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Social cognition has been associated with functional outcome in patients with first episode psychosis (FEP). Social cognition has also been associated with neurocognition and cognitive reserve. Although cognitive reserve, neurocognitive functioning, social cognition, and functional outcome are related, the direction of their associations is not clear. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to analyze the influence of social cognition as a mediator between cognitive reserve and cognitive domains on functioning in FEP both at baseline and at 2 years.
The sample of the study was composed of 282 FEP patients followed up for 2 years. To analyze whether social cognition mediates the influence of cognitive reserve and cognitive domains on functioning, a path analysis was performed. The statistical significance of any mediation effects was evaluated by bootstrap analysis.
At baseline, as neither cognitive reserve nor the cognitive domains studied were related to functioning, the conditions for mediation were not satisfied. Nevertheless, at 2 years of follow-up, social cognition acted as a mediator between cognitive reserve and functioning. Likewise, social cognition was a mediator between verbal memory and functional outcome. The results of the bootstrap analysis confirmed these significant mediations (95% bootstrapped CI (−10.215 to −0.337) and (−4.731 to −0.605) respectively).
Cognitive reserve and neurocognition are related to functioning, and social cognition mediates in this relationship.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a psychiatric chronic disorder of childhood that persists into adolescence and adulthood in the most part of cases. There are various ways of treating ADHD.
Assess the effectiveness and tolerability of atomoxetine long-term and routine clinical practice in adult ADHD treatment. Study the clinical profile of the patients who take atomoxetine.
The aim of this is to study the treatment of ADHD in adults with a non-stimulant drug atomoxetine.
We obtain results from 126 patients recruited from July 2009 to May 2013 who have been prescribed Atomoxetine as a treatment for ADHD from the hospital pharmacy.
Comorbid disorders were presented in 57.1% of the patients included at the study (25.3% of which belong to the group of anxiety disorders). The use of other psychotropic drugs associated with atomoxetine was observed in 54.8% of patients. The 62.7% of the patients concerned continued treatment beyond 225 weeks (4 years 3 months) of observation. The Clinical Global Impression Improvement scale (CGI-I) and side effects determine monitoring treatment. A total of 61.9% of patients responded satisfactory to treatment with atomoxetine getting the CGI-I scale a score of 1-2. The duration of therapy and patient age are factors that influence the response. Furthermore, the clinical profile of patients treated with atomoxetine is characterized by different comorbidities, anxious symptomatology and personality disorders. Atomoxetine treatment with has also been shown its effectiveness and safe despite the presence of concomitant comorbidities and psychopharmacological treatment.
Atomoxetine treatment with has been effective and has proven good tolerability profile during treatment.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
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