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Deficits in behavioral inhibition leading to impulsivity occur frequently in many otherwise different psychiatric diseases, mainly ADHD and borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, the research is complicated by using of different tests and their parameters. Further, the role of frontoparietal network in behavioral inhibition has been questioned recently.
The aims of our studies were:
– to present the influence of differences in inhibition tasks parameters;
– to describe neural correlates of behavioral inhibition in healthy people;
– to compare them with BPD and ADHD patients.
We implemented two different variants of Go/NoGo Task, one designed for behavioral research and the second for neuroimaging. Thirty healthy participants (37% of women, age range 15 to 33 years) underwent behavioral and fMRI measurement. Further, groups of patients with BPD, ADHD and their healthy controls underwent the Go/NoGo Task under both fMRI and EEG.
The results show differences in behavioral performance based on different task parameters. The fMRI results in healthy people show specific activation patterns within the frontoparietal network associated with inhibition trials (mainly inferior frontal gyrus, insula, cingulate gyrus, SMA, inferior parietal lobule). Further, we present differences between patients with BPD, ADHD and controls in BOLD signal and ERPs.
Go/NoGo Task design substantially influences the subjects’ behavioral performance. Our results with methodologically upgraded Go/NoGo Task design provide support for the inhibition frontoparietal brain network and its different activations in BPD and ADHD patients. The research was supported by Ministry of Health of the Czech Republic, grant nr. 15-30062A.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Postoperative cognitive impairment is among the most common medical complications associated with surgical interventions – particularly in elderly patients. In our aging society, it is an urgent medical need to determine preoperative individual risk prediction to allow more accurate cost–benefit decisions prior to elective surgeries. So far, risk prediction is mainly based on clinical parameters. However, these parameters only give a rough estimate of the individual risk. At present, there are no molecular or neuroimaging biomarkers available to improve risk prediction and little is known about the etiology and pathophysiology of this clinical condition. In this short review, we summarize the current state of knowledge and briefly present the recently started BioCog project (Biomarker Development for Postoperative Cognitive Impairment in the Elderly), which is funded by the European Union. It is the goal of this research and development (R&D) project, which involves academic and industry partners throughout Europe, to deliver a multivariate algorithm based on clinical assessments as well as molecular and neuroimaging biomarkers to overcome the currently unsatisfying situation.
For more than four decades after the introduction of cv. Italia (Vitis vinifera L.) in Brazil, several somatic mutations in the genome of cv. Italia and its somatic mutants gave rise to phenotypes which generated at least five new cultivars of fine table grapes. Since no molecular marker proved to be effective in discriminating cv. Italia (V. vinifera L.) and its coloured mutants (Rubi, Benitaka, Brasil, Black Star), primers for the long terminal repeat (LTR) sequences were developed to analyse Inter Retrotransposon Amplified Polymorphism (IRAP) and Retrotransposon-Microsatellite Amplified Polymorphism (REMAP), and investigate how the coloured cultivars derived from clonal propagations of somatic mutations are genetically structured. Primers for LTR sequences of IRAP and REMAP markers were edited from grape sequence databases available at a GenBank. Twenty-four primers, denominated DKS001–DKS024, were edited. Three hundred and forty-nine DNA segments were amplified by individual DKS primers and DKS/ISSR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeats) primer combinations, at an average of 13.96 amplicons per primer pair. High genetic divergence between the five cultivars was inferred from polymorphism in retrotransposons IRAP and REMAP. The analysis of polymorphism of IRAP and REMAP retrotransposons was crucial to show that clonal propagation of somatic mutations may lead towards the formation of genetically divergent cultivars by the formation of genetically structured vineyards and show the mixture of genomes within each cultivar.
An outbreak of respiratory diphtheria occurred in two health districts in the province of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa in 2015. A multidisciplinary outbreak response team was involved in the investigation and management of the outbreak. Fifteen cases of diphtheria were identified, with ages ranging from 4 to 41 years. Of the 12 cases that were under the age of 18 years, 9 (75%) were not fully immunized for diphtheria. The case fatality was 27%. Ninety-three household contacts, 981 school or work contacts and 595 healthcare worker contacts were identified and given prophylaxis against Corynebacterium diphtheriae infection. A targeted vaccination campaign for children aged 6–15 years was carried out at schools in the two districts. The outbreak highlighted the need to improve diphtheria vaccination coverage in the province and to investigate the feasibility of offering diphtheria vaccines to healthcare workers.
To validate the ovine model of profound oropharyngeal dysphagia and compare swallowing outcomes of laryngotracheal separation with those of total laryngectomy.
