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This study examined the associations between accelerometer-derived sedentary time (ST), lower intensity physical activity (LPA), higher intensity physical activity (HPA) and the incidence of depressive symptoms over 4 years of follow-up.
We included 2082 participants from The Maastricht Study (mean ± s.d. age 60.1 ± 8.0 years; 51.2% men) without depressive symptoms at baseline. ST, LPA and HPA were measured with the ActivPAL3 activity monitor. Depressive symptoms were measured annually over 4 years of follow-up with the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Cox regression analysis was performed to examine the associations between ST, LPA, HPA and incident depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ⩾ 10). Analyses were adjusted for total waking time per day, age, sex, education level, type 2 diabetes mellitus, body mass index, total energy intake, smoking status and alcohol use.
During 7812.81 person-years of follow-up, 203 (9.8%) participants developed incident depressive symptoms. No significant associations [Hazard Ratio (95% confidence interval)] were found between sex-specific tertiles of ST (lowest v. highest tertile) [1.13 (0.76–1.66], or HPA (highest v. lowest tertile) [1.14 (0.78–1.69)] and incident depressive symptoms. LPA (highest v. lowest tertile) was statistically significantly associated with incident depressive symptoms in women [1.98 (1.19–3.29)], but not in men (p-interaction <0.01).
We did not observe an association between ST or HPA and incident depressive symptoms. Lower levels of daily LPA were associated with an increased risk of incident depressive symptoms in women. Future research is needed to investigate accelerometer-derived measured physical activity and ST with incident depressive symptoms, preferably stratified by sex.
Introduced species can have strong ecological, social and economic effects on their non-native environment. Introductions of megafaunal species are rare and may contribute to rewilding efforts, but they may also have pronounced socio-ecological effects because of their scale of influence. A recent introduction of the hippopotamus Hippopotamus amphibius into Colombia is a novel introduction of a megaherbivore onto a new continent, and raises questions about the future dynamics of the socio-ecological system into which it has been introduced. Here we synthesize current knowledge about the Colombian hippopotamus population, review the literature on the species to predict potential ecological and socio-economic effects of this introduction, and make recommendations for future study. Hippopotamuses can have high population growth rates (7–11%) and, on the current trajectory, we predict there could be 400–800 individuals in Colombia by 2050. The hippopotamus is an ecosystem engineer that can have profound effects on terrestrial and aquatic environments and could therefore affect the native biodiversity of the Magdalena River basin. Hippopotamuses are also aggressive and may pose a threat to the many inhabitants of the region who rely upon the Magdalena River for their livelihoods, although the species could provide economic benefits through tourism. Further research is needed to quantify the current and future size and distribution of this hippopotamus population and to predict the likely ecological, social and economic effects. This knowledge must be balanced with consideration of social and cultural concerns to develop appropriate management strategies for this novel introduction.
Glacier surface mass-balance measurements on Greenland started more than a century ago, but no compilation exists of the observations from the ablation area of the ice sheet and local glaciers. Such data could be used in the evaluation of modelled surface mass balance, or to document changes in glacier melt independently from model output. Here, we present a comprehensive database of Greenland glacier surface mass-balance observations from the ablation area of the ice sheet and local glaciers. The database spans the 123 a from 1892 to 2015, contains a total of ~3000 measurements from 46 sites, and is openly accessible through the PROMICE web portal (http://www.promice.dk). For each measurement we provide X, Y and Z coordinates, starting and ending dates as well as quality flags. We give sources for each entry and for all metadata. Two thirds of the data were collected from grey literature and unpublished archive documents. Roughly 60% of the measurements were performed by the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS, previously GGU). The data cover all regions of Greenland except for the southernmost part of the east coast, but also emphasize the importance of long-term time series of which there are only two exceeding 20 a. We use the data to analyse uncertainties in point measurements of surface mass balance, as well as to estimate surface mass-balance profiles for most regions of Greenland.
In the Egyptian millennium covered by this volume two major languages were spoken and written. Egyptian was the larger in terms of number of speakers, while Greek, certainly spoken in Egypt during much of the first millennium bc, became in the Ptolemaic period the dominant language of administration and the language of law. The Egyptian language is represented in its two last phases by two different scripts. The first, which developed in the Delta during the seventh century bc and spread through Egypt by the fifth century bc, is known as Demotic, characterized by a highly cursive script that developed out of the cursive Hieroglyphic writing known as Hieratic. The second phase, Coptic, began to be written around ad 300 and came to be used in legal documents by the sixth century ad, though it did not become a dominant contractual language until after the Arab conquest (3.4). This last stage of the Egyptian language deployed a Greek alphabet to which were added several signs left over from Demotic that preserved phonemes in Egyptian not found in Greek.
