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Objectives: To evaluate prospective and retrospective memory abilities in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), and Operation New Dawn (OND) Veterans with and without a self-reported history of blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Methods: Sixty-one OEF/OIF/OND Veterans, including Veterans with a self-reported history of blast-related mTBI (mTBI group; n=42) and Veterans without a self-reported history of TBI (control group; n=19) completed the Memory for Intentions Test, a measure of prospective memory (PM), and two measures of retrospective memory (RM), the California Verbal Learning Test-II and the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised. Results: Veterans in the mTBI group exhibited significantly lower PM performance than the control group, but the groups did not differ in their performance on RM measures. Further analysis revealed that Veterans in the mTBI group with current PTSD (mTBI/PTSD+) demonstrated significantly lower performance on the PM measure than Veterans in the control group. PM performance by Veterans in the mTBI group without current PTSD (mTBI/PTSD-) was intermediate between the mTBI/PTSD+ and control groups, and results for the mTBI/PTSD- group were not significantly different from either of the other two groups. Conclusions: Results suggest that PM performance may be a sensitive marker of cognitive dysfunction among OEF/OIF/OND Veterans with a history of self-reported blast-related mTBI and comorbid PTSD. Reduced PM may account, in part, for complaints of cognitive difficulties in this Veteran cohort, even years post-injury. (JINS, 2018, 24, 324–334)
The ability of the aorta to buffer blood flow and provide diastolic perfusion (Windkessel function) is a determinant of cardiovascular health. We have reported cardiac dysfunction indicating downstream vascular abnormalities in young adult baboons who were intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) at birth as a result of moderate maternal nutrient reduction. Using 3 T MRI, we examined IUGR offspring (eight male, eight female; 5.7 years; human equivalent 25 years) and age-matched controls (eight male, eight female; 5.6 years) to quantify distal descending aortic cross-section (AC) and distensibility (AD). ANOVA showed decreased IUGR AC/body surface area (0.9±0.05 cm2/m2v. 1.2±0.06 cm2/m2, M±s.e.m., P<0.005) and AD (1.7±0.2 v. 4.0±0.5×10−3/mmHg, P<0.005) without sex difference or group-sex interaction, suggesting intrinsic vascular pathology and impaired development persisting in adulthood. Future studies should evaluate potential consequences of these changes on coronary perfusion, afterload and blood pressure.
Most of the atomic species originating in the solar atmosphere between the upper chromosphere and the corona have their strong characteristic wavelengths in the extreme ultraviolet region of the spectrum. A simple normal-incidence spectrometer system with solar blind detectors such as the Harvard instrument operating between approximately 250 Å and 1350 Å is ideally suited for observing in this most interesting range of the solar atmosphere where the temperature rises outward from 104 to 3 × 106 K. The temperature range represented by the various atomic and ionic species in the extreme ultraviolet is associated with many types of solar structure, prominences and filaments, the supergranulation cells and network, active regions and their associated loop structures and other features. Simultaneous observations in lines of different characteristic temperatures provide a three-dimensional probe of the solar atmosphere. In the instrument, the principal polychromatic position observes the Lyman continuum, Lα, C II, C III, O IV, O VI, and Mg x with seven detectors simultaneously from the same spatial image element, 5″ in size. Approximately 60 additional polychromatic positions are used routinely to carry out specific observing programs, for example, covering several lines of a given stage of ionization, observing lines or continuum from specific species of interest such as helium in prominences, comparing combinations of lines from a given ionic species such as O v where the relative intensities give a rather direct measurement of the density at a given temperature, or measuring differing positions in the Lyman continuum providing intensity measurements which can be interpreted in terms of the departure from ionization equilibrium.
The analysis of high S/N spectra and photometric data of 60 Cyg shows that: (1) Pronounced long-term variations in spectra are accompanied with light variations. (2) The medium-term variations of RV could indicate that 60 Cyg is a spectroscopic binary. (3) Two independent structures dominate the rapid variability of both spectrum and light of the star.