Under real-time fluoroscopy, swallowing trials were conducted using the head and neck of two Dorper cross ewes and one human cadaver, secured in lateral fluoroscopic orientation. Barium trials were administered at baseline, pre- and post-laryngohyoid suspension, following laryngotracheal separation, and following laryngectomy in the ovine model.
Mean pre-intervention Penetration Aspiration Scale and National Institutes of Health Swallow Safety Scale scores were 8 ± 0 and 6 ± 0 respectively in sheep and human cadavers, with 100 per cent intra- and inter-species reproducibility. These scores improved to 1 ± 0 and 2 ± 0 post-laryngohyoid suspension (p < 0.01). Aerodigestive tract residue was 18.6 ± 2.4 ml at baseline, 15.4 ± 3.8 ml after laryngotracheal separation and 3.0 ± 0.7 ml after total laryngectomy (p < 0.001).
The ovine model displayed perfect intra- and inter- species reliability for the Penetration Aspiration Scale and Swallow Safety Scale. Less aerodigestive tract residue after narrow-field laryngectomy suggests that swallowing outcomes after total laryngectomy are superior to those after laryngotracheal separation.
Several studies on the effect of physical exercise on activities of daily living (ADL) for people with dementia exist; yet, data concerning the specific context of acute psychiatric hospitals remain scant. This study measured the effect of a physical exercise program on ADL scores in patients with moderate to severe dementia hospitalized in an acute psychiatric ward.
A multicenter clinical trial was conducted in five Swiss and Belgian psychiatric hospitals. Participants were randomly allocated to either an experimental group (EG) or a control group (CG). Members of the EG received 20 physical exercise sessions (strengthening, balance, and walking) over a four-week period while members of the CG participated in social interaction sessions of equivalent duration and frequency, but without physical exercise. The effect of exercise on ADL was measured by comparing scores of the Barthel Index and the Functional Independence Measure in the EG and CG before and after the intervention, and two weeks later.
Hundred and sixty patients completed the program. Characteristics of participants of both groups were similar at the inception of the study. The mean ADL score of EG decreased slightly over time, whereas that of the CG significantly decreased compared to initial scores. Overall differences between groups were not significant; however, significant differences were found for mobility-related items.
ADL scores in elderly with moderate to severe dementia deteriorate during acute psychiatric hospitalization. An exercise program delays the loss of mobility but does not have a significant impact on overall ADL scores.
To characterize meal patterns across ten European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study.
Cross-sectional study utilizing dietary data collected through a standardized 24 h diet recall during 1995–2000. Eleven predefined intake occasions across a 24 h period were assessed during the interview. In the present descriptive report, meal patterns were analysed in terms of daily number of intake occasions, the proportion reporting each intake occasion and the energy contributions from each intake occasion.
Twenty-seven centres across ten European countries.
Women (64 %) and men (36 %) aged 35–74 years (n 36 020).
Pronounced differences in meal patterns emerged both across centres within the same country and across different countries, with a trend for fewer intake occasions per day in Mediterranean countries compared with central and northern Europe. Differences were also found for daily energy intake provided by lunch, with 38–43 % for women and 41–45 % for men within Mediterranean countries compared with 16–27 % for women and 20–26 % for men in central and northern European countries. Likewise, a south–north gradient was found for daily energy intake from snacks, with 13–20 % (women) and 10–17 % (men) in Mediterranean countries compared with 24–34 % (women) and 23–35 % (men) in central/northern Europe.
We found distinct differences in meal patterns with marked diversity for intake frequency and lunch and snack consumption between Mediterranean and central/northern European countries. Monitoring of meal patterns across various cultures and populations could provide critical context to the research efforts to characterize relationships between dietary intake and health.
A new site with Lateglacial palaeosols covered by 0.8 - 2.4 m thick aeolian sands is presented. The buried soils were subjected to multidisciplinary analyses (pedology, micromorphology, geochronology, dendrology, palynology, macrofossils). The buried soil cover comprises a catena from relatively dry (’Nano’-Podzol, Arenosol) via moist (Histic Gleysol, Gleysol) to wet conditions (Histosol). Dry soils are similar to the so-called Usselo soil, as described from sites in NW Europe and central Poland. The buried soil surface covers ca. 3.4 km2. Pollen analyses date this surface into the late Allerød. Due to a possible contamination by younger carbon, radiocarbon dates are too young. OSL dates indicate that the covering by aeolian sands most probably occurred during the Younger Dryas. Botanical analyses enables the reconstruction of a vegetation pattern typical for the late Allerød. Large wooden remains of pine and birch were recorded.
