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To examine the association between parenting styles and overall child dietary quality within households that are low-income and food-insecure.
Child dietary intake was measured via a 24 h dietary recall. Dietary quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005). Parenting styles were measured and scored using the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire. Linear regressions were used to test main and interaction associations between HEI-2005 scores and parenting styles.
Non-probability sample of low-income and food-insecure households in South Carolina, USA.
Parent–child dyads (n 171). Parents were ≥18 years old and children were 9–15 years old.
We found a significant interaction between authoritative and authoritarian parenting style scores. For those with a mean authoritarian score, each unit increase in authoritative score was associated with a higher HEI-2005 score (b = 3·36, P < 0.05). For those with an authoritarian score that was 1 sd above the mean authoritarian score, each unit increase in authoritative score was associated with a higher HEI-2005 score (b = 8.42, P < 0.01). For those with an authoritarian score that was −1 sd below the mean authoritarian score, each unit increase in authoritative score was associated with a lower HEI-2005 score; however, this was not significant (b = −1·69, P > 0·05). Permissive parenting style scores were negatively associated with child dietary quality (b = −2·79, P < 0·05).
Parenting styles should be considered an important variable that is associated with overall dietary quality in children living within low-income and food-insecure households.
We have used ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to observe englacial structural control upon the development of an esker formed during a high-magnitude outburst flood (jökulhlaup). The surge-type Skeiðarárjökull, an outlet glacier of the Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland, is a frequent source of jökulhlaups. The rising-stage waters of the November 1996 jökulhlaup travelled through a dense network of interconnected fractures that perforated the margin of the glacier. Subsequent discharge focused upon a small number of conduit outlets. Recent ice-marginal retreat has exposed a large englacial esker associated with one of these outlets. We investigated structural controls on esker genesis in April 2006, by collecting >2.5km of GPR profiles on the glacier surface up-glacier of where the esker ridge has been exposed by meltout. In lines closest to the exposed esker ridge, we interpret areas of englacial horizons up to ~30m wide and ~10–15m high as an up-glacier continuation of the esker sediments. High-amplitude, dipping horizons define the base of esker materials across many lines. Similar dipping surfaces deeper in the profiles suggest that: (1) the dipping surfaces beneath the esker are englacial tephera bands; (2) floodwaters were initially discharged along structurally controlled englacial surfaces (tephra bands); (3) the rapid increase in discharge resulted in hydrofracturing; (4) establishment of preferential flow paths resulted in conduit development along the tephra bands due to localized excavation of surrounding glacier ice; and (5) sedimentation took place within the new accommodation space to form the englacial structure melting out to produce the esker.
Preston et al (1976) and Burke (1982, these proceedings) have long extolled the virtues of launching a radio telescope into space to increase VLBI baseline lengths and thus angular resolution, and to provide a much enhanced image formation capability. The scientific motivation for this has been covered in a number of memoranda referenced by Burke in these proceedings, and by Anderson et al (1982). Efforts to mobilise western astronomical support for space VLBI met with success in late 1982 at a meeting of US and European radio astronomers in Toulouse, France, at which a decision was taken to propose a joint mission to ESA and NASA. Shortly thereafter, a formal proposal was made to ESA (Anderson et al 1982) for a free flying satellite in an elliptical orbit out to 15000 km from the Earth, designed to observe in concert with the major ground-based VLBI networks and arrays. The mission, dubbed QUASAT, was received favourably in both ESA and NASA, with the result that formal Assessment Studies are scheduled to begin in both agencies in October 1983.
An antenna in geostationary orbit was used for VLBI observations at 2.3 GHz, in combination with ground antennas in Australia and Japan. 23 of the 25 observed sources were detected on orbiter-ground baselines, with baseline lengths as large as 2.15 earth diameters. Brightness temperatures between 1012 K and 4 × 1012 K were measured for 10 sources.
The Dark Energy Survey is undertaking an observational programme imaging 1/4 of the southern hemisphere sky with unprecedented photometric accuracy. In the process of observing millions of faint stars and galaxies to constrain the parameters of the dark energy equation of state, the Dark Energy Survey will obtain pre-discovery images of the regions surrounding an estimated 100 gamma-ray bursts over 5 yr. Once gamma-ray bursts are detected by, e.g., the Swift satellite, the DES data will be extremely useful for follow-up observations by the transient astronomy community. We describe a recently-commissioned suite of software that listens continuously for automated notices of gamma-ray burst activity, collates information from archival DES data, and disseminates relevant data products back to the community in near-real-time. Of particular importance are the opportunities that non-public DES data provide for relative photometry of the optical counterparts of gamma-ray bursts, as well as for identifying key characteristics (e.g., photometric redshifts) of potential gamma-ray burst host galaxies. We provide the functional details of the DESAlert software, and its data products, and we show sample results from the application of DESAlert to numerous previously detected gamma-ray bursts, including the possible identification of several heretofore unknown gamma-ray burst hosts.
To examine the association of both perceived and geographic neighbourhood food access with food security status among households with children.
