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Conflicts between humans and bears have occurred since prehistory. Through time, the catalogue of human–bear conflicts (HBC) has been changing depending on the values and needs of human societies and their interactions with bears. Even today, conflict situations vary among the eight species of bears and geographically across these species’ ranges. This results in a broad range of interactions between bears and humans that may be considered as conflicts, including: (1) predation of domestic or semiwild animals, including bees, hunting dogs, and pet animals; (2) damage due to foraging on cultivated berries, fruits, agricultural products, and the tree bark in forest plantations; (3) economic loss due to destruction of beehives, fences, silos, houses, and other human property; (4) bear attacks on humans causing mild or fatal trauma; (5) bluff charges, bear intrusions into residential areas; and (6) vehicle collisions with bears and traffic accidents. In this chapter we aim to outline the principal types of HBC and geographical differences in the occurrence of conflicts and the coexistence between people and bears.
To assess influenza symptoms, adherence to mask use recommendations, absenteesm and presenteeism in acute care healthcare workers (HCWs) during influenza epidemics.
The TransFLUas influenza transmission study in acute healthcare prospectively followed HCWs prospectively over 2 consecutive influenza seasons. Symptom diaries asking for respiratory symptoms and adherence with mask use recommendations were recorded on a daily basis, and study participants provided midturbinate nasal swabs for influenza testing.
In total, 152 HCWs (65.8% nurses and 13.2% physicians) were included: 89.1% of study participants reported at least 1 influenza symptom during their study season and 77.8% suffered from respiratory symptoms. Also, 28.3% of HCW missed at least 1 working day during the study period: 82.6% of these days were missed because of symptoms of influenza illness. Of all participating HCWs, 67.9% worked with symptoms of influenza infection on 8.8% of study days. On 0.3% of study days, symptomatic HCWs were shedding influenza virus while at work. Among HCWs with respiratory symptoms, 74.1% adhered to the policy to wear a mask at work on 59.1% of days with respiratory symptoms.
Respiratory disease is frequent among HCWs and imposes a significant economic burden on hospitals due to the number of working days lost. Presenteesm with respiratory illness, including influenza, is also frequent and poses a risk for patients and staff.
This study validated a French language version of an inventory designed to detect symptoms of depression and anxiety [Goldberg et al, 1987] in a sample of elderly French-speaking inpatients at risk for one of these disorders. Latent trait analysis was used to replicate the structure of the symptoms in the inventory, and receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to assess the performance of the inventory as a screening measure for Major Depressive Episode and Generalised Anxiety Disorder according to DSM-IV criteria. Reflecting the ascertainment of individuals in the sample as being at risk for a disorder, prevalence of individual symptoms was high although the general structure of the inventory was found to be comparable to that found in samples of both community elderly and younger medical patients. ROC analyses showed that the subscales of inventory performed satisfactorily as screening measures for anxiety or depression but lacked specificity for each disorder. In addition to providing further evidence for the utility of this inventory to detect general psychiatric distress in elderly persons, this study provides a valid means of detecting symptoms of depression and anxiety in French speaking groups.
Objectives: To evaluate prospective and retrospective memory abilities in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), and Operation New Dawn (OND) Veterans with and without a self-reported history of blast-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Methods: Sixty-one OEF/OIF/OND Veterans, including Veterans with a self-reported history of blast-related mTBI (mTBI group; n=42) and Veterans without a self-reported history of TBI (control group; n=19) completed the Memory for Intentions Test, a measure of prospective memory (PM), and two measures of retrospective memory (RM), the California Verbal Learning Test-II and the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised. Results: Veterans in the mTBI group exhibited significantly lower PM performance than the control group, but the groups did not differ in their performance on RM measures. Further analysis revealed that Veterans in the mTBI group with current PTSD (mTBI/PTSD+) demonstrated significantly lower performance on the PM measure than Veterans in the control group. PM performance by Veterans in the mTBI group without current PTSD (mTBI/PTSD-) was intermediate between the mTBI/PTSD+ and control groups, and results for the mTBI/PTSD- group were not significantly different from either of the other two groups. Conclusions: Results suggest that PM performance may be a sensitive marker of cognitive dysfunction among OEF/OIF/OND Veterans with a history of self-reported blast-related mTBI and comorbid PTSD. Reduced PM may account, in part, for complaints of cognitive difficulties in this Veteran cohort, even years post-injury. (JINS, 2018, 24, 324–334)
The ability of the aorta to buffer blood flow and provide diastolic perfusion (Windkessel function) is a determinant of cardiovascular health. We have reported cardiac dysfunction indicating downstream vascular abnormalities in young adult baboons who were intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) at birth as a result of moderate maternal nutrient reduction. Using 3 T MRI, we examined IUGR offspring (eight male, eight female; 5.7 years; human equivalent 25 years) and age-matched controls (eight male, eight female; 5.6 years) to quantify distal descending aortic cross-section (AC) and distensibility (AD). ANOVA showed decreased IUGR AC/body surface area (0.9±0.05 cm2/m2v. 1.2±0.06 cm2/m2, M±s.e.m., P<0.005) and AD (1.7±0.2 v. 4.0±0.5×10−3/mmHg, P<0.005) without sex difference or group-sex interaction, suggesting intrinsic vascular pathology and impaired development persisting in adulthood. Future studies should evaluate potential consequences of these changes on coronary perfusion, afterload and blood pressure.