We report on mid-infrared (600 – 4000 cm-1), refection-type optical-Hall effect measurements on epitaxial graphene grown on C-face silicon carbide and present Landau-level transition features detected at 1.5 K as a function of magnetic field up to 8 Tesla. The Landau-level transitions are detected in reflection configuration at oblique incidence for wavenumbers below, across and above the silicon carbide reststrahlen range. Small Landau-level transition features are enhanced across the silicon carbide reststrahlen range due to surface-guided wave coupling with the electronic Landau-level transitions in the graphene layer. We analyze the spectral and magnetic-field dependencies of the coupled resonances, and compare our findings with previously reported Landau-level transitions measured in transmission configuration [4,5,6]. Additional features resemble transitions previously assigned to bilayer inclusion , as well as graphite . We discuss a model description to account for the electromagnetic polarizability of the graphene layers, and which is sufficient for quantitative model calculation of the optical-Hall effect data.
We demonstrate that the anisotropic optical response of metal (cobalt) slanted columnar thin films (STF) at THz frequencies strongly depends on the dielectric properties of the dielectric ambient surrounding the slanted columnar thin films. An effective medium dielectric function approach is used to describe the combined optical response of metal slanted columnar thin film and dielectric ambient. Our observations indicate that metal (cobalt) slanted columnar thin films can be used as sensors which will enable detection and characterization of minute amounts of dielectrics at THz frequencies, such as for flow-based detection of liquid chemical constituents.
Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type IV methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains were identified in 8 (19.5%) of 41 consecutive patients with MRSA ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in this retrospective, observational study. There were no significant differences in VAP severity and crude mortality rates between patients with SCCmec type II strains and patients with SCCmec type IV strains.
The melt spinning technique (MST) combined with post annealing processes is evaluated for the development of thermoelectric nanocomposites. The evaluated ones are based on two components almost immiscible in solid state but with crystallographic correlation. One is taken from the V-VI-components system and the other one from the IV-VI-components system. This concept was applied to p-(Bi0,2Sb0,8)2Te3 and to p-[(Bi0,2Sb0,8)2Te3]1-xPbTex composites. MST samples of all types were characterised for some structural and thermoelectric properties. All V-VI materials are clearly textured after MST and show no deterioration concerning the thermoelectric properties even after subsequent annealing processes. Structural analysis of p-[(Bi0,2Sb0,8)2Te3]1-xPbTex composites gave significant hints for oriented precipitates of a IV-VI-rich phase incorporated into the V-VI-rich matrix. The thermoelectric figure of merit of the evaluated composites could be enhanced by suitable annealing procedures of both the quenched bulk materials and the melt spin material.
Recently developed Zr-based metallic glass composites containing a ductile phase demonstrate improved mechanical properties such as high strength combined with good ductility compared to the glass monoliths. Zr-Nb-Cu-Ni-Al amorphous powders with bcc phase precipitates were obtained by high pressure gas atomization. Formation of the bcc phase in the amorphous matrix strongly depends on the material composition and cooling rates during solidification. Melt spinning using various wheel speeds selected to simulate the cooling rates during gas atomization was used to define a specific composition for gas atomization. Gas atomized powders were consolidated by warm extrusion. Various processing conditions including starting powder particle size, extrusion temperature and extrusion ratio were examined to obtain materials having various microstructural features. Structure and thermal stability of consolidated bulk metallic glass composites as well as selected mechanical properties will be discussed.
General arguments for optimized coronagraphy in the search for planets are presented. First, off-axis telescopes provide the best telescopic platforms for use with coronagraphy, and telescope fabrication technology now allows the fabrication of such telescopes with diameters of up to 6.5 m. We show that in certain circumstances a smaller telescope with an off-axis primary has a signal-to-noise advantage compared with larger Cassegrain telescopes. Second, to fully exploit the advantages of the coronagraph for suppressing stray light, it is necessary to use a high Strehl ratio adaptive optics system. This can be best achieved initially with modest aperture telescopes of 3–4 m in diameter. Third, application of simultaneous differential imaging and simultaneous polarimetric techniques are required to reach the photon-limit of coronagraphic imaging. These three developments, if pursued together, will yield significant improvements in the search for planets.
A ramsdellite with composition LiCrTiO4 has been obtained by heating the spinel of same composition to high temperature. The new ramsdellite has been investigated in view of its possible use as an electrode material in lithium rechargeable batteries. Lithium can be partially extracted from ramsdellite LiCrTiO4 and further intercalated into, by contrast to the spinel of same composition. The average operating voltage during lithium extraction is 4 Volts vs. lithium, and the process produces a specific capacity of 90 mAh/g at 0.1 mA/cm2. On the other hand, upon reduction from open circuit voltage, lithium can be reversibly intercalated into the ramsdellite polymorph at ca. 1.5 V vs. lithium yielding a rechargeable capacity of 110 mAh/g at 0.1 mA/cm2.