The diet of Leisler's bat Nyctalus leisleri was investigated by analysis of droppings collected from six mainly pastoral sites in Ireland, two sites in England (one mainly pastoral, one arable predominating) and three in Germany (in forest), and comprised mainly medium-sized and small insects caught in flight, many of which were probably from swarms. There was a major pastoral prey component, indicated mainly by Scathophaga stercoraria, Scarabaeoidea and associated Acari, at the Irish sites (estimated as 29–55%) and the English pastoral site (22%), but this was less significant elsewhere (1–12%). Insects with aquatic larvae (Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, Chironomidae/Ceratopogonidae, Culicidae) often made up an important part of the diet (4–39%). Another distinct component, the Lepidoptera, Hemerobiidae, Chrysopidae and Ichneumonidae, which were all intercorrelated in the results, possibly indicates feeding near trees. This component was most important at the German (36–63%) and English arable (30%) locations, but of less significance at the English pastoral (11%) and Irish (2–19%, mean 6%) ones. The diets in Germany were otherwise diverse.