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The new species Begonia maguniana H.P.Wilson from New Guinea is described. It is endemic to the Central Range of New Guinea at altitudes of c.1700–2300 m and belongs to the IUCN category Least Concern.
Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA), the cryogenic infrared space telescope recently pre-selected for a ‘Phase A’ concept study as one of the three remaining candidates for European Space Agency (ESA's) fifth medium class (M5) mission, is foreseen to include a far-infrared polarimetric imager [SPICA-POL, now called B-fields with BOlometers and Polarizers (B-BOP)], which would offer a unique opportunity to resolve major issues in our understanding of the nearby, cold magnetised Universe. This paper presents an overview of the main science drivers for B-BOP, including high dynamic range polarimetric imaging of the cold interstellar medium (ISM) in both our Milky Way and nearby galaxies. Thanks to a cooled telescope, B-BOP will deliver wide-field 100–350
m images of linearly polarised dust emission in Stokes Q and U with a resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and both intensity and spatial dynamic ranges comparable to those achieved by Herschel images of the cold ISM in total intensity (Stokes I). The B-BOP 200
m images will also have a factor
30 higher resolution than Planck polarisation data. This will make B-BOP a unique tool for characterising the statistical properties of the magnetised ISM and probing the role of magnetic fields in the formation and evolution of the interstellar web of dusty molecular filaments giving birth to most stars in our Galaxy. B-BOP will also be a powerful instrument for studying the magnetism of nearby galaxies and testing Galactic dynamo models, constraining the physics of dust grain alignment, informing the problem of the interaction of cosmic rays with molecular clouds, tracing magnetic fields in the inner layers of protoplanetary disks, and monitoring accretion bursts in embedded protostars.
Declining mortality following invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) has been observed concurrent with a reduced incidence due to effective pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. However, with IPD now increasing due to serotype replacement, we undertook a statistical analysis to estimate the trend in all-cause 30-day case fatality rate (CFR) in the North East of England (NEE) following IPD. Clinical, microbiological and demographic data were obtained for all laboratory-confirmed IPD cases (April 2006–March 2016) and the adjusted association between CFR and epidemiological year estimated using logistic regression. Of the 2510 episodes of IPD included in the analysis, 486 died within 30 days of IPD (CFR 19%). Increasing age, male sex, a diagnosis of septicaemia, being in ⩾1 clinical risk groups, alcohol abuse and individual serotypes were independently associated with increased CFR. A significant decline in CFR over time was observed following adjustment for these significant predictors (adjusted odds ratio 0.93, 95% confidence interval 0.89–0.98; P = 0.003). A small but significant decline in 30-day all-cause CFR following IPD has been observed in the NEE. Nonetheless, certain population groups remain at increased risk of dying following IPD. Despite the introduction of effective vaccines, further strategies to reduce the ongoing burden of mortality from IPD are needed.
Eight latest Eocene to earliest Miocene stratigraphic surfaces have been identified in petroleum well data from the Taranaki Basin, New Zealand. These surfaces define seven regional sedimentary packages, of variable thickness and lithofacies, forming a mixed siliciclastic–carbonate system. The evolving tectonic setting, particularly the initial development of the Australian–Pacific convergent margin, controlled geographic, stratigraphic and facies variability. This tectonic signal overprinted a regional transgressive trend that culminated in latest Oligocene times. The earliest influence of active compressional tectonics is reflected in the preservation of latest Eocene – Early Oligocene deepwater sediments in the northern Taranaki Basin. Thickness patterns for all mid Oligocene units onwards show a shift in sedimentation to the eastern Taranaki Basin, controlled by reverse movement on the Taranaki Fault System. This resulted in the deposition of a thick sedimentary wedge, initially of coarse clastic sediments, later carbonate dominated, in the foredeep close to the fault. In contrast, Oligocene active normal faulting in a small sub-basin in the south may represent the most northerly evidence for rifting in southern Zealandia, related to Emerald Basin formation. The Early Miocene period saw a return to clastic-dominated deposition, the onset of regional regression and the southward propagation of compressional tectonics.