We recently showed that the mRNA expression of genes encoding for specific nutrient sensing receptors, namely the free fatty acid receptors (FFAR) 1, 2, 3, and the hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor (HCAR) 2, undergo characteristic changes during the transition from late pregnancy to lactation in certain adipose tissues (AT) of dairy cows. We hypothesised that divergent energy intake achieved by feeding diets with either high or low portions of concentrate (60% v. 30% concentrate on a dry matter basis) will alter the mRNA expression of FFAR 1, 2, 3, as well as HCAR2 in subcutaneous (SCAT) and retroperitoneal AT (RPAT) of dairy cows in the first 3 weeks postpartum (p.p.). For this purpose, 20 multiparous German Holstein cows were allocated to either the high concentrate ration (HC, n=10) or the low concentrate ration (LC, n=10) from day 1 to 21 p.p. Serum samples and biopsies of SCAT (tail head) and RPAT (above the peritoneum) were obtained at day −21, 1 and 21 relative to parturition. The mRNA abundances were measured by quantitative PCR. The concentrations of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) in serum were measured by gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector. The FFAR1 and FFAR2 mRNA abundance in RPAT was higher at day −21 compared to day 1. At day 21 p.p. the FFAR2 mRNA abundance was 2.5-fold higher in RPAT of the LC animals compared to the HC cows. The FFAR3 mRNA abundance tended to lower values in SCAT of the LC group at day 21. The HCAR2 mRNA abundance was neither affected by time nor by feeding in both AT. On day 21 p.p. the HC group had 1.7-fold greater serum concentrations of propionic acid and lower concentrations of acetic acid (trend: 1.2-fold lower) compared with the LC group. Positive correlations between the mRNA abundance of HCAR2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-2 (PPARG2) indicate a link between HCAR2 and PPARG2 in both AT. We observed an inverse regulation of FFAR2 and FFAR3 expression over time and both receptors also showed an inverse mRNA abundance as induced by different portions of concentrate. Thus, indicating divergent nutrient sensing of both receptors in AT during the transition period. We propose that the different manifestation of negative EB in both groups at day 21 after parturition affect at least FFAR2 expression in RPAT.
In the context of astrobiological exposure and simulation experiments in the BIOMEX project, the lichen Circinaria gyrosa was investigated by Raman microspectroscopy. Owing to the symbiotic nature of lichens and their remarkable extremotolerance, C. gyrosa represents a valid model organism in recent and current astrobiological research. Biogenic compounds of C. gyrosa were studied that may serve as biomarkers in Raman assisted remote sensing missions, e.g. ExoMars. The surface as well as different internal layers of C. gyrosa have been characterized and data on the detectability and distribution of β-carotene, chitin and calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite) are presented in this study. Raman microspectroscopy was applied on natural samples and thin sections. Although calcium oxalates can also be formed by rare geological processes it may serve as a suitable biomarker for astrobiological investigations. In the model organism C. gyrosa, it forms extracellular crystalline deposits embedded in the intra-medullary space and its function is assumed to balance water uptake and gas exchange during the rare, moist to wet environmental periods that are physiologically favourable. This is a factor that was repeatedly demonstrated to be essential for extremotolerant lichens and other organisms. Depending on the decomposition processes of whewellite under extraterrestrial environmental conditions, it may not only serve as a biomarker of recent life, but also of past and fossilized organisms.