Thus during the three traditional phases of Egyptian political history documented in this volume (Ptolemaic, Roman, Byzantine) Egypt was a serially bilingual society. Of course, the Romans through their conquest introduced Latin as a language prominent in certain military and legal contexts (3.3, 4.3). This notwithstanding, Greek remained for Egypt, whether ruled from Rome or Constantinople, the chief administrative and legal language. It continued as such past the Arab conquest into the early eighth century ad (3.4).
Children with conduct problems (CP) are a heterogeneous group. Those with high levels of callous–unemotional traits (CP/HCU) appear emotionally under-reactive at behavioural and neural levels whereas those with low levels of CU traits (CP/LCU) appear emotionally over-reactive, compared with typically developing (TD) controls. Investigating the degree to which these patterns of emotional reactivity are malleable may have important translational implications. Instructing participants with CP/HCU to focus on the eyes of fearful faces (i.e. the most salient feature) can ameliorate their fear-recognition deficits, but it is unknown whether this is mediated by amygdala response. It is also unknown whether focusing on fearful eyes is associated with increased amygdala reactivity in CP/LCU.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure neural responses to fearful and calm faces in children with CP/HCU, CP/LCU and TD controls (n = 17 per group). On half of trials participants looked for a blue dot anywhere within target faces; on the other half, participants were directed to focus on the eye region.
Reaction time (RT) data showed that CP/LCU were selectively slowed in the fear/eyes condition. For the same condition, CP/LCU also showed increased amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC)/orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) responses compared with TD controls. RT and amygdala response to fear/eyes were correlated in CP/LCU only. No effects of focusing on the eye region were observed in CP/HCU.
These data extend the evidence base suggesting that CU traits index meaningful heterogeneity in conduct problems. Focusing on regulating reactive emotional responses may be a fruitful strategy for children with CP/LCU.
Cadmium sulfide (CdS) films were deposited onto glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD) from a bath containing cadmium acetate, ammonium acetate, thiourea, and ammonium hydroxide. The CdS thin films were annealed in argon (neutral atmosphere) or hydrogen (reducing atmosphere) for 1 h at various temperatures (300, 350, 400, 450 and 500 °C). The changes in optical and electrical properties of annealed treated CdS thin films were analyzed. The results showed that, the band-gap and resistivity depend on the post-deposition annealing atmosphere and temperatures. Thus, it was found that these properties of the films, were found to be affected by various processes with opposite effects, some beneficial and others unfavorable. The energy gap and resistivity for different annealing atmospheres was seen to oscillate by thermal annealing. Recrystallization, oxidation, surface passivation, sublimation and materials evaporation were found the main factors of the heat-treatment process responsible for this oscillating behavior. Annealing over 400 °C was seen to degrade the optical and electrical properties of the film.
An analysis was undertaken to measure age-specific vaccine effectiveness (VE) of 2010/11 trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine (TIV) and monovalent 2009 pandemic influenza vaccine (PIV) administered in 2009/2010. The test-negative case-control study design was employed based on patients consulting primary care. Overall TIV effectiveness, adjusted for age and month, against confirmed influenza A(H1N1)pdm 2009 infection was 56% (95% CI 42–66); age-specific adjusted VE was 87% (95% CI 45–97) in <5-year-olds and 84% (95% CI 27–97) in 5- to 14-year-olds. Adjusted VE for PIV was only 28% (95% CI −6 to 51) overall and 72% (95% CI 15–91) in <5-year-olds. For confirmed influenza B infection, TIV effectiveness was 57% (95% CI 42–68) and in 5- to 14-year-olds 75% (95% CI 32–91). TIV provided moderate protection against the main circulating strains in 2010/2011, with higher protection in children. PIV administered during the previous season provided residual protection after 1 year, particularly in the <5 years age group.
We report on the optical and charge transport properties of novel alkali metal chalcogenides, Cs2Hg6S7 and Cs2Cd3Te4, pertaining to their use in radiation detection. Optical absorption, photoconductivity, and gamma ray response measurements for undoped crystals were measured. The band gap energies of the Cs2Hg6S7 and Cs2Cd3Te4 compounds are 1.63 eV and 2.45 eV, respectively. The mobility-lifetime products for charge carriers are of the order of ~10-3 cm2/V for electrons and ~10-4 cm2/V for holes. Detectors fabricated from the ternary compound Cs2Hg6S7 shows well-resolved spectroscopic features at room temperature in response to ϒ -rays at 122 keV from a 57Co source, indicating its potential as a radiation detector.
Cerebrovascular changes and glucocorticoid mediated hippocampal atrophy
are considered relevant for depression-related cognitive deficits,
forming putative treatment targets.
This study examined the relative contribution of cortisol levels, brain
atrophy and white matter hyperintensities to the persistence of cognitive
deficits in older adults with depression.
Thirty-five people aged ⩾60 years with DSM–IV major depression and
twenty-nine healthy comparison controls underwent magnetic resonance
imaging (MRI) and were underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and
were followed up for 18 months. We analysed the relationship between
baseline salivary cortisol levels, whole brain, frontal lobe and
hippocampal volumes, severity of white matter hyperintensities and
follow-up cognitive function in both groups by testing the interaction
between the groups and these biological measures on tests of memory,
executive functions and processing speed in linear regression models.
