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The majority of sulfide mineral patterns in the International Centre for Diffraction Data Mineral Powder Diffraction File have historically been of low quality (e.g., FN < 10 and qualitative intensities). A five-year study has resulted in upgrading approximately 20% of the poorer quality patterns and will triple the number of “star quality” patterns. This paper describes the experimental methods used to obtain these upgraded patterns. The essential role of diffraction pattern calculations and diffractogram simulations is stressed.
Let R be a ring with a unity element. An ideal Q of R is called (right) primary if for ideals A and B of R, AB ⊂ Q and A ⊄ Q imply that Bn ⊂ Q for some positive integer n. If R satisfies the ascending chain condition for ideals (ACC), then R is said to have a Noetherian ideal theory if every ideal of R is an intersection of a finite number of primary ideals. If R is a commutative ring that satisfies the ACC, then R has a Noetherian ideal theory. However, it is known that in general R may satisfy the ACC without having a Noetherian ideal theory (an example of such a ring is given in (2)). Thus there is some interest in conditions that imply that a ring R satisfying the ACC will have a Noetherian ideal theory.
The Bernoulli polynomials of order k, where k is a positive integer, are defined by
Bm(k)(x) is a polynomial of degree m with rational coefficients, and the constant term of Bm(k)(x) is the mth Bernoulli number of order k, Bm(k). In a previous paper (3) we obtained some conditions, in terms of k and m, which imply that Bm(k)(x) is irreducible (all references to irreducibility will be with respect to the field of rational numbers). In particular, we obtained the following two results.
An unexpected increase in gastroenteritis cases was reported by healthcare workers on the KwaZulu-Natal Coast, South Africa, January 2017 with >600 cases seen over a 3-week period. A case–control study was conducted to identify the source and risk factors associated with the outbreak so as to recommend control and prevention measures. Record review identified cases and controls and structured-telephonic interviews were conducted to obtain exposure history. Stool specimens were collected from 20 cases along with environmental samples and both screened for enteric pathogens. A total of 126 cases and 62 controls were included in the analysis. The odds of developing gastroenteritis were 6.0 times greater among holiday makers than residents (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.0–17.7). Swimming in the lagoon increased the odds of developing gastroenteritis by 3.3 times (95% CI 1.06–10.38). Lagoon water samples tested positive for norovirus (NoV) GI.6, GII.3 and GII.6, astrovirus and rotavirus. Eleven (55%) stool specimens were positive for NoV with eight genotyped as GI.1 (n = 2), GI.5 (n = 3), GI.6 (n = 2), and GI.7 (n = 1). A reported sewage contamination event impacting the lagoon was the likely source with person-to-person spread perpetuating the outbreak. Restriction to swimming in the lagoon was apparently ineffective at preventing the outbreak, possibly due to inadequate enforcement, communication and signage strategies.
Established methods of recruiting population controls for case–control studies to investigate gastrointestinal disease outbreaks can be time consuming, resulting in delays in identifying the source or vehicle of infection. After an initial evaluation of using online market research panel members as controls in a case–control study to investigate a Salmonella outbreak in 2013, this method was applied in four further studies in the UK between 2014 and 2016. We used data from all five studies and interviews with members of each outbreak control team and market research panel provider to review operational issues, evaluate risk of bias in this approach and consider methods to reduce confounding and bias. The investigators of each outbreak reported likely time and cost savings from using market research controls. There were systematic differences between case and control groups in some studies but no evidence that conclusions on the likely source or vehicle of infection were incorrect. Potential selection biases introduced by using this sampling frame and the low response rate are unclear. Methods that might reduce confounding and some bias should be balanced with concerns for overmatching. Further evaluation of this approach using comparisons with traditional methods and population-based exposure survey data is recommended.
There is growing interest in the manipulation of dietary ingredients a means of reducing nitrogen excretion (NE) and ammonia (NH3) losses from pig production. Significant quantities of lactose may reach the hindgut of the older pig undigested, yielding a substrate for bacteria (Kim et al., 1978). It is hypothesised that increasing concentrations of lactose in finishing pig diets will alter NE patterns and reduce NH3-N emission.
Cyg X-3 underwent a series of giant radio outbursts beginning on September 28, 1982 (Geldzahler et al. 1983). The flux densities at 2.7 and 8.1 GHz (11.1, 3.71 cm respectively, see Figure 1) were measured with the 2.4 km baseline of the Green Bank interferometer once every three days before October 5, 1982 (= JD 244 5248) and three times daily thereafter.
In Table I we present the list of 38 celestial objects that have been observed since January 1978 at 2.7 and 8.1 GHz with the Green Bank interferometer. The sources fall naturally into three categories: radio stars, possibly Galactic sources, and extragalactic sources. SS433, Cyg X-3, and each extrgalactic source is measured several times per day while the other sources are measured once every three days. Reports on the entire program will be found in Geldzahler et al. (1983a), and on specific sources: SS433—Johnston et al. (1983a), BL Lac—Johnston et al. (1983b), Cyg X-3—Geldzahler et al. (1983b) and elsewhere in this volume), and CTA 26—Spencer et al. (1983).
