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HIV-positive individuals are at significantly increased risk of depression. In low- and middle-income countries, depression is frequently under-detected, hampered by a lack of data regarding available screening tools. The 5-item World Health Organization Well-Being Index (WHO-5) is widely used to screen for depression, yet its validity in African adults with HIV has yet to be examined.
In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled HIV-positive adults presenting to an outpatient HIV clinic in Mwanza, Tanzania. Patients were administered the Patient Health Questionnaires (PHQ)-2/9 and WHO-5 questionnaires. The rate of positive screens was calculated. Fisher's exact test and Pearson's correlation coefficients between PHQ-2/9 and WHO-5 scores were calculated.
We enrolled 72 HIV-positive adults: rates of positive depression screen were 62.5%, 77.8%, and 47.2% according to PHQ-2, PHQ-9, and WHO-5, respectively. PHQ and WHO results for depression were significantly associated (Fisher's exact test: PHQ-2 v. WHO-5, p = 0.028; PHQ-9 v. WHO-5, p = 0.002). The level of correlation between PHQ and WHO results for depression was moderate (Pearson's correlation coefficient: PHQ-2 v. WHO-5 −0.3289; PHQ-9 v. WHO-5 −0.4463).Per Mantel–Haenszel analysis, screening results were significantly more concordant among patients in the following strata: men, age >40, Sukuma ethnicity, Christian, unmarried, self-employed, at least primary school education completed, and higher than the median income level.
WHO-5 scores correlated well with those of the PHQ-9, suggesting that the WHO-5 represents a valid screening tool. The concordance of PHQ-9 and WHO-5 results was poorer in marginalized socioeconomic groups. Positive depression screens were exceedingly common among HIV-positive Tanzanian adults according to all three questionnaires.
Prenatal adversity shapes child neurodevelopment and risk for later mental health problems. The quality of the early care environment can buffer some of the negative effects of prenatal adversity on child development. Retrospective studies, in adult samples, highlight epigenetic modifications as sentinel markers of the quality of the early care environment; however, comparable data from pediatric cohorts are lacking. Participants were drawn from the Maternal Adversity Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment (MAVAN) study, a longitudinal cohort with measures of infant attachment, infant development, and child mental health. Children provided buccal epithelial samples (mean age = 6.99, SD = 1.33 years, n = 226), which were used for analyses of genome-wide DNA methylation and genetic variation. We used a series of linear models to describe the association between infant attachment and (a) measures of child outcome and (b) DNA methylation across the genome. Paired genetic data was used to determine the genetic contribution to DNA methylation at attachment-associated sites. Infant attachment style was associated with infant cognitive development (Mental Development Index) and behavior (Behavior Rating Scale) assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development at 36 months. Infant attachment style moderated the effects of prenatal adversity on Behavior Rating Scale scores at 36 months. Infant attachment was also significantly associated with a principal component that accounted for 11.9% of the variation in genome-wide DNA methylation. These effects were most apparent when comparing children with a secure versus a disorganized attachment style and most pronounced in females. The availability of paired genetic data revealed that DNA methylation at approximately half of all infant attachment-associated sites was best explained by considering both infant attachment and child genetic variation. This study provides further evidence that infant attachment can buffer some of the negative effects of early adversity on measures of infant behavior. We also highlight the interplay between infant attachment and child genotype in shaping variation in DNA methylation. Such findings provide preliminary evidence for a molecular signature of infant attachment and may help inform attachment-focused early intervention programs.
Maternal prenatal stress during pregnancy is associated with fetal growth restriction and adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes, which may be mediated by impaired placental function. Imprinted genes control fetal growth, placental development, adult behaviour (including maternal behaviour) and placental lactogen production. This study examined whether maternal prenatal depression was associated with aberrant placental expression of the imprinted genes paternally expressed gene 3 (PEG3), paternally expressed gene 10 (PEG10), pleckstrin homology-like domain family a member 2 (PHLDA2) and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1C (CDKN1C), and resulting impaired placental human placental lactogen (hPL) expression.
A diagnosis of depression during pregnancy was recorded from Manchester cohort participants’ medical notes (n = 75). Queen Charlotte's (n = 40) and My Baby and Me study (MBAM) (n = 81) cohort participants completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale self-rating psychometric questionnaire. Villous trophoblast tissue samples were analysed for gene expression.
In a pilot study, diagnosed depression during pregnancy was associated with a significant reduction in placental PEG3 expression (41%, p = 0.02). In two further independent cohorts, the Queen Charlotte's and MBAM cohorts, placental PEG3 expression was also inversely associated with maternal depression scores, an association that was significant in male but not female placentas. Finally, hPL expression was significantly decreased in women with clinically diagnosed depression (44%, p < 0.05) and in those with high depression scores (31% and 21%, respectively).
