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With the number of patients living with congenital heart disease steadily increasing, relevant training in anesthesia care for these patients is becoming ever more important. Written by experts in the field, this highly illustrated book succinctly reviews the pathophysiology of congenital cardiac lesions along with important anesthetic implications for each. Case scenarios cover patients of wide-ranging ages, with a focus on care in non-cardiac operating room settings, including the general operating room, cardiac catheterization laboratory and radiology. Divided into sections corresponding to the anatomic classification of each cardiac lesion, the book includes keywords for easy cross-referencing. Several lesions have multiple scenarios presented in order to allow readers to learn how to discern more critically ill patients. The stepwise approach to understanding complex lesions provides a readily accessible guide for all anesthesia providers who care for patients with congenital heart disease. The book is also a useful tool for intraoperative teaching.
Presenting research conducted by the ‘St Stephen’s Chapel, Westminster’ project at the University of York, this article focuses on the Great Seal devised in 1649 and re-issued in 1651 to enable the Commonwealth to function following the execution of Charles i. As a familiar and ancient image of monarchy, the Great Seal posed an obvious challenge to the authority of the Rump Parliament. A radical new design, authorised by parliamentary committee and executed by engraver Thomas Simon, replaced royal iconography with images of popular sovereignty and nationhood: a map of England and Ireland on the obverse of the Seal, and the interior of the House of Commons chamber (formerly St Stephen’s Chapel) on the reverse. The result was a striking evocation of political authority located in the House of Commons and deriving from the English people. Engravings of the Commons chamber, in circulation since the 1620s, are identified as a probable source for Simon’s work. The Great Seal also re-asserted England’s dominion over Ireland and the waters surrounding the British Isles. Overall, this article argues for continuity as well as alteration in the iconography of the Great Seal of England, at a time of revolutionary political change.
Linoleic acid (LA), an essential n-6 fatty acid (FA), is critical for fetal growth and development. We investigated the effects of maternal high LA (HLA) diet on offspring cardiac development and how it relates to circulating FAs and cardiovascular function in adolescent offspring, and the ability of the postnatal diet to reverse any adverse effects. Female Wistar Kyoto rats were fed low LA (LLA; 1.44% energy from LA) or HLA (6.21% energy from LA) diets for 10 weeks before pregnancy, and during gestation/lactation. Offspring, weaned at postnatal day 25 (PN25), were fed LLA or HLA diets and euthanised at PN40 (n = 6-8). Maternal HLA diet decreased circulating total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol in females and decreased total plasma n-3 FA in males, while maternal and postnatal HLA diets decreased total plasma n-3 FA in females. Alpha- linolenic acid (ALA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) were decreased by postnatal but not maternal HLA diets in both sexes. Maternal and postnatal HLA diets increased total plasma n-6 and LA, and a maternal HLA diet increased circulating leptin, in both male and female offspring. Maternal HLA decreased slopes of systolic and diastolic PVRs, and increased cardiac Col1a1, Col3a1, Atp2a1 and Notch1 in males. Maternal and postnatal HLA diets left-shifted the diastolic PVR in female offspring. Coronary reactivity was altered in females, with differential effects on flow repayment after 10–20 sec occlusions. In conclusion, maternal HLA diets impact lipids, fatty acids and cardiac function in offspring, with postnatal diet modifying fatty acids and cardiac function in the female offspring.
Creativity is a vast topic that can encompass so many different things. When we talk about creativity, we could be talking about a sudden moment of insight, a beautiful painting, Beyoncé, an improv group working together, a new printer that uses less ink, a child learning to tell a story, or a scientific equation. If we want to sort out how we can even try to study such a multifaceted concept, we need different theories that can propose how we can think about creativity, what are the necessary ingredients to be creative, how we can encourage ourselves or others to be creative, and so many other possible questions.
We are all creative, at least potentially. To create means to bring new and useful ideas or things into existence. Being creative is not a luxury but a necessity in today’s changing world. Creativity is the key to success in almost all areas of life, personal and professional. Creativity can and should be educated. You can never have enough of it in most civilized societies.
Experimental political science has transformed in the last decade. The use of experiments has dramatically increased throughout the discipline, and technological and sociological changes have altered how political scientists use experiments. We chart the transformation of experiments and discuss new challenges that experimentalists face. We then outline how the contributions to this volume will help scholars and practitioners conduct high-quality experiments.