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For more than four decades after the introduction of cv. Italia (Vitis vinifera L.) in Brazil, several somatic mutations in the genome of cv. Italia and its somatic mutants gave rise to phenotypes which generated at least five new cultivars of fine table grapes. Since no molecular marker proved to be effective in discriminating cv. Italia (V. vinifera L.) and its coloured mutants (Rubi, Benitaka, Brasil, Black Star), primers for the long terminal repeat (LTR) sequences were developed to analyse Inter Retrotransposon Amplified Polymorphism (IRAP) and Retrotransposon-Microsatellite Amplified Polymorphism (REMAP), and investigate how the coloured cultivars derived from clonal propagations of somatic mutations are genetically structured. Primers for LTR sequences of IRAP and REMAP markers were edited from grape sequence databases available at a GenBank. Twenty-four primers, denominated DKS001–DKS024, were edited. Three hundred and forty-nine DNA segments were amplified by individual DKS primers and DKS/ISSR (Inter Simple Sequence Repeats) primer combinations, at an average of 13.96 amplicons per primer pair. High genetic divergence between the five cultivars was inferred from polymorphism in retrotransposons IRAP and REMAP. The analysis of polymorphism of IRAP and REMAP retrotransposons was crucial to show that clonal propagation of somatic mutations may lead towards the formation of genetically divergent cultivars by the formation of genetically structured vineyards and show the mixture of genomes within each cultivar.
The availability of relatively large format IR array detectors is incentive for reexamining the classic question of whether or not there are “dust rings” around the sun – a problem for which there are conflicting observational answers. The 1991 eclipse path included a high altitude observatory and provided a potentially ideal opportunity to study the infrared properties and dust content of the corona. Here we report results from an experiment conducted from Mauna Kea using a HgCdTe array detector sensitive to wavelengths between 1-2.5 μm. Surface brightness measurements in the H-band and polarization data in the J-band were obtained over a field-of-view of ±6 R⊙ while K-band images further extend to 15 R⊙ on the western side of the Sun. J-band polarization data and H and K-band surface brightness data clearly show the inhomogeneous structure in the K corona and the ecliptical flattening of the F corona. We see no evidence of a circumsolar, local dust corona (dust rings) out to 15 R⊙.
An outbreak of respiratory diphtheria occurred in two health districts in the province of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa in 2015. A multidisciplinary outbreak response team was involved in the investigation and management of the outbreak. Fifteen cases of diphtheria were identified, with ages ranging from 4 to 41 years. Of the 12 cases that were under the age of 18 years, 9 (75%) were not fully immunized for diphtheria. The case fatality was 27%. Ninety-three household contacts, 981 school or work contacts and 595 healthcare worker contacts were identified and given prophylaxis against Corynebacterium diphtheriae infection. A targeted vaccination campaign for children aged 6–15 years was carried out at schools in the two districts. The outbreak highlighted the need to improve diphtheria vaccination coverage in the province and to investigate the feasibility of offering diphtheria vaccines to healthcare workers.
By mosaicking many CCD frames together, we have constructed a large-scale (~ 1/2°) R-band map of the cD cluster Abell 2029. The map was flat from one edge to the other to about 0.05% of the night sky, which corresponds to vR ~30 mag arcsec2. Using a novel technique involving the pixel distribution function, we measured diffuse light in the cluster out to 450″ (500 h−1 Kpc) along the minor axis of the cluster. In the elliptical region from minor radius 100″ to minor radius 300″, the diffuse light corresponds to roughly 8% of the total cluster light. Data in other optical bands and on other clusters are in the process of being reduced. The applicability of the above technique to measurements of the fluctuations in the extragalactic background light (EBL) is discussed.
To validate the ovine model of profound oropharyngeal dysphagia and compare swallowing outcomes of laryngotracheal separation with those of total laryngectomy.
Under real-time fluoroscopy, swallowing trials were conducted using the head and neck of two Dorper cross ewes and one human cadaver, secured in lateral fluoroscopic orientation. Barium trials were administered at baseline, pre- and post-laryngohyoid suspension, following laryngotracheal separation, and following laryngectomy in the ovine model.
Mean pre-intervention Penetration Aspiration Scale and National Institutes of Health Swallow Safety Scale scores were 8 ± 0 and 6 ± 0 respectively in sheep and human cadavers, with 100 per cent intra- and inter-species reproducibility. These scores improved to 1 ± 0 and 2 ± 0 post-laryngohyoid suspension (p < 0.01). Aerodigestive tract residue was 18.6 ± 2.4 ml at baseline, 15.4 ± 3.8 ml after laryngotracheal separation and 3.0 ± 0.7 ml after total laryngectomy (p < 0.001).