This study provides the first evidence that maternal prenatal depression is associated with changes in the placental expression of PEG3, co-incident with decreased expression of hPL. This aberrant placental gene expression could provide a possible mechanistic explanation for the co-occurrence of maternal depression, fetal growth restriction, impaired maternal behaviour and poorer offspring outcomes.
In this paper we illustrate the application of electron beam techniques to the measurement of strain, defect and alloy concentrations in nitride thin films. We present brief comparative studies of CL spectra of AlGaN and InGaN epilayers and EBSD patterns obtained from two silicon-doped 3 μm thick GaN epilayers grown on an on-axis (0001) sapphire substrate and a sapphire substrate misoriented by 10° toward the m-plane (10 0).
Rapid and wide dispersal of passengers after flights makes investigation of flight-related outbreaks challenging. An outbreak of Salmonella Heidelberg was identified in a group of Irish travellers returning from Tanzania. Additional international cases sharing the same flight were identified. Our aim was to determine the source and potential vehicles of infection. Case-finding utilized information exchange using experts' communication networks and national surveillance systems. Demographic, clinical and food history information was collected. Twenty-five additional cases were identified from Ireland, The Netherlands, Norway, USA and Canada. We conducted a case-control study which indicated a significant association between illness and consumption of milk tart (OR 10·2) and an egg dish (OR 6) served on-board the flight. No food consumed before the flight was associated with illness. Cases from countries other than Ireland provided supplementary information that facilitated the identification of likely vehicles of infection. Timely, committed international collaboration is vital in such investigations.
In this paper we illustrate the application of electron beam techniques to the measurement of strain, defect and alloy concentrations in nitride thin films. We present brief comparative studies of CL spectra of AlGaN and InGaN epilayers and EBSD patterns obtained from two silicon-doped 3 μm thick GaN epilayers grown on an on-axis (0001) sapphire substrate and a sapphire substrate misoriented by 10° toward the m-plane (1010).
Echocardiography detects a greater prevalence of rheumatic heart disease than heart auscultation. Echocardiographic screening for rheumatic heart disease combined with secondary prophylaxis may potentially prevent severe rheumatic heart disease in high-risk populations. We aimed to determine the prevalence of rheumatic heart disease in children from an urban New Zealand population at high risk for acute rheumatic fever.
Methods and results
To optimise accurate diagnosis of rheumatic heart disease, we utilised a two-step model. Portable echocardiography was conducted on 1142 predominantly Māori and Pacific children aged 10–13 years. Children with an abnormal screening echocardiogram underwent clinical assessment by a paediatric cardiologist together with hospital-based echocardiography. Rheumatic heart disease was then classified as definite, probable, or possible. Portable echocardiography identified changes suggestive of rheumatic heart disease in 95 (8.3%) of 1142 children, which reduced to 59 (5.2%) after cardiology assessment. The prevalence of definite and probable rheumatic heart disease was 26.0 of 1000, with 95% confidence intervals ranging from 12.6 to 39.4. Portable echocardiography overdiagnosed rheumatic heart disease with physiological valve regurgitation diagnosed in 28 children. A total of 30 children (2.6%) had non-rheumatic cardiac abnormalities, 11 of whom had minor congenital mitral valve anomalies.
We found high rates of undetected rheumatic heart disease in this high-risk population. Rheumatic heart disease screening has resource implications with cardiology evaluation required for accurate diagnosis. Echocardiographic screening for rheumatic heart disease may overdiagnose rheumatic heart disease unless congenital mitral valve anomalies and physiological regurgitation are excluded.
Nakamura and co-workers were first to report the observation of spontaneously formed In-rich clusters in InGaN quantum wells (QW), using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) [1,2]. Some of the present authors have argued that the exceptional optical efficiency of nitride devices is due to the presence of nearly pure InN QD which form accidentally during crystal growth . Pure InN QD with very small radius would emit light in the required spectral region, under the opposing effects of intrinsic electric fields and quantum confinement . We have recently used extended X-ray absorption fine stucture to examine nanostructure of molecular beam epitaxial (MBE) quantum boxes (QB), and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy to examine their optical properties . As revealed by AFM, QB are densely packed mesoscopic structures, 10–40 nm wide and 2–3 nm high. Our analysis of the QB EXAFS shows that the filling factor is of order 1%: each QB therefore contains a single QD. The optical evidence suggests that InN dots may be cubic. In contrast, TEM shows that QD in thick epilayers are sparsely distributed . We re-examine recent TEM data on QW in the light of these results.