This was a cross-sectional study in which participants’ perceptions of neighbourhood food access were assessed by a standard survey instrument, and geographic food access was evaluated by distance to the nearest supermarket. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine the associations.
The Midlands Family Study included 544 households with children in eight counties in South Carolina, USA. Food security status among participants was classified into three categories: food secure (FS), food insecure (FI) and very low food security among children (VLFS-C).
Compared with FS households, VLFS-C households had lower odds of reporting easy access to adequate food shopping. VLFS-C households also had lower odds of reporting neighbourhood access to affordable fruits and vegetables compared with FS households and reported worse selection of fruits and vegetables, quality of fruits and vegetables, and selection of low-fat products. FI households had lower odds of reporting fewer opportunities to purchase fast food. None of the geographic access measures was significantly associated with food security status.
Caregivers with children who experienced hunger perceived that they had less access to healthy affordable food in their community, even though grocery stores were present. Approaches to improve perceived access to healthy affordable food should be considered as part of the overall approach to improving food security and eliminating child hunger.
During 1990 we surveyed the southern sky using a multi-beam receiver at frequencies of 4850 and 843 MHz. The half-power beamwidths were 4 and 25 arcmin respectively. The finished surveys cover the declination range between +10 and −90 degrees declination, essentially complete in right ascension, an area of 7.30 steradians. Preliminary analysis of the 4850 MHz data indicates that we will achieve a five sigma flux density limit of about 30 mJy. We estimate that we will find between 80 000 and 90 000 new sources above this limit. This is a revised version of the paper presented at the Regional Meeting by the first four authors; the surveys now have been completed.
Genetic selection for milking speed is feasible. The existence of a correlation structure between milking speed and milk yield, however, necessitates a selection strategy to increase milking speed with no repercussion on genetic merit for milk yield. Residual milking duration (RMD) and residual milking duration including somatic cell score (RMDS), defined as the residuals from a regression model of milking duration on milk yield or milk yield plus somatic cell score (SCS) have been advocated. The objective of this study was to undertake a first ever genetic analysis of these novel traits. Data on electronically recorded milking duration and other milking characteristics from 235 005 test-day records on 74 608 cows in 1075 Irish dairy herds were available. Variance components for the milking characteristic traits were estimated using animal linear mixed models and covariances with other performance traits, including udder-related type traits, were estimated using sire models. The heritability of milking duration, RMD and RMDS was 0.20, 0.22 and 0.18, respectively. There were little differences in the heritability of RMD or RMDS when defined using genetic regression. The genetic standard deviation of RMDS defined on the phenotypic or genetic level was 36.8 s and 37.6 s, respectively, clearly indicating considerable exploitable genetic variation in milking duration independent of both milk yield and SCS. The genetic correlation between phenotypically derived RMDS and milk yield was favourable (−0.43), but RMDS was unfavourably genetically correlated with SCS (−0.30); the genetic correlations with both traits when RMDS was defined at a genetic level were zero. RMDS defined at the phenotypic level was negatively (i.e. unfavourable) genetically correlated (−0.35; s.e. = 0.15) with mastitis; however, when defined using genetic regression, shorter RMDS was not associated with greater expected incidence of mastitis. RMDS, defined at the genetic level, is a useful heritable trait with ample genetic variation for inclusion in a national breeding strategy without influencing genetic gain in either milk yield or udder health.
The first direct detection of gravitational waves may be made through observations of pulsars. The principal aim of pulsar timing-array projects being carried out worldwide is to detect ultra-low frequency gravitational waves (f ∼ 10−9–10−8 Hz). Such waves are expected to be caused by coalescing supermassive binary black holes in the cores of merged galaxies. It is also possible that a detectable signal could have been produced in the inflationary era or by cosmic strings. In this paper, we review the current status of the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array project (the only such project in the Southern hemisphere) and compare the pulsar timing technique with other forms of gravitational-wave detection such as ground- and space-based interferometer systems.
A ‘pulsar timing array’ (PTA), in which observations of a large sample of pulsars spread across the celestial sphere are combined, allows investigation of ‘global’ phenomena such as a background of gravitational waves or instabilities in atomic timescales that produce correlated timing residuals in the pulsars of the array. The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) is an implementation of the PTA concept based on observations with the Parkes 64-m radio telescope. A sample of 20 ms pulsars is being observed at three radio-frequency bands, 50 cm (~700 MHz), 20 cm (~1400 MHz), and 10 cm (~3100 MHz), with observations at intervals of two to three weeks. Regular observations commenced in early 2005. This paper describes the systems used for the PPTA observations and data processing, including calibration and timing analysis. The strategy behind the choice of pulsars, observing parameters, and analysis methods is discussed. Results are presented for PPTA data in the three bands taken between 2005 March and 2011 March. For 10 of the 20 pulsars, rms timing residuals are less than 1 μs for the best band after fitting for pulse frequency and its first time derivative. Significant ‘red’ timing noise is detected in about half of the sample. We discuss the implications of these results on future projects including the International Pulsar Timing Array and a PTA based on the Square Kilometre Array. We also present an ‘extended PPTA’ data set that combines PPTA data with earlier Parkes timing data for these pulsars.