The ovine model displayed perfect intra- and inter- species reliability for the Penetration Aspiration Scale and Swallow Safety Scale. Less aerodigestive tract residue after narrow-field laryngectomy suggests that swallowing outcomes after total laryngectomy are superior to those after laryngotracheal separation.
Several studies on the effect of physical exercise on activities of daily living (ADL) for people with dementia exist; yet, data concerning the specific context of acute psychiatric hospitals remain scant. This study measured the effect of a physical exercise program on ADL scores in patients with moderate to severe dementia hospitalized in an acute psychiatric ward.
A multicenter clinical trial was conducted in five Swiss and Belgian psychiatric hospitals. Participants were randomly allocated to either an experimental group (EG) or a control group (CG). Members of the EG received 20 physical exercise sessions (strengthening, balance, and walking) over a four-week period while members of the CG participated in social interaction sessions of equivalent duration and frequency, but without physical exercise. The effect of exercise on ADL was measured by comparing scores of the Barthel Index and the Functional Independence Measure in the EG and CG before and after the intervention, and two weeks later.
Hundred and sixty patients completed the program. Characteristics of participants of both groups were similar at the inception of the study. The mean ADL score of EG decreased slightly over time, whereas that of the CG significantly decreased compared to initial scores. Overall differences between groups were not significant; however, significant differences were found for mobility-related items.
ADL scores in elderly with moderate to severe dementia deteriorate during acute psychiatric hospitalization. An exercise program delays the loss of mobility but does not have a significant impact on overall ADL scores.
General arguments for optimized coronagraphy in the search for planets are presented. First, off-axis telescopes provide the best telescopic platforms for use with coronagraphy, and telescope fabrication technology now allows the fabrication of such telescopes with diameters of up to 6.5 m. We show that in certain circumstances a smaller telescope with an off-axis primary has a signal-to-noise advantage compared with larger Cassegrain telescopes. Second, to fully exploit the advantages of the coronagraph for suppressing stray light, it is necessary to use a high Strehl ratio adaptive optics system. This can be best achieved initially with modest aperture telescopes of 3–4 m in diameter. Third, application of simultaneous differential imaging and simultaneous polarimetric techniques are required to reach the photon-limit of coronagraphic imaging. These three developments, if pursued together, will yield significant improvements in the search for planets.
The SoHO/MDI experiment generates a continous record of the solar limb brightness using 1.96″ pixels. Because there is no atmospheric blurring, these data allow measurements of solar limb brightness and shape changes with a precision that has not been achieved from the ground. The first results of a 1 month astrometric timeseries from the MDI solar structure program will be described here.
To characterize meal patterns across ten European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study.
Cross-sectional study utilizing dietary data collected through a standardized 24 h diet recall during 1995–2000. Eleven predefined intake occasions across a 24 h period were assessed during the interview. In the present descriptive report, meal patterns were analysed in terms of daily number of intake occasions, the proportion reporting each intake occasion and the energy contributions from each intake occasion.
Twenty-seven centres across ten European countries.
Women (64 %) and men (36 %) aged 35–74 years (n 36 020).
Pronounced differences in meal patterns emerged both across centres within the same country and across different countries, with a trend for fewer intake occasions per day in Mediterranean countries compared with central and northern Europe. Differences were also found for daily energy intake provided by lunch, with 38–43 % for women and 41–45 % for men within Mediterranean countries compared with 16–27 % for women and 20–26 % for men in central and northern European countries. Likewise, a south–north gradient was found for daily energy intake from snacks, with 13–20 % (women) and 10–17 % (men) in Mediterranean countries compared with 24–34 % (women) and 23–35 % (men) in central/northern Europe.
We found distinct differences in meal patterns with marked diversity for intake frequency and lunch and snack consumption between Mediterranean and central/northern European countries. Monitoring of meal patterns across various cultures and populations could provide critical context to the research efforts to characterize relationships between dietary intake and health.
Is the Solar Radius a constant? Ground experiments show evidence of possible variations in the visual solar semi diameter that are correlated with the solar activity. Those measurements are limited by the Earth's atmospheric turbulance. It is importance to accurately determine the solar radius variations because of their implication for stellar structure and possible relation to the terrestrial climate. Here we report on data from a space experiment (MDI-SOHO) used to detect solar diameter fluctuations. We stabilish a superior limit for changes in the solar radius.