We recently showed that the mRNA expression of genes encoding for specific nutrient sensing receptors, namely the free fatty acid receptors (FFAR) 1, 2, 3, and the hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor (HCAR) 2, undergo characteristic changes during the transition from late pregnancy to lactation in certain adipose tissues (AT) of dairy cows. We hypothesised that divergent energy intake achieved by feeding diets with either high or low portions of concentrate (60% v. 30% concentrate on a dry matter basis) will alter the mRNA expression of FFAR 1, 2, 3, as well as HCAR2 in subcutaneous (SCAT) and retroperitoneal AT (RPAT) of dairy cows in the first 3 weeks postpartum (p.p.). For this purpose, 20 multiparous German Holstein cows were allocated to either the high concentrate ration (HC, n=10) or the low concentrate ration (LC, n=10) from day 1 to 21 p.p. Serum samples and biopsies of SCAT (tail head) and RPAT (above the peritoneum) were obtained at day −21, 1 and 21 relative to parturition. The mRNA abundances were measured by quantitative PCR. The concentrations of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) in serum were measured by gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector. The FFAR1 and FFAR2 mRNA abundance in RPAT was higher at day −21 compared to day 1. At day 21 p.p. the FFAR2 mRNA abundance was 2.5-fold higher in RPAT of the LC animals compared to the HC cows. The FFAR3 mRNA abundance tended to lower values in SCAT of the LC group at day 21. The HCAR2 mRNA abundance was neither affected by time nor by feeding in both AT. On day 21 p.p. the HC group had 1.7-fold greater serum concentrations of propionic acid and lower concentrations of acetic acid (trend: 1.2-fold lower) compared with the LC group. Positive correlations between the mRNA abundance of HCAR2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-2 (PPARG2) indicate a link between HCAR2 and PPARG2 in both AT. We observed an inverse regulation of FFAR2 and FFAR3 expression over time and both receptors also showed an inverse mRNA abundance as induced by different portions of concentrate. Thus, indicating divergent nutrient sensing of both receptors in AT during the transition period. We propose that the different manifestation of negative EB in both groups at day 21 after parturition affect at least FFAR2 expression in RPAT.
In this paper we review some preliminary results from the Harvard College Observatory Extreme Ultraviolet Spectroheliometer on ATM that pertain to solar activity. The results reviewed here are described in more detail in other papers referred to in the text. In the following paragraphs we first describe the instrument and its capabilities, and then turn to results on active regions, sunspots, flares, EUV bright points, coronal holes, and prominences.
In the context of astrobiological exposure and simulation experiments in the BIOMEX project, the lichen Circinaria gyrosa was investigated by Raman microspectroscopy. Owing to the symbiotic nature of lichens and their remarkable extremotolerance, C. gyrosa represents a valid model organism in recent and current astrobiological research. Biogenic compounds of C. gyrosa were studied that may serve as biomarkers in Raman assisted remote sensing missions, e.g. ExoMars. The surface as well as different internal layers of C. gyrosa have been characterized and data on the detectability and distribution of β-carotene, chitin and calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite) are presented in this study. Raman microspectroscopy was applied on natural samples and thin sections. Although calcium oxalates can also be formed by rare geological processes it may serve as a suitable biomarker for astrobiological investigations. In the model organism C. gyrosa, it forms extracellular crystalline deposits embedded in the intra-medullary space and its function is assumed to balance water uptake and gas exchange during the rare, moist to wet environmental periods that are physiologically favourable. This is a factor that was repeatedly demonstrated to be essential for extremotolerant lichens and other organisms. Depending on the decomposition processes of whewellite under extraterrestrial environmental conditions, it may not only serve as a biomarker of recent life, but also of past and fossilized organisms.
