To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Surface strain rates around the southeastern dome of Hans Tausen Iskappe in Peary Land, North Greenland (82.5° N, 27.5° W), are determined from global positioning system surveys of a strain net. Average longitudinal surface strain rate increases towards the dome, from (1.4 ± 0.2) × 10−4 a−1 at 5–10 ice thicknesses from the divide to (2.4 ± 1.0) × 10−4 a−1 within 1 ice thickness from the divide. Analysis of the data shows that the ice cap is presently building up within the strain net with an average rate of 〈∂H/∂t〉 = + 0.04 ± 0.02 m a−1. Assuming a uniform thickening, the shape factor of the horizontal velocity (the ratio between the vertically averaged horizontal velocity and the horizontal surface velocity) decreases towards the dome, from 0.9 at a distance of 10 ice thicknesses from the dome to 0.5 at the dome based on application of the continuity equation. Our results indicate that a region with anomalous flow is formed around the dome, supporting recent indications reported by Vaughan and others (1999). It is not possible from our data to constrain parameters of the flow law, because there is no independent estimate of the significant present thickening of the central part of the ice cap and its pattern around the dome.
Our understanding of the complex relationship between schizophrenia symptomatology and etiological factors can be improved by studying brain-based correlates of schizophrenia. Research showed that impairments in value processing and executive functioning, which have been associated with prefrontal brain areas [particularly the medial orbitofrontal cortex (MOFC)], are linked to negative symptoms. Here we tested the hypothesis that MOFC thickness is associated with negative symptom severity.
This study included 1985 individuals with schizophrenia from 17 research groups around the world contributing to the ENIGMA Schizophrenia Working Group. Cortical thickness values were obtained from T1-weighted structural brain scans using FreeSurfer. A meta-analysis across sites was conducted over effect sizes from a model predicting cortical thickness by negative symptom score (harmonized Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms or Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores).
Meta-analytical results showed that left, but not right, MOFC thickness was significantly associated with negative symptom severity (βstd = −0.075; p = 0.019) after accounting for age, gender, and site. This effect remained significant (p = 0.036) in a model including overall illness severity. Covarying for duration of illness, age of onset, antipsychotic medication or handedness weakened the association of negative symptoms with left MOFC thickness. As part of a secondary analysis including 10 other prefrontal regions further associations in the left lateral orbitofrontal gyrus and pars opercularis emerged.
Using an unusually large cohort and a meta-analytical approach, our findings point towards a link between prefrontal thinning and negative symptom severity in schizophrenia. This finding provides further insight into the relationship between structural brain abnormalities and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.
We present a broad and detailed study of the background components of a liquid scintillation (LS) detector, using a simple laboratory-built system, ICELS. It was specifically designed for radiocarbon dating and is compact and easily transportable (total weight 35 kg). Its flexible LS detector unit has a dome-shaped vial with 3 mL benzene to which 45 mg butyl-PBD is added. The vial sits on the top of a vertical 28-mm-diameter phototube. The gamma radiation, to which the benzene is exposed under varying conditions, was measured by replacing the vial with a 38-mm-diameter Nal crystal. The pulse-height spectra of the 14C LS background and the Nal gamma background were measured in a surface laboratory and in a deep underground counting room with: 1) a lead shield of varying thickness; 2) lead of normal and low 210Pb concentration; 3) phototubes of 2 different types; and 4) varying benzene volume. The beta emission from the face of the tubes was measured with a low-level Geiger counter.
When introducing a new control paradigm in industry or society one has to accept that it is an evolutionary process where people, methods and processes must develop simultaneously, and this takes time. The recycling of material has been studied intensely for the last ten years using different approaches to material flow analyses, MFAs. They have given a good view of the magnitude of material flows but their use has been limited by lack of relevant data. In the case of recycling, data must be acquired from the practitioners of the trade and in order to get it, the value of the output for them and for society must be proved and visualized. This paper is based on a MFA model developed at KTH for steel flows in Sweden (part of the Swedish environmental research program, the “Steel-Eco-Cycle”). The aim of the work reported on here was to initiate the process of motivating better sampling of data in industry and society for performing MFAs. The KTH model is based on a product-to-product approach for steel, describing the recycling machine. Data is presented in a simplified model for Sweden with total figures and figures per capita. Areas where improvements can be made are identified and ways to “lubricate” the recycling machine are discussed. The main idea is to provide a way of describing flows that can be of use to recyclers and steel producers and form a basis for discussions on improvements. Finally, the underlying model is briefly described and the uncertainties of data are discussed.
The mortality rate for penetrating trauma of the abdomen has declined to a present rate of approximately 10%. However, blunt abdominal trauma still carries a high mortality, in some reports up to 30%. This is due mainly to major trauma with a resulting slow onset of symptoms sometimes resulting in a delay in diagnosis and treatment. One possible cause of delayed symptomatology after abdominal trauma could be delayed perforation of intestinal wall hemorrhages. A survey of the literature on this type of intestinal lesion was done in 1977 by Hughes et al, who found 260 clinical reports of intestinal wall hematomas.
Isolated Si ad-dimers nucleate predominantly on Si(100) substrate dimer rows at room temperature. Using tunneling microscopy (STM), we find that, while ad-dimers oscillate between two mutually orthogonal orientations, the geometry with the ad-dimer bond perpendicular to the substrate's dimer bonds is the more stable. This observation confirms a prediction of ab initio calculations with a gradient correction for the energies of ad-dimers in various configurations, which differs from that of the local density approximation (LDA).