In most countries, male pigs are physically castrated soon after birth to reduce the risk of boar taint and to avoid behaviours such as fighting and mounting. However, entire male pigs are more feed efficient and deposit less fat than barrows. In addition, many animal welfare organizations are lobbying for a cessation of castration, with a likelihood that this could lead to inferior pork unless an alternative method is used to control boar taint. An alternative to physical castration is immunization against gonadotrophin releasing factor (GnRF) which allows producers to capitalize on the superior feed efficiency and carcass characteristics of boars without the risk of boar taint. From a physiological perspective, immunized pigs are entire males until shortly after the second dose, typically given 4 to 6 weeks before slaughter. Following full immunization, there is a temporary suppression of testicular function and a hormonal status that resembles that of a barrow. Nutrient requirements will be different in these two phases, before and after full immunization. Given that there have been few published studies comparing the lysine requirements of entire males and barrows in contemporary genotypes, it is useful to use gilt requirements as a benchmark. A series of meta-analyses comparing anti-GnRF immunized boars and physical castrates and use of nutritional models suggest that the lysine requirement of entire males before the second immunization is 5% higher than for gilts, from 25 to 50 kg BW, and by 8% from 50 to 95 kg. Given that the penalty in growth performance for having inadequate dietary lysine is greater in males than in gilts or barrows, it is important to ensure that lysine requirements are met to obtain the maximum benefits of entire male production during this phase. After the second immunization, the lysine requirement of immunized males decreases and may become more like that of barrows. In addition, a consistent effect of full immunization is a marked increase in voluntary feed intake from about 10 days after the second dose. Putting these together, the estimated lysine requirement, expressed in terms of diet composition, falls to 94% of the gilt level. Although general principles can be described now, further research is needed to fully define the lysine requirements of immunized boars. It is important that the temporal pattern of tissue deposition rates and feed intake be explored to be incorporated into models to predict nutrient requirements over the period of rapidly changing metabolism.
Introduced house mice Mus musculus L. have been discovered to be major predators of chicks of the Tristan albatross Diomedea dabbenena L. and Atlantic petrel Pterodroma incerta Schlegel and to also predate great shearwater Puffinus gravis O'Reilly chicks at Gough Island, and similar predatory behaviour has been reported for house mice on Marion Island. Observations on Gough Island over three breeding seasons of nesting Atlantic yellow-nosed albatrosses Thalassarche chlororhynchos Gmelin and dark-mantled sooty albatross Phoebetria fusca Hilsenberg indicate that house mice are also preying on these two species: the first records of mice preying upon summer-breeding albatross species on Gough Island. Predation on these two albatross species appears to be relatively rare (∼2% for the Atlantic yellow-nosed albatrosses) and ongoing monitoring is required to ascertain if the impact of mice is increasing. Conservation actions to eradicate mice from Gough Island will be of benefit to these species and other species that are being impacted by this invasive species.
In this work, we study glass-coated single-crystal Bi98Sb02 wires obtained by liquid phase casting.
Semimetal Bi98Sb02 nanowires exhibited a "semiconductor" behavior of the temperature dependence R(T) for wire diameters <400 nm, which is significantly higher than the critical diameter (70 nm) for similar dependences R(T) of pure bismuth nanowires. The thermopower sign reversal in the temperature dependence α(T) was found to depend on the wire diameter d. The effect is interpreted in terms of manifestation of the quantum size effect, based on the appearance a new scattering channel stimulated by fluctuations in the diameter d.
The effect of negative magnetoresistance in a perpendicular magnetic field was observed for the first time both at H | | C3 and H | | C2 in magnetic fields of 1 T.
It is shown that a semimetal-semiconductor transition can be controlled using an elastic strain and a strong magnetic field, which lead to a significant shift of the band boundaries of the energy extrema in the bands
Simple NMR techniques can provide an absolute quantification of the quality of the orientational order of discotic columnar phases, provided the anisotropic local magnetic interactions are thoroughly characterized. For the prototypical discotic liquid crystal hexapentoxy-triphenylene, we measure the 13C chemical shift anisotropy of the triphenylene carbons, and use this result to analyze the orientational order, that occurs through a first order phase transition from the high temperature liquid phase, and is almost saturated (order parameter close to 0.85).
The paper presents the results of studies related to the technology for obtaining glass-insulated bifilar microwires (BMWs) of a thermoelectric material based on Bi2Te3 with one wire exhibiting the n-type and the other p-type conduction as well as the study of their mechanical properties by the strain method and the microscopic analysis of the morphology of structural defects with a view to preparing microthermocouples on their basis.
Preliminary studies showed that BMWs are more flexible than single microwires of the same material. The rupture strength of BMWs per unit cross section of a sample (together with the glass) ranges within 18-6 kg/mm2 with respect to diameters of 90-120 μm.
Microthermocouples with a signal value on the order of 2-12 mV in a temperature range of 23-50°C have been developed. The preparation of thermoelectric microthermocouples of BMWs significantly reduces the number of process operations in the course of their production and considerably increases their resistance to impacts and vibrations. Microthermocouples based on glass-insulated BMWs have smaller sizes and weight; they can be used for measuring temperatures in chemically aggressive media.