Deficits in frontal lobe perfusion have been demonstrated in late-life depression; however, studies to date have generally involved small numbers, used neuroimaging rather than bedside testing and have not controlled for important covariates.
We aimed to examine the association between depressive symptoms and frontal lobe perfusion during standing, in a large cohort of community-dwelling older people.
Participants aged ≥50 years underwent continuous measurement of orthostatic blood pressure by finometry, and frontal lobe perfusion by near-infrared spectroscopy. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the eight-item Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Real-time frontal lobe cerebral oxygenation was measured by the Portalite System, detecting changes in frontal lobe perfusion and reporting a tissue saturation index score.
Almost 8% (209 out of 2616) had clinically significant depressive symptoms. Multilevel models demonstrated a significantly lower tissue saturation index in participants with depressive symptoms at both 60 and 90 s post-stand, with coefficients of −0.43 (95% CI −0.63 to −0.22) and −0.37 (95% CI −0.57 to −0.16), respectively. Controlling for relevant covariates did not significantly attenuate these associations. After addition of systolic blood pressure this association was no longer significant, suggesting lower blood pressure may modify this relationship.
This study demonstrates that lower frontal lobe perfusion, related to lower values of baseline systolic blood pressure, is associated with clinically significant depressive symptoms in a cohort of community-dwelling older people. Given the recognised longitudinal association between lower blood pressure and depression in older people, this may represent a potential therapeutic target for prevention of incident depression.
The lithostratigraphic characteristics of the iconic Blue Lias Formation of southern Britain are influenced by sedimentation rates and stratigraphic gaps. Evidence for regular sedimentary cycles is reassessed using logs of magnetic susceptibility from four sites as an inverse proxy for carbonate content. Standard spectral analysis, including allowing for false discovery rates, demonstrates several scales of regular cyclicity in depth. Bayesian probability spectra provide independent confirmation of at least one scale of regular cyclicity at all sites. The frequency ratios between the different scales of cyclicity are consistent with astronomical forcing of climate at the periods of the short eccentricity, obliquity and precession cycles. Using local tuned time scales, 62 ammonite biohorizons have minimum durations of 0.7 to 276 ka, with 94% of them <41 ka. The duration of the Hettangian Stage is ≥2.9 Ma according to data from the West Somerset and Devon/Dorset coasts individually, increasing to ≥3.7 Ma when combined with data from Glamorgan and Warwickshire. A composite time scale, constructed using the tuned time scales plus correlated biohorizon limits treated as time lines, allows for the integration of local stratigraphic gaps. This approach yields an improved duration for the Hettangian Stage of ≥4.1 Ma, a figure that is about twice that suggested in recent time scales.
Detecting gastrointestinal (GI) infection transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM) in England is complicated by a lack of routine sexual behavioural data. We investigated whether gender distributions might generate signals for increased transmission of GI pathogens among MSM. We examined the percentage male of laboratory-confirmed patient-episodes for patients with no known travel history for 10 GI infections of public health interest in England between 2003 and 2013, stratified by age and region. An adult male excess was observed for Shigella spp. (annual maximum 71% male); most pronounced for those aged 25–49 years and living in London, Brighton and Manchester. An adult male excess was observed every year for Entamoeba histolytica (range 59.8–76.1% male), Giardia (53.1–57.6%) and Campylobacter (52.1–53.5%) and for a minority of years for hepatitis A (max. 69.8%) and typhoidal salmonella (max. 65.7%). This approach generated a signal for excess male episodes for six GI pathogens, including a characterised outbreak of Shigella among MSM. Stratified analyses by geography and age group were consistent with MSM transmission for Shigella. Optimisation and routine application of this technique by public health authorities elsewhere might help identify potential GI infection outbreaks due to sexual transmission among MSM, for further investigation.