In most countries, male pigs are physically castrated soon after birth to reduce the risk of boar taint and to avoid behaviours such as fighting and mounting. However, entire male pigs are more feed efficient and deposit less fat than barrows. In addition, many animal welfare organizations are lobbying for a cessation of castration, with a likelihood that this could lead to inferior pork unless an alternative method is used to control boar taint. An alternative to physical castration is immunization against gonadotrophin releasing factor (GnRF) which allows producers to capitalize on the superior feed efficiency and carcass characteristics of boars without the risk of boar taint. From a physiological perspective, immunized pigs are entire males until shortly after the second dose, typically given 4 to 6 weeks before slaughter. Following full immunization, there is a temporary suppression of testicular function and a hormonal status that resembles that of a barrow. Nutrient requirements will be different in these two phases, before and after full immunization. Given that there have been few published studies comparing the lysine requirements of entire males and barrows in contemporary genotypes, it is useful to use gilt requirements as a benchmark. A series of meta-analyses comparing anti-GnRF immunized boars and physical castrates and use of nutritional models suggest that the lysine requirement of entire males before the second immunization is 5% higher than for gilts, from 25 to 50 kg BW, and by 8% from 50 to 95 kg. Given that the penalty in growth performance for having inadequate dietary lysine is greater in males than in gilts or barrows, it is important to ensure that lysine requirements are met to obtain the maximum benefits of entire male production during this phase. After the second immunization, the lysine requirement of immunized males decreases and may become more like that of barrows. In addition, a consistent effect of full immunization is a marked increase in voluntary feed intake from about 10 days after the second dose. Putting these together, the estimated lysine requirement, expressed in terms of diet composition, falls to 94% of the gilt level. Although general principles can be described now, further research is needed to fully define the lysine requirements of immunized boars. It is important that the temporal pattern of tissue deposition rates and feed intake be explored to be incorporated into models to predict nutrient requirements over the period of rapidly changing metabolism.
Introduced house mice Mus musculus L. have been discovered to be major predators of chicks of the Tristan albatross Diomedea dabbenena L. and Atlantic petrel Pterodroma incerta Schlegel and to also predate great shearwater Puffinus gravis O'Reilly chicks at Gough Island, and similar predatory behaviour has been reported for house mice on Marion Island. Observations on Gough Island over three breeding seasons of nesting Atlantic yellow-nosed albatrosses Thalassarche chlororhynchos Gmelin and dark-mantled sooty albatross Phoebetria fusca Hilsenberg indicate that house mice are also preying on these two species: the first records of mice preying upon summer-breeding albatross species on Gough Island. Predation on these two albatross species appears to be relatively rare (∼2% for the Atlantic yellow-nosed albatrosses) and ongoing monitoring is required to ascertain if the impact of mice is increasing. Conservation actions to eradicate mice from Gough Island will be of benefit to these species and other species that are being impacted by this invasive species.
Simple NMR techniques can provide an absolute quantification of the quality of the orientational order of discotic columnar phases, provided the anisotropic local magnetic interactions are thoroughly characterized. For the prototypical discotic liquid crystal hexapentoxy-triphenylene, we measure the 13C chemical shift anisotropy of the triphenylene carbons, and use this result to analyze the orientational order, that occurs through a first order phase transition from the high temperature liquid phase, and is almost saturated (order parameter close to 0.85).
In this work, we study glass-coated single-crystal Bi98Sb02 wires obtained by liquid phase casting.
Semimetal Bi98Sb02 nanowires exhibited a "semiconductor" behavior of the temperature dependence R(T) for wire diameters <400 nm, which is significantly higher than the critical diameter (70 nm) for similar dependences R(T) of pure bismuth nanowires. The thermopower sign reversal in the temperature dependence α(T) was found to depend on the wire diameter d. The effect is interpreted in terms of manifestation of the quantum size effect, based on the appearance a new scattering channel stimulated by fluctuations in the diameter d.
The effect of negative magnetoresistance in a perpendicular magnetic field was observed for the first time both at H | | C3 and H | | C2 in magnetic fields of 1 T.
It is shown that a semimetal-semiconductor transition can be controlled using an elastic strain and a strong magnetic field, which lead to a significant shift of the band boundaries of the energy extrema in the bands
Chemically ultra-homogeneous gels have been prepared, in the SiO2-Al2O3 system, using new metal-organic precursors with Al-O-Si linkages. By thermal treatment at 900°C, transparent monolithic gels lead to aluminosilicate glasses and above 1000°C, to optically transparent glass-ceramics (for instance by homogeneous crystallization of mullite in an amorphous silica matrix).