Consumers expect organic products to be healthier. However, limited research has been performed to study the effect of organic food on health. The present study aimed to identify biomarkers of health to enable future studies in human subjects. A feeding experiment was performed in two generations of three groups of chickens differing in immune responsiveness, which were fed identically composed feeds from either organic or conventional produce. The animals of the second generation were exposed to an immune challenge and sacrificed at 13 weeks of age. Feed and ingredients were analysed on macro- and micronutrients, i.e. vitamins, minerals, trace elements, heavy metals and microbes. The chickens were studied by general health and immune parameters, metabolomics, genomics and post-mortem evaluation. The organic and conventional feeds were comparable with respect to metabolisable energy. On average, the conventionally produced feeds had a 10 % higher protein content and some differences in micronutrients were observed. Although animals on both feeds were healthy, differences between the groups were found. The random control group of chickens fed conventional feed showed overall a higher weight gain during life span than the group on organic feed, although feed intake was mostly comparable. The animals on organic feed showed an enhanced immune reactivity, a stronger reaction to the immune challenge as well as a slightly stronger ‘catch-up growth’ after the challenge. Biomarkers for future research were identified in the parameters feed intake, body weight and growth rate, and in immunological, physiological and metabolic parameters, several of these differing most pronounced after the challenge.
We prospectively investigated whether organic food consumption by infants was associated with developing atopic manifestations in the first 2 years of life. The KOALA Birth Cohort Study in the Netherlands (n 2764) measured organic food consumption, eczema and wheeze in infants until age 2 years using repeated questionnaires. Diet was defined as conventional ( < 50 % organic), moderately organic (50–90 % organic) and strictly organic (>90 % organic). Venous blood samples taken from 815 infants at 2 years of age were analysed for total and specific IgE. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to control for potential confounding factors. Eczema was present in 32 % of infants, recurrent wheeze in 11 % and prolonged wheezing in 5 %. At 2 years of age, 27 % of children were sensitised against at least one allergen. Of all the children, 10 % had consumed a moderately organic diet and 6 % a strictly organic diet. Consumption of organic dairy products was associated with lower eczema risk (OR 0·64 (95 % CI 0·44, 0·93)), but there was no association of organic meat, fruit, vegetables or eggs, or the proportion of organic products within the total diet with the development of eczema, wheeze or atopic sensitisation. Further studies to substantiate these results are warranted.
Energy efficiency in BOF process is related to hot metal and scrap
ratio and thus to production capacity potential and specific CO2
emissions. A thermal balance in the fume system, using a selected
metrology, can be calculated dynamically and provides a valuable
tool for investigating the process parameters that are relevant for
optimizing and controlling energy efficiency. The method and first
results are presented.
Astrobiology is a discipline that is best enjoyed in the field. What follows is a series of short descriptions by University of Washington students and faculty of selected astrobiological destinations that our planet offers. We cannot hope to provide a comprehensive list – with more space and time we might have included the Burgess shale of Canada; the Atacama desert of Chile; the Cretacious/Tertiary boundary at Gubbio, Italy; Louis Pasteur's home and lab in Paris; Witwatersrand mine in South Africa; the channelled scabland of eastern Washington state, to name but a few. Nevertheless, the ten selected locales have played primary roles in determining how we have come to view the phenomenon of life, and how we have placed constraints on its potential occurrence both on our own planet and elsewhere.
From boiling microbial ponds in Yellowstone to frozen wastes of Greenland harboring Earth's oldest sedimentary rocks, a lifetime of exploration awaits you.
Substituting used tyres for anthracite in the EAF in France and in
Belgium is reported. First trials have been carried out in Lorraine in
1997 in the frame of a partnership between Usinor (now Arcelor
Mittal), Michelin and Ademe. The substitution process has been
eventually implemented by LME in cooperation with Aliapur over the
years 2002-2003. Industeel Belgium got started on substitution in
2004. To day, both steel plants have achieved stable operation, with
a regular load of 8 to 12 kg used tyres per ton of steel, thus allowing
significant and sustainable savings on anthracite.
Theoretical work based on one-dimensional (1D) models indicates that Bi wires with diameter smaller than 50 nm can exhibit superior thermoelectric properties since the density of states at the Fermi level of a 1D system can be tuned to very high values. Recently, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) studies of Bi surfaces have shown that Bi nanowires support Rashba spin-orbit surface states, with high carrier densities of around 5×1012/cm−2, that have not been considered in current models of Bi nanowires. According to our estimates, the sheath of surface charge on Bi nanowires should contribute substantially to the thermopower of Bi nanowires. We carried out an experimental study of the transport properties and thermopower of bismuth nanowire arrays (NWA) with wire diameters ranging between 60 nm and 13 nm to investigate these phenomena. The Rashba interaction is a spin orbit interaction that is important for surfaces of materials consisting of heavy ion elements; thermoelectric materials frequently consist of these elements (i.e.PbTe) because they scatter phonons and form low thermal conductivity materials.