Interfacial chemistry at indium tin oxide/polymer interfaces is of fundamental importance for the performance of polymer-based light emitting diodes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry are used to investigate the stability of the interface formed between indium tin oxide and (i) the light emitting polymer poly(p-phenylenevinylene), and (ii) the hole injecting layer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrenesulfonate. The formed interfaces are not stable and indium-containing species diffuse from the metal oxide surface into the polymer layers.
Antidepressant use was examined with samples from long-term care facilities in Toronto (Canada), Sapporo and Naie (Japan), Reykjavik (Iceland) and Prague (Czech Republic). Only in Iceland did the majority of residents with depression receive an antidepressant. Rates of depression and antidepressant use were uniformly low in Japan, and there was a great discrepancy between diagnosed depression and behavioural signs of depression in the Czech Republic. In all countries, about half the recipients of antidepressants have no clear indication of depression present. For some countries, antidepressant use was lower among residents who were female, older and more disabled. Depression is clearly under-diagnosed in the Czech Republic, but low rates of depression in Japan are somewhat more difficult to interpret. Given the widespread consensus that depression is under-detected and under treated, these results suggest that responses to depression could be improved through instruments like the MDS.
All of 86 foods routinely examined for potentially pathogenic enteric bacteria were found to harbour one or more coliform species. None of the strains isolated produced heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) or showed invasive properties. The suckling mouse test indicated that one strain of Escherichia coli produced heat-stable enterotoxin (ST). Twelve incidents of suspected food poisoning were also investigated. In two of them the foods examined contained LT-producing strains of E. coli and in two there were LT-producing strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae. The counts of viable enterotoxigenic micro-organisms in these foods were 3000–30 000 E. coli/g and 50 000 to 1 million K. pneumoniae/g. The dominant symptom in all the incidents was watery diarrhoea. These seem to be the first reported cases of foodborne enterotoxigenic enteric bacteria in Europe. Though enterotoxigenic E. coli and related gram-negative enterotoxin-producing species are rare in correctly handled food in Sweden, these micro-organisms should be searched for when outbreaks of food poisoning are investigated.
Some highlights from the Jernkontoret Research with focus on
the modeling work of the last decade are presented. First the
concept of a fundamental mathematical model is discussed.
Thereafter, a short review of growth and separation models
based on fundamental modeling of ladles is presented. Then,
recent modeling efforts within Jernkontoret's Research are
From a sample of more than 100 remnants from major and minor
hydrodynamic binary galaxy merger simulations (Cox 2004; Cox et al.
2005), we find that stellar remnants are mostly oblate while
dark matter halos are mostly prolate or triaxial. Shapes are
determined by iteratively diagonalizing a moment-of-inertia tensor.
The preferred axes of the two shapes are almost always nearly
perpendicular. This can be understood by considering the influence
of angular momentum and dissipation during the merger. If binary
major mergers of spiral galaxies are responsible for the formation
of elliptical galaxies or some subpopulation of elliptical galaxies,
then the galaxies can be be expected to be oblate and the dark
matter halos prolate with the two preferred axes perpendicular to
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to produce species-specific DNA markers (RAPDs) from two sibling cockle species and five other co-occurring intertidal bivalves. Amplification reactions with one single primer readily distinguished larvae and adults of Cerastoderma edule from larvae and adults of C. lamarcki, and from adults of Mya arenaria, Macoma balthica, Scrobicularia plana, Venerupis pulastra and Mytilus edulis. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) is suggested as a simple and quick method to determine species identity in taxa that are difficult to identify on the basis of morphological characters alone, such as marine bivalve larvae.
Background. Personality traits have shown considerable
heritable components. Association between
alleles of a polymorphism in the third exon of the dopamine D4 receptor
gene (DRD4) and the
personality trait Novelty Seeking has been reported. Recently, in a sample
non-psychiatric subjects we could not detect any significant relationships
between the same
polymorphism and Novelty Seeking related scales in the Karolinska Scales
of Personality (KSP).
However, there was a tendency in the direction of the proposed association.
There were also
tentative associations between an exon I 13 bp deletion polymorphism and
the personality traits
Socialization and Guilt.
Methods. We investigated a new Swedish population-based sample
(N=167) investigated with the
KSP for three DRD4 polymorphisms.
Results. Neither of the previous results were replicated.
Combining the previous and the present
samples did not give rise to any significant association between DRD4 polymorphisms
Conclusions. The dopamine D4 receptor gene is probably not
of importance to the different
personality dimensions as measured by the Karolinska Scales of Personality.
This paper considers steady, slowly varying water waves propagating over a gently sloping bed on a steady current. The current varies linearly with depth, and so has constant vorticity ω. The analysis is two-dimensional and dissipation is neglected. Definitions, and expressions correct to second order in the amplitude, are given for the radiation stress, wave energy density E and total energy flux. An average La-grangian [Lscr ], obtained by heuristic arguments from Clebsch potentials, leads to the result that for this particular problem E equals the wave action [Lscr ]ω times the angular frequency ωrm relative to a frame of reference moving with the average-over-depth current velocity Um. This determines the variation of the amplitude with distance explicitly. An analytical expression for the height of the mean water surface is found by a heuristic argument which compares the conservation equations for total energy and wave action. All the results have been checked directly by substitution back into the basic equations. Graphs illustrate the effect of the vorticity ω on the wavelength, amplitude and set-down.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.