Group differences in memory and executive function follow-up scores were
associated with ratings of white matter hyperintensities, especially of
the deep white matter and periventricular regions. Compared with healthy
controls, participants with depression scoring within the third tertile
of white matter hyperintensities dropped two and three standard
deviations in executive function and memory scores respectively. No
biological measure related to group differences in processing speed, and
there were no significant interactions between group and cortisol levels,
or volumetric MRI measures.
White matter hyperintensities, rather than cortisol levels or brain
atrophy, are associated with continuing cognitive impairments in older
adults with depression. The findings suggest that cerebrovascular disease
rather than glucocorticoid-mediated brain damage are responsible for the
persistence of cognitive deficits associated with depression in older
In this work we studied the effect of sensitizer concentration on a mobility-lifetime product μτ, on photoconductivity response time ph τph, and on drift mobility μ of the majority carriers in an organic polymer:sensitizer blend. The intensity modulated photocurrent and photo-EMF technique were used as experimental tools for this purpose. The studied material consists of a mixture of the novel non-conjugated main chain hole-transporting polymer PFO6:PDA (Poly(N,N'-bis(4-hexyloxyphenyl)-N'-(4-(9-phenyl-9H-fluoren-9-yl)phenyl)phenylen-1,4- diamine) sensitized with the highly soluble C60 derivative PCBM (phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester) in the range from Z = 1 to 40 wt.-%. It was experimentally observed that (1) at the increasing sensitizer concentration the overall photoconductivity increases; (2) the majority carrier type switches from holes to electrons at approximately 2:1 polymer:sensitizer ratio; (3) the holes response time becomes shorter at the decreasing polymer fraction, while the electrons lifetime is only slightly dependent on sensitizer concentration; (4) the hole mobility-lifetime product decreases at the decreasing concentration of hole transporting component (polymer), while the electrons mobility-lifetime product increases at the increasing concentration of the electron transporting component (sensitizer); (5) the same is true for the carriers mobilities.
We show that the fluorescence of peridinin-chlorophyll a-protein complexes can be strongly enhanced via coupling with plasmon excitations localized in metal nanostructures. The results of ensemble and single-molecule spectroscopy experiments at room temperature demonstrate six-fold increase of the emission intensity of the light-harvesting complex when it is placed in the vicinity of chemically prepared silver islands. Irrespective of the enhancement, we observe no effect of the metal nanoparticle on the fluorescence emission energy of the complex. This observation implies that plasmon excitations may be applied for controlling the optical properties of complex biomolecules.
Two major astronomical experiments are underway at the US Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. The first is the South Pole Telescope, a 10m sub-millimetre telescope designed to measure primary and secondary anisotropies in the CMBR, with the aim of placing constraints on the equation of state for dark energy. The second is the IceCube neutrino observatory, which will be a cubic kilometre array designed to image sources of high energy neutrinos.
Neotropical deciduous forests are threatened by anthropogenic activities and only a small area is protected against exploitation. In contrast to other Neotropical forest types, not much is known about the effect of habitat disturbance on deciduous forest bird communities. In the present study, we examine the effects of human disturbance on a deciduous forest bird community in the Andean foothills of Bolivia. Bird community composition was determined by means of point count surveys in three forest types, i.e. undisturbed deciduous and semi-deciduous forest, and disturbed forest habitat. Habitat disturbance was estimated indirectly by measuring vegetation structure variables in these forests. The effect of habitat disturbance was subsequently examined at bird community level (species richness, species abundance and diversity indices) and functional group level (habitat preference categories and foraging guild). Differences in community composition and reduced species abundance could clearly be related to habitat disturbance. However, results also indicated that sensitivity to disturbance varied among functional groups. Humid forest specialists showed the strongest response to habitat disturbance, predominantly bark-gleaning insectivores, canopy insectivores, understorey insectivores and ground-dwelling species, whereas dry forest specialists were not affected by disturbance. The present study suggests that anthropogenic disturbance negatively influenced the forest bird community in the investigated deciduous forest in Bolivia. This may indicate that conservation of both deciduous and semi-deciduous forest remnants is relevant for a diverse montane bird community in South America. Because various bird species typical of deciduous forests may also be able to survive in partly disturbed forests, conservation strategies should not only be focussed on the protection of pristine remnants but should also include secondary forest edge zones.
The target measure μ is the distribution of a random vector in a box ℬ, a Cartesian product of bounded intervals. The Gibbs sampler is a Markov chain with invariant measure μ. A ‘coupling from the past’ construction of the Gibbs sampler is used to show ergodicity of the dynamics and to perfectly simulate μ. An algorithm to sample vectors with multinormal distribution truncated to ℬ is then implemented.