Parachurch organizations are Christian, heavily evangelical Protestant, 501(c)(3) public charities focused on providing religious goods and services outside of any congregational or denominational sponsorship. The parachurch sector in the United States has been growing rapidly in recent decades, yet this growth has been highly uneven across communities. Many communities have very few parachurch organizations, while a few exhibit incredibly higher concentrations of them than would be expected based only upon their religious composition. Using IRS records, we isolate communities with the greatest concentrations of parachurch organizations, and then, drawing upon ideas developed in studies of industrial districts, we address this puzzle by exploring four of those communities, which we refer to as spiritual districts: Tulsa, Oklahoma; Nashville, Tennessee; Colorado Springs, Colorado; and Washington, D.C. We utilize interviews with organizational leaders and archival records to attempt to account for the makeup of and dynamics of each of the four unique clusters of parachurch organizations, concluding with a discussion of how understanding spiritual districts can contribute to greater understanding of the phenomenon of industrial districts.
An outbreak of respiratory diphtheria occurred in two health districts in the province of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa in 2015. A multidisciplinary outbreak response team was involved in the investigation and management of the outbreak. Fifteen cases of diphtheria were identified, with ages ranging from 4 to 41 years. Of the 12 cases that were under the age of 18 years, 9 (75%) were not fully immunized for diphtheria. The case fatality was 27%. Ninety-three household contacts, 981 school or work contacts and 595 healthcare worker contacts were identified and given prophylaxis against Corynebacterium diphtheriae infection. A targeted vaccination campaign for children aged 6–15 years was carried out at schools in the two districts. The outbreak highlighted the need to improve diphtheria vaccination coverage in the province and to investigate the feasibility of offering diphtheria vaccines to healthcare workers.
Although repeatedly associated with white matter microstructural alterations, bipolar disorder (BD) has been relatively unexplored using complex network analysis. This method combines structural and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to model the brain as a network and evaluate its topological properties. A group of highly interconnected high-density structures, termed the ‘rich-club’, represents an important network for integration of brain functioning. This study aimed to assess structural and rich-club connectivity properties in BD through graph theory analyses.
We obtained structural and diffusion MRI scans from 42 euthymic patients with BD type I and 43 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers. Weighted fractional anisotropy connections mapped between cortical and subcortical structures defined the neuroanatomical networks. Next, we examined between-group differences in features of graph properties and sub-networks.
Patients exhibited significantly reduced clustering coefficient and global efficiency, compared with controls globally and regionally in frontal and occipital regions. Additionally, patients displayed weaker sub-network connectivity in distributed regions. Rich-club analysis revealed subtly reduced density in patients, which did not withstand multiple comparison correction. However, hub identification in most participants indicated differentially affected rich-club membership in the BD group, with two hubs absent when compared with controls, namely the superior frontal gyrus and thalamus.
This graph theory analysis presents a thorough investigation of topological features of connectivity in euthymic BD. Abnormalities of global and local measures and network components provide further neuroanatomically specific evidence for distributed dysconnectivity as a trait feature of BD.
This study investigated comparatively the pathogenicity of experimental infection of mice and guinea pigs, with Angiostrongylus mackerrasae and the closely related species A. cantonensis. Time course analyses showed that A. mackerrasae causes eosinophilic meningitis in these hosts, which suggests that the species has the potential to cause meningitis in humans and domestic animals. Both A. mackerrasae and the genetically similar A. cantonensis caused eosinophilic meningitis in mice at two time points of 14 and 21 days post infection (dpi). The brain lesions in mice infected with A. mackerrasae were more granulomatous in nature and the parasites were more likely to appear degenerate compared with lesions caused by A. cantonensis. This may indicate that the mouse immune system eliminates A. mackerrasae infection more effectively. The immunologic responses of mice infected with the two Angiostrongylus species was compared by assessing ex vivo stimulated spleen derived T cells and cytokines including interferon-gamma, interleukin 4 and interleukin 17 on 14 and 21 dpi. The results were similar for mice infected with A. cantonensis and A. mackerrasae. Serum from the infected animals with either A. cantonensis or A. mackerrasae recognized total soluble antigen of A. cantonensis female worms on Western blot.
Most known galaxies at high redshifts have been found by concentrating on ultra steep spectrum (α≳l) sources in low frequency radio surveys (eg. Rottgering et al., 1994; McCarthy et al., 1990). We have been carrying out a systematic study of a large and complete sample from the 408 MHz Molonglo Reference Catalogue which is not biased by any spectral index criterion. Containing 558 sources, defined by S408 ≥ 0.95 Jy; −30° < δ < −20° and the RA ranges of 20h 20m to 06h00m and 09h20m to 14h00m, our sample is about 3 times larger in size and 5 times deeper in flux density than the well studied 3CRR sample.
For this review we have chosen to concentrate on recent progress concerning the model atmosphere analysis of stellar winds in central stars of planetary nebulae (CSPNs). Since there is another review in these proceedings (by W.R. Hamann) devoted specifically to Wolf-Rayet type CSPNs, we will not consider them here. The reader interested in recent work on windless model atmospheres applied to CSPNs is referred to reviews by Napiwotzki (1995) and Werner et al. (1996). There is also an interesting paper by Werner (1996) on the Balmer line problem.
The viewing angle of ≃45° (between the jet axis and the line of sight) dividing quasars and radio galaxies in the orientation-based unified scheme (Barthel 1989) is based largely on the observation that in the redshift range of 0.5 < z < 1.0 in the low-frequency 3CRR sample, there are about twice as many radio galaxies than quasars and the median linear size of galaxies is about twice that of the quasars. The relative numbers and sizes of quasars in other redshift ranges in the 3CRR are however in conflict with the simple unified scheme even if the opening angle is considered to evolve with epoch or radio luminosity (Kapahi 1990; Singal 1993). Larger sources samples, preferably selected at low radio frequencies, are clearly important in such statistical studies.