The local structure around Er and Eu atoms introduced into GaN epilayers was studied by means of Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure above the appropriate rare-earth X-ray absorption edge. The samples were doped in situ during growth by Molecular Beam Epitaxy. The formation of ErN clusters was found in samples with high average Er concentrations of 32±6% and 12.4±0.8%, estimated by Wavelength Dispersive X-ray analysis. When the average Er concentration is decreased to 6.0±0.2%, 1.6±0.2% and 0.17±0.02%, Er is found in localised clusters of ErGaN phase with high local Er content. Similar behaviour is observed for Eu-doped samples. For an average Eu concentration of 30.5±0.5% clusters of pure EuN occur. Decreasing the Eu concentration to 10.4±0.5% leads to EuGaN clusters with high local Eu content. However, for a sample with an Eu concentration of 14.2±0.5% clustering of Eu was not observed.
The incidence of infection by mycobacteria, other than tubercle bacilli (MOTT) is increasing in the United Kingdom, Europe and the United States. These diseases increase morbidity and are an increasing public health concern. However, the epidemiology of disease due to these species is not well characterized. We used space–time clustering approaches and Generalized Linear Modelling to investigate the potential predictors of disease in cases of infection by organisms of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and M. malmoense recorded in the north of England during 2000–2005. There was significant spatial and temporal clustering in juvenile cases of infection by MAC but not for cases of infection in adults by either species. There were no significant predictors of infection by M. malmoense or juvenile cases of M. avium. Incidence of disease caused by M. avium in adults was significantly related to health deprivation and weakly related to rainfall. We consider possible reasons for the difference in epidemiology in infection by M. avium in adults and juveniles.
Co-circulating variants of influenza A/H3N2 viruses in children were studied in Houston, Texas between October 1997 and March 1998 to assess the effects of a new variant strain on the severity of clinical illness. Influenza A virus was isolated from the nasal wash or nasal aspirate specimens collected from children at two tertiary care hospitals, and 271 isolates were available for variant-specific subtyping using RT–PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. We classified 124 (46%) influenza viruses as A/H3N2/Wuhan/359/95-like and 137 (50%) as A/H3N2/Sydney/05/97-like. Ten (4%) virus isolates could not be classified. Ill contacts in the household were reported more frequently in patients infected with A/Sydney-like viruses than in those infected with A/Wuhan-like viruses (85% vs. 71%, respectively, P=0·02). There were no differences in other demographic variables among children infected with these strains. This study found no increase in illness severity in children infected with a newly emerging strain.
In order to determine whether cereal crops require fertilizer sulphur (S) in areas estimated as receiving < 20 kg S/ha per year from the atmosphere, the effects of applying agricultural gypsum (10, 20, 30, 40, 60 and 80 kg S/ha), ammonium sulphate (24 and 48 kg S/ha) and foliar-applied elemental S (10 kg S/ha) fertilizers were compared with a nil-S control in replicated field experiments at 12 sites in England and Wales during 1987–90. Averaged across all S treatments, significant (P ≤ 0·01) positive yield responses of 0·4 t/ha were obtained in winter barley at three sites in 1990 on sandy soils in Wales (two sites) and in south-west England (one site). There was no yield advantage in applying > 10 kg/ha of S as gypsum at these sites. Yield responses were best predicted by a nitrogen: S concentration ratio ≥ 17:1 in leaf tissue at anthesis and a S concentration of ≤ 0·1% in the grain dry matter at harvest.
Significant increases in total S and sulphate-S concentrations in leaf tissue at anthesis were obtained from increasing the rates of gypsum applied at ten of the sites, but a significant increase in the concentration of S in the grain at harvest was obtained at only one site. There was no difference in effectiveness between gypsum and foliar-applied elemental sulphur when compared at a single rate of 10 kg S/ha. Comparison of the increases in leaf-S status from maximum application rates of ammonium sulphate and gypsum suggested that ammonium sulphate was the more effective Sfertilizer source. The results confirm that S deficiency is starting to appear in cereal crops in England and Wales.
A structured sample of mobile elderly patients in a rural community practice was assessed on validated rating scales for depression, dementia and disability. A total of 62% of the sample was abnormal on at least one variable. The overall prevalence of depression was 13%; the overall prevalence of dementia was either 10 or 18% depending on the criterion of Mental Test Score (MTS). Depression and dementia were related, depression being more common in females. In depressed and demented patients, MTS was age-related in those over 60 years; in depression alone, MTS was not age-related. Dementia was age-related, particularly over the age of 75. Disability increased with age and was more common in females. Disability was associated with both depression and dementia.
Brain-type creatine phosphokinase isoenzyme (CPK BB) was measured by radioimmunoassay in the serum of 31 depressed patients undergoing bilateral ECT. Samples were taken shortly before and at one hour, two hours, and six hours following ECT. ECT did not cause a significant alteration in serum CPK BB concentration during the six hours following the treatment. Similarly, there was no difference in mean pre-ECT concentration of serum CPK BB between patients receiving the first ECT of their current admission and those receiving subsequent treatments. These findings do not support suggestions that ECT causes alteration in permeability of the blood-brain barrier, nor that it causes detectable brain injury.
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