methyl–sensitive KG and diclofop-methyl–resistant JB to AE F130060 00. Absorption, translocation, and metabolism of AE F130060 00 in winter wheat treated with or without the herbicide safener AE F107892 were also included for comparison. Foliar absorption of [14C]AE F130060 00 was influenced only by plant species because Italian ryegrass biotypes absorbed at least three times more AE F130060 00 than did wheat 12, 36, and 72 h after treatment (HAT). No more than 9% of absorbed radioactivity translocated into shoots and roots of either species during the experiment. Greatest overall metabolism occurred in winter wheat treated with the safener AE F107892. Seventy-two HAT, relative amounts of parent AE F130060 00 in Italian ryegrass biotypes were nearly 1.8 times greater than that in wheat that received AE F107892 and nearly 1.5 times greater than that in unsafened wheat. However, obvious differences in herbicide metabolism between diclofop-methyl–sensitive KG and diclofop-methyl–resistant JB were not evident. We hypothesize that differential sensitivity to AE F130060 00 in these biotypes is most likely due to a less sensitive acetolactate synthase, although further research is required to confirm this hypothesis.
Potato exhibits adequate tolerance to preemergence applications of sulfentrazone at rates up to 0.28 kg ai ha−1. Sulfentrazone also controls several troublesome weeds such as common lambsquarters but may be less effective against jimsonweed. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate differential tolerance to root-absorbed [14C]sulfentrazone by potato, common lambsquarters, and jimsonweed. Common lambsquarters and jimsonweed absorption of [14C]sulfentrazone g−1 fresh weight was more than twofold that in potato after 24-h exposure. After 48-h exposure, sulfentrazone absorption by common lambsquarters was nearly twofold that in jimsonweed and nearly threefold that in potato. Sulfentrazone movement from roots to shoots was also greater in common lambsquarters than in jimsonweed and potato after 6 h. Both weed species exhibited nearly a twofold increase in sulfentrazone translocation from roots to shoots compared with potato after 12, 24, and 48 h. Minor differences in sulfentrazone metabolism in roots were noted among species after 6 h. Metabolism in roots and shoots was similar in all species after 12, 24, and 48 h. Because the enzyme on which sulfentrazone acts, protoporphyrinogen oxidase, is located in shoot tissue, translocation to shoots is essential for sulfentrazone toxicity. Therefore, differential root absorption and differential translocation of sulfentrazone from roots to shoots are the proposed primary mechanisms of differential sulfentrazone tolerance among potato, common lambsquarters, and jimsonweed.
Factors influencing the rate, form, and severity of phenotypic expression among relatives of
autistic probands are examined. Family history data on 3095 first- and second-degree
relatives and cousins from 149 families with a child with autism and 36 families with a child
with Down syndrome are studied. The results provide further evidence of an increased risk
among autism relatives for the broadly defined autism phenotype. Of proband characteristics,
severity of autism and obstetric optimality were confirmed as being related to
familial loading for probands with speech. There was little variation in loading among
probands lacking speech. The type of phenotypic profile reported in relatives appeared little
influenced by characteristics of the relative or the proband, except for variation by degree of
relative, parental status of relative, and perhaps proband's birth optimality score. Phenotypic
rates among parents suggested reduced fitness for the severest and more communication-related forms of expression but not for the more mild and social forms of expression.
Patterns of expression within the families did not support a simple X-linked nor an imprinted
X-linked mode of inheritance. The basis for sex differences in rates of expression is discussed.