Measurements of the resistive superconducting transition and magnetoresistance of indium metal in the restricted geometry of 50 Å size porous Vycor glass are reported. We have mapped out the upper critical magnetic field versus temperature phase diagram for these transitions for fields up to 20 T and temperatures down to 100 mK. The results are consistent with magnetization measurements by previous authors and can be generally interpreted in terms of the description of inhomogeneous type-II superconductors. The field-induced resistive transitions exhibit unusual behavior not probed by previous bulk-type measurements which may be related to the microstructure of the composite.
High quality GaAs and InP have been grown on silicon substrates, using low pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition technique. The growth temperature is 550ºC andthe growth rate 100 A/min.
Photoluminescence, X-ray diffraction and electrochemical profiling verified the high quality of these layers. The use of superlattices as buffer layers, (GaAs/GaInP) in the case of GaAs/Si and (GalnAsP/InP) in the case of InP/Si, decreased the amount of misfit dislocations in the epitaxial layer. Carrier concentrations as low as 5.1015 cm-3 have been measured by electrochemical profiling.
In addition to photoluminescence and electroluminescence porous silicon is capable of emitting an ultraviolet line spectrum. This emission can be observed already at ambient conditions. We could identify this line emission as the spectrum of nitrogen. At a pressure of about 10 mbar the UV-intensity exceeds the intensity at ambient pressure about two orders of magnitude. Angular dependent spectroscopy and the light emission behaviour at lowered pressure led us to the conclusion that the silicon structures in the samples behave as sub-micrometer-sized electron guns. Dye covered glass substrates can be excited by the intense UV-light at about 5-20 mbar so that the red and green light of the dyes can easily be recognized under usual laboratory illumination. A luminous density of 240 Cd/m2 and 40 Cd/m2 could be achieved for the green luminescing ZnS:Cu,Al and the red luminescing YVO4:Eu respectively. Continuous UV-light emission could be observed for more than 1.5 hours at 2 mbar.
Dense-packed embedded semiconductor quantum dot (QD) layers with a multimodal size distribution are representing new types of QD solids. Their optical and electronic properties are modified due to dipole-dipole interactions and tunneling effects. In this work sequential high dose ion implantation of Cd and Se and subsequent thermal treatment is used to synthesize QD assemblies with the required structural properties in the surface near region of 500 nm thick thermally grown SiO2 on Silicon. We used cw photoluminescence (PL) to study PL-yield as a function of pump laser power at low temperatures for different various stoichiometries and annealing conditions. In these embedded QD assemblies of mixed size distribution we detected a promising non-linear increase of the PL-intensity with laser excitation power. The exponents evaluated are maximal for implanted Cd:Se-dose ratios between 0.8 and 1.0. The power law dependence of the PL-yield on pump laser power will be discussed in context with electronic energy transfer between dense-packed QD's of different size, implanted dose ratios and postimplantation thermal treatment conditions.
The evolution of the stress in coatings derived from divinylsiloxane bisbenzocyclobutene, mixed stereo and positional isomers of 1,3-bis(2-bicyclo[4.2.0]octa-1,3,5-trien-3-ylethenyl)-1,1,3,3-tetramethyl disiloxane (CAS 117732-87-3), has been measured on silicon substrates with an optically levered beam during thermal cycles. The stress at room temperature in gelled coatings varies between ca. 15 MPa and 45 MPa depending on the cure schedule. The progression of the polymer's glass transition temperature is correlated with the evolution of the structural state observed with FTIR. A method is presented for predictably controlling substrate curvature during multilayer processing.
We present measurements on the spontaneous imbibition of water, a linear hydrocarbon (n-C16H34) and a liquid crystal (8OCB) into the pore space of monolithic, nanoporous Vycor glass (mean pore radius 5nm). Measurements of the mass uptake as a function of time, m(t), are in good agreement with the Lucas-Washburn - prediction typical of imbibition of liquids into porous hosts. The relative capillary rise velocities scale as expected from the bulk fluid parameters.
We present data from low-energy He+ ion scattering off a magnetized Fe(110) surface where we monitored the circular polarization of the light emitted from particles neutralized into excited states. We investigated the dependence on incident energy, incident angle and magnetization for a singlet and a triplet transition. As expected, there is no dependence on magnetization for the singlet state, but for the triplet transition we observed a difference in the circular polarization of as high as 32% when changing the direction of the magnetization.