Protected areas are central to global efforts to prevent species extinctions, with many countries investing heavily in their establishment. Yet the designation of protected areas alone can only abate certain threats to biodiversity. Targeted management within protected areas is often required to achieve fully effective conservation within their boundaries. It remains unclear what combination of protected area designation and management is needed to remove the suite of processes that imperil species. Here, using Australia as a case study, we use a dataset on the pressures facing threatened species to determine the role of protected areas and management in conserving imperilled species. We found that protected areas that are not resourced for threat management could remove one or more threats to 1,185 (76%) species and all threats to very few (n = 51, 3%) species. In contrast, a protected area network that is adequately resourced to manage threatening processes within their boundary could remove one or more threats to almost all species (n = 1,551; c. 100%) and all threats to almost half (n = 740, 48%). However, 815 (52%) species face one or more threats that require coordinated conservation actions that protected areas alone could not remove. This research shows that investing in the continued expansion of Australia's protected area network without providing adequate funding for threat management within and beyond the existing protected area network will benefit few threatened species. These findings highlight that as the international community expands the global protected area network in accordance with the 2020 Strategic Plan for Biodiversity, a greater emphasis on the effectiveness of threat management is needed.
Commercial point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tests for Group A Streptococcus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and influenza virus have large potential diagnostic and financial impact. Many published reports on test performance, often funded by diagnostics companies, are prone to bias. The Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD 2015) are a protocol to encourage accurate, transparent reporting. The Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) tool evaluates risk of bias and transportability of results. We used these tools to evaluate diagnostic test accuracy studies of POC studies for three respiratory pathogens. For the 96 studies analysed, compliance was <25% for 14/34 STARD 2015 standards, and 3/7 QUADAS-2 domains showed a high risk of bias. All reports lacked reporting of at least one criterion. These biases should be considered in the interpretation of study results.
In the pig industry the mortality of piglets both during the birth process and in the subsequent 3 to 5 weeks is unacceptably high. This review attempts to summarize the major causes of these losses and to suggest means whereby such losses may be minimized in the commercial situation. Stillbirth rate is discussed in relation to various management regimes and it is concluded that anoxia (the primary cause of intra-partum piglet deaths) may be minimized by the provision of careful assistance during the birth process. Pre-weaning mortality is presented as a complex interaction of factors predominant amongst which are overlying by the sow, chilling, starvation and infection. Each of these areas is discussed in detail and recommendations are made to reduce their negative influence on the survival rate of piglets. Finally, the rōle of piglet activity level/vigour is considered in relation to pre-weaning survival rate. Various factors are discussed in relation to piglet vigour and it is concluded that the two major contributors to low activity level/vigour are intra-partum hypoxia and the endocrine status of the sow and piglet at birth. To reduce hypoxia, careful intervention is again suggested. The rôle of endocrine status is yet to be fully established but promising results are presented on the use of oestradiol treatment of piglets at birth to raise activity level and reduce pre-weaning mortality rate.
The Norske Øer Ice Barrier (NØIB) is a region of fast ice located off the northeast coast of Greenland. It is one of the most extensive areas of landfast ice on Earth. This paper looks at the NØIB formation during the freeze-up of late 2003 and the break-up in summer 2004. As the fast ice is immobile, it provides an ideal location for checking the consistency of classification schemes for satellite sensors. Active microwave (SAR) backscatter values from Envisat are compared with optical observations from the MODIS, multichannel passive microwave from the SSM/I and with ice-freeboard values from the Envisat RA-2. In August 2004 the underside of the NØIB was mapped by an upward-looking multibeam sonar mounted on the Autosub autonomous underwater vehicle. Statistics from sea-ice draft measurements by the multibeam are compared with near-coincident satellite observations. Evaluating the evolution of the fast ice through multiple satellite sensors with ground truth measurements may allow future development of improved automatic classification algorithms which will be better able to track fast-ice extent. Loss of the fast ice for periods of the year has implications for the coastal environment of Greenland and may contribute to the retreat of the Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden glacier and enhanced coastal erosion.
A large number of multispectral and stereo-image data are expected to become available as part of the Global Land Ice Measurements from Space project. We investigate digital elevation model extraction, anisotropic reflectance correction and selected glacier analysis tasks that must be developed to achieve full utility of these new data. Results indicate that glaciers in the Karakoram and Nanga Parbat Himalaya, northern Pakistan, exhibit unique spectral, spatial and geomorphometric patterns that can be exploited by various models and algorithms to produce accurate information regarding glacier extent, supraglacial features and glacier geomorphology The integration of spectral, spatial and geomorphometric features, coupled with approaches for advanced pattern recognition, can help geoscientists study glacier mass balance, glacier erosion, sediment-transfer efficiency and landscape evolution.