A new site with Lateglacial palaeosols covered by 0.8 - 2.4 m thick aeolian sands is presented. The buried soils were subjected to multidisciplinary analyses (pedology, micromorphology, geochronology, dendrology, palynology, macrofossils). The buried soil cover comprises a catena from relatively dry (’Nano’-Podzol, Arenosol) via moist (Histic Gleysol, Gleysol) to wet conditions (Histosol). Dry soils are similar to the so-called Usselo soil, as described from sites in NW Europe and central Poland. The buried soil surface covers ca. 3.4 km2. Pollen analyses date this surface into the late Allerød. Due to a possible contamination by younger carbon, radiocarbon dates are too young. OSL dates indicate that the covering by aeolian sands most probably occurred during the Younger Dryas. Botanical analyses enables the reconstruction of a vegetation pattern typical for the late Allerød. Large wooden remains of pine and birch were recorded.
We report on mid-infrared (600 – 4000 cm-1), refection-type optical-Hall effect measurements on epitaxial graphene grown on C-face silicon carbide and present Landau-level transition features detected at 1.5 K as a function of magnetic field up to 8 Tesla. The Landau-level transitions are detected in reflection configuration at oblique incidence for wavenumbers below, across and above the silicon carbide reststrahlen range. Small Landau-level transition features are enhanced across the silicon carbide reststrahlen range due to surface-guided wave coupling with the electronic Landau-level transitions in the graphene layer. We analyze the spectral and magnetic-field dependencies of the coupled resonances, and compare our findings with previously reported Landau-level transitions measured in transmission configuration [4,5,6]. Additional features resemble transitions previously assigned to bilayer inclusion , as well as graphite . We discuss a model description to account for the electromagnetic polarizability of the graphene layers, and which is sufficient for quantitative model calculation of the optical-Hall effect data.
We discuss the actual relevance of thin gap geometry electrodeposition to generate fractal patterns that mimic the morphology of Witten and Sander's diffusion-limited aggregates (DLA). Eliminating migration and convection, as well as electrochemical side reactions, we show that electroless deposition is a good candidate to meet the requirements for diffusion to be the rate limiting step of the growth process. We use the wavelet transform microscope to achieve a comparative structural characterization of both experimental electroless deposits and numerical DLA clusters. The fact that five-fold symmetry and Fibonacci hierarchical ordering are found as common predominant statistical features is, to our knowledge, the first demonstration, relying on an appropriate structural fractal analysis, of the existence of DLA morphologies in an experimental context.
We demonstrate that the anisotropic optical response of metal (cobalt) slanted columnar thin films (STF) at THz frequencies strongly depends on the dielectric properties of the dielectric ambient surrounding the slanted columnar thin films. An effective medium dielectric function approach is used to describe the combined optical response of metal slanted columnar thin film and dielectric ambient. Our observations indicate that metal (cobalt) slanted columnar thin films can be used as sensors which will enable detection and characterization of minute amounts of dielectrics at THz frequencies, such as for flow-based detection of liquid chemical constituents.
Design studies for high-level nuclear waste packages for salt repositories have identified low-carbon steel as a candidate material for containers. Among the requirements are strength, corrosion resistance, and fabricability. The studies of the corrosion resistance and structural stability of iron-base materials (particularly lowcarbon steel) are treated in this paper. The materials have been exposed in brines that are characteristic of the potential sites for salt repositories. The effects of temperature, radiation level, oxygen level and other parameters are under investigation. The initial development of corrosion models for these environments is presented with discussion of the key mechanisms under consideration.
Applying the previously derived “Three-Partial-Rates” model, CVD-Si/Ge-thin film growth and composition is described as influenced by the partial pressures of silane, germane, and hydrogen chloride. The effect of hydrogen carrier gas throughput variation is considered, as well as the density reduction of polycrystalline growth defects by the action of hydrogen chloride and hydrogen.
We have investigated the structural and compositional changes that are induced by the segregation of substrate Mg to the surface of 1μm-thick Fe3O4 films on MgO(001). The thin films have been grown with plasma-assisted MBE, and characterization with RHEED (reflection high-energy electron diffraction), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometry show slightly strained, single-crystalline Fe3O4 films. For the surface studies, we have combined Low-Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED) and Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM). Initial and final surface characterization employed X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Ion Scattering Spec-troscopy (ISS) respectively. The surfaces of the MBE-grown samples are flat and show a (√2 × √2)R45° reconstruction with respect to the Fe3O4 surface unit cell. We observe the onset of Mg segregation to the surface at around 700 K, with long, narrow extensions of terraces being observed growing along the  and  directions. Upon prolonged heating at 800 K, massive Mg segregation to the surface is observed. Heating in an oxygen atmosphere induces a 1×4 surface reconstruction, and results in extremely long (≈ 1000 Å), wide terraces.