Jakobshavn Isbræ is a major ice stream that drains the west-central Greenland ice sheet and becomes afloat in Jakobshavn Isfjord (69° N, 49° W), where it has maintained the world’s fastest-known sustained velocity and calving rate (7 kma−1) for at least four decades. The floating portion is approximately 12 km long and 6 km wide. Surface elevations and motion vectors were determined photogrammetrically for about 500 crevasses on the floating ice, and adjacent grounded ice, using aerial photographs obtained 2 weeks apart in July l985. Surface strain rates were computed from a mesh of 399 quadrilateral elements having velocity measurements at each corner. It is shown that heavy crevassing of floating ice invalidates the assumptions of linear strain theory that (i) surface strain in the floating ice is homogeneous in both space and time, (ii) the squares and products of strain components are nil, and (iii) first- and second-order rotation components are small compared to strain components. Therefore, strain rates and rotation rates were also computed using non-linear strain theory. The percentage difference between computed linear and non-linear second invariants of strain rate per element were greatest (mostly in the range 40–70%) where crevassing is greatest. Isopleths of strain rate parallel and transverse to flow and elevation isopleths relate crevassing to known and inferred pinning points.
Previous research has shown relatively diminished medial prefrontal cortex activation and heightened psychophysiological responses during the recollection of personal events in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but the origin of these abnormalities is unknown. Twin studies provide the opportunity to determine whether such abnormalities reflect familial vulnerabilities, result from trauma exposure, or are acquired characteristics of PTSD.
In this case–control twin study, 26 male identical twin pairs (12 PTSD; 14 non-PTSD) discordant for PTSD and combat exposure recalled and imagined trauma-unrelated stressful and neutral life events using a standard script-driven imagery paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging and concurrent skin conductance measurement.
Diminished activation in the medial prefrontal cortex during Stressful v. Neutral script-driven imagery was observed in the individuals with PTSD, relative to other groups.
Diminished medial prefrontal cortex activation during Stressful v. Neutral script-driven imagery may be an acquired characteristic of PTSD. If replicated, this finding could be used prospectively to inform diagnosis and the assessment of treatment response.
We have analyzed the cm-wavelength flux and polarization observations of four active objects (3C 279, OT 081, BL Lacertae, and 3C 446) for which the data exhibit signatures of shocks. Common characteristics of these sources are: high degrees of polarization, large changes in the polarized flux during outbursts; and stable position angles of the electric vector over long periods.
Eugenia stipitata occurs along rivers in Western Amazonia and produces berry-type fruits with economic potential. Its large recalcitrant (i.e. desiccation-intolerant) seeds have been proposed as a model to study seed stress response, as no apparent differentiation between the embryonic axis and the fused cotyledons are visible. Here, the longevity of submerged seeds was analysed with a view to understanding adaptive mechanisms to seasonal flooding. Submerged seeds began germinating after 2 months. After 1 year, 87 and 96% total germination was reached when seeds were submerged under a water column of 6 cm (where seedlings could emerge from under the water) and 26 cm (where seedlings could not reach the water surface), respectively. Seedling morphology was altered underwater, with short internodes and rudimentary leaf blades, and when submersion was terminated, seedlings transplanted to nursery conditions recovered a normal phenotype. Furthermore, when seedlings were detached from the seeds, the ‘resown’ seeds produced a second, normal seedling within 9 months. Concentrations of the antioxidant glutathione, which was measured as a stress marker, increased with submersion time in water. Seeds that had developed roots and shoots underwater had higher concentrations of glutathione disulphide than non-germinated seeds, suggesting that the flooding stress was more intense for seedlings than seeds, although more oxidizing cellular redox environments are also consistent with the conditions required for differentiation. Submergence underwater is recommended for storage of the recalcitrant seeds of E. stipitata